Seasoned and experimental languid Soviet tanks.
At a time when hard tank IS-2 has not yet come to its own final form, and it was fixing in the series, appeared on the drawing boards languid silhouettes of new tanks, but not many of them get a chance to be embodied in the metal.
In June 1944, a team of Bureau of Plant number 100 was introduced in GBTU languid preliminary design of the JS-6, a feature of which was the use of e-boxes. Consideration of the draft did not reveal any advantage over tanks or "Object 701" and "Object 703", but an advantage of it before the IC-122 was saying. Clarifying the main tactical and technical characteristics provided for the first constraint on the mass of the tank to 50 tons and invulnerability of the front-fire 88mm piercing projectiles from a distance of 500 meters or more. So it was decided to build two prototype standard — "Object 252" with the manual and the "Object 253" with electromechanical, as was intended in the beginning. To equip the tanks provided the projected 122mm gun D-30 with the highest initial velocity of the projectile. Body armor in the frontal part has a thickness of 100 mm (upper plate) and 120 mm (bottom sheet), the tower is cast with walls up to 150mm wide. Shelling 88mm and 105mm German guns confirmed resistance even higher than the required, and did not break through with a distance of 50 meters in the upper armor plate, the bottom plate 120 mm armor was struck with only a small distance.
At the factory the first tests went "Object 252", and from 8 to 27 November 1944 have been running tests on the route to Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk. Box worked satisfactorily as a whole (marked overheating gearbox when driving in top gear and the extra effort to head off the clutch, reaching up to 60-65 kg.), The tank just managed and has shown excellent value average speed. But the chassis with a huge diameter rollers and idlers had no unacceptably low resource — Rollers deformed after 200-250 km run. Refinement of the chassis and instruments held in the converted tank IS-122, dogruzhennogo up to 50 tons. The test result was the finalization of rollers designed plant number 100 KB anew, but with a gun came out harder — November 17 after it countless failures and rework completely out of order sought and industrial repairs.
Meanwhile, on the tests came second standard JS-6 — "Object 253" with electromechanical box, but suspension from the series IS-2, with road wheels and support rollers. At the theoretical level, such type of box promised enormous benefits — improved traction characteristics at low speeds, the best maneuverability tank. But in view of the large mass of units miracle happened. Unfortunately, in the first exit, while overcoming a snow-covered field came a fire in the engine-transmission compartment and extinguishing equipment nominally did not work (although it found the flame). The tank burned and could not be reconstructed.
Soon after the tragedy, all work on the project EC-6 rolled.
Using all skoplenny experience in design, mass production and the introduction of martial languid tanks, as well as the results of work on the prototype, the plant number 100 at the end of 1944 began to follow languid schematic design of the tank. After the allocation of funds (not without the personal intervention of Beria, which turned Zh.Kotin — because Commissariat tank industry has already exhausted all the planned money for other projects) design work on "Object 257", "Object 258" and "Object 259 "and their final analysis led to the development of the tactical and technical requirements which form the very basis of the new project -" Object 260 ".
Working drawings of the machine, received index IS-7, were ready by the beginning of September 1945. The hull shape repeating IS-3, with a corresponding triangular nose, but the tank was larger — about 65 tons equipped with mass. The power plant in the form of 2-diesel V-11 or B-16, who worked on electromechanical generators box. Alleged weapons of 122mm guns of high power was not done, and the other option was designed 130mm gun S-26, with the ballistics of the naval gun B-13.
After the construction of the layout of the true size and layout of the Commission, it was agreed that the project configuration and build two prototype standard. The first of them graduated in September 1946 and the end of the year was 1,000 km running test. The main headache was the power plant — due to lack of engine power demand expected to apply SPARK diesel V-16 or under development by the number of high power 800 engine. But the latter has not been created, and the unit is paired after a long and debugging without result was voted one hundred percent inapplicable. Then, together with the plant number 500 Minaviaproma was created diesel TD-30, on the basis of ACH-300 aircraft. Without looking at the structure and the need for wet finishing, and it was he who was set on the first 2-swatches tank. Normal manual gearbox with synchromesh transferred torque to the two-stage planetary gear rotation. Chassis with rear sprocket consisted of huge diameter media rolls on the side, without support rollers. -Independent torsion beam suspension using torsion bars and hydraulic dampers double act has been painstakingly designed to test on serial tanks. It should be noted the application for the first time in the Russian tank building tracks with rubber-metallic hinge, hydraulic shock absorbers double act and a number of other innovations.
In 1947, the project "Object 260" has undergone a number of significant configurations, namely br body, and changed the profile of the tower. On the basis of the C-26 guns were created new C-70 with a barrel length of 54-gauge (which is appropriated 33.4 kilogram armor-piercing projectile initial velocity of 900 m / s). Significantly expanded the composition of the auxiliary weapons — now it consisted of the 1st KPVT 14.5 mm and 2-7.62 mm RP-26 coupled with the gun, the 1st anti-aircraft KPVT on remotely operated turret, made at a longish post, a pair of RP-46 in the back of nadgusenichnyh niches (aggressively installed in armored boxes on the outside of the tank to fire forward) and a pair of RP-46 on the sides of the stern turret recess for shooting back.
The crew consisted of 5 people, located apart from the driver in the tower. The commander was sitting right from the gun, the gunner on the left, and rear right and left were two loaders. Their work is facilitated by electronic charging device made according to the type of offshore installations. The gunner was stabilized sight allows shots to be fired from a gun only when matching the bore axis to the line of sight. As the power plant has been decided to use marine diesel M-50T with a capacity of 1050 hp at 1850 rev / min. Box replaced on the gearshift speeds and turns of the "3K". This allowed the tank weighing 68 tons at a speed of 60 km / h! With all of this through the use of hydraulic sevrousiliteley management features easy and obedience.
Four experimental tank were built by the summer of 1948, and after passing the industrial testing transferred to the municipal. One of the buildings experienced shelling German 128mm gun and its 130mm — both failed to penetrate the frontal armor. During the test, one of the tanks burned out, worn-out after the ignition of the engine. The order for an experimental batch of 50 tanks remained not fulfilled, and after the decision to limit the mass of languid tanks limit of 50 tons of the fate of the project has been solved completely.
In 1956, the Red Army HBTU were developed tactical and technical requirements for the languid tank, which had to change a T-10. KB Kirov plant in Leningrad, the process of building the tank, with the widespread introduction of thoughts and separate units of tanks IS-7 and T-10. Received index "Object 277", the new tank was created by a traditional assembly, its undercarriage consisted of eight basic and four support rollers on the side, on the beam torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers at the first, second and eighth rinks. The case was about as out of rolled and cast parts of — the board made from bent rolled armor plates, while the nose was a single casting. The tower also made cast hemispherical shape. Developed a niche housed mechanized combat pack for ease of action loader. Armament consisted of a 130mm gun M-65, stable in 2-planes using a stabilizer, "Thunderstorm", and 14.5 mm coaxial machine gun KPVT. Ammunition 26 rounds of separate loading and 250 rounds of machine gun. Gunner disposal stereoscopic sight-rangefinder TPD-2C, the tank was equipped with a full set of night vision devices. The power plant is a 12-cylinder V-type diesel M-850 with a capacity of 1050 hp at 1850 rev / min. A planetary gear transmission, such as "3K", designed as a single block mechanism changes the transmission and turns. In contrast to the boxes of the T-10, band brakes turns the planetary gear was changed to disc. The crew consisted of four people, three of which (commander, gunner and loader) were in the tower. With a mass of 55 tons tank showed the highest speed of 55 km / h
Have been two instances of "Object 277", and soon after the start of the test work on it was stopped. Tank profitably different from the T-10 over the massive arms and more than perfect MSA, including rangefinder, but the ammunition was small. In general, the "Object 277" was created on the basis of well spent in a series of units and did not achieve long-term operational development.
The second contestant was a tank Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant — "Object 770". In contrast to the "Object 277", the tank was decided to design "from scratch", focusing only on the cutting-edge solutions and the introduction of new units. The corresponding feature of the tank was absolutely die-cast housing, which differed both sides differentiated width and variable angle. A similar approach is traced and the booking forehead body. The tower also absolutely cast, with a variable width of armor, extending to 290mm in the end parts. OMS tank weapons and a hundred percent like "Object 277" — 130 mm M-65 gun and coaxial machine gun 14.5 mm KPVT, 26 ammunition shells and 250 rounds of ammunition. Interest is the aggregate of the tank, one based on the 10-tsilindrovono diesel DST-10, with a vertical cylinder blocks, which was installed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tank. Motor power was 1,000 hp at 2500 rev / min. Box tank included gidrotransvormator and planetary box, connected in parallel are allowed to have one and two hydro mechanical transmission front door and the mechanical one reverse gear. Chassis involved in 6 large diameter rollers on board without support rollers. Hydropneumatic suspension rollers. Tank features easy to operate and quite good dynamic characteristics.
More fun from the submitted projects beyond doubt can be considered a heavy tank "Object 279". This unique design on its own tank was designed in KB Leningrad Kirov factory, but led the development L.S.Troyanov. At the peak of the limited "Object 277", the machine was created completely anew, and not only on the applicable units, and on the concept. Molded with differentiated reservation, elliptical met before, but this machine was brought to the idea of the absolute. Assembled from four castings, housing was around the perimeter covered protivokumulyativnymi screen that complements its contours to elliptical shape (not just in terms of, and in the vertical section). Thanks to the reduced to the maximum zabronevomu volume amounted to only 11.47 m3, managed to reach unprecedented values of armor thickness as the normal and reduced — frontal armor corps reached 192mm in large angles of inclination and tuck, side armor to 182mm, at least the corners. Cast tower was flattened hemispherical radial booking 305mm, except the stern.
Armament was all the same 130mm tool M-65 and 14.5 mm machine gun KPVT, with ammunition 24 shots in a mechanized combat pack with automatic loading and 300 rounds of machine gun. The joint efforts of the loader and semi-automatic cassette loading provide practical rate of 5-7 rounds per minute. MSA included a stereoscopic rangefinder sight with independent stabilization of the field of view of the TPD-2C, two-plane electro-hydraulic stabilizer "Thunderstorm" and a full set of night vision devices. The power plant was developed in the tank 2-variants — diesel DG-1000 with capacity 950 liters. s. at 2500 rev / min or 2DG-8M capacity of 1,000 liters. s. at 2400 rev / min. Both engines are 4-stroke, 16-cylinder, H-shaped with horizontal cylinders (to reduce the height of the housing). Box tank also notable for its unusual and innovative approach — hydro and planetary 3-speed manual, and switch between with 2 top gear was automated.
But the more conspicuous part of the tank certainly is its chassis, whose feature was the use of four tracked dvizheteley! Housing tank rested on two box-shaped structures, which were the same fuel tanks, each of which in turn was carrying a couple of tracks. With regard to one dvizhetelyu undercarriage consisted of 6 rollers, three support rollers, idler and drive sprocket. Suspension personalized, hydro-pneumatic, adjustable. So Makar, the concept of clearance became a mere formality, and the tank can overcome vertical obstacles without danger to sit on the bottom of them. Specific
pressure so it was much less — only 0.6 kg/m2, which allowed them to the deepest snow and swampy areas. Shortcomings selected chassis was not a good maneuverability and excessive resistance movement, particularly on a languid grounds. Maintainability left much to be desired, because of the highest difficulty of the design and the hard inner pair of tracks.
Experienced standard tank was built in 1959 and began to pass the tests, but once it became clear that many expensive car does not have a chance to create a batch. The successor to the T-10 was to become one of the 2-tank "seven hundred and seventieth" or "two hundred seventy-seventh," but none of the contestants was never put into service.
Table of tactical and technical characteristics of tanks: