In the alley of evolution — seasoned, experimental and limited-edition languid tanks Western states (the end).
Another state having sufficient for the production of tanks languid industry, was France. Immediately after his release in 1944, French politicians decided not justify its purely nominal role in the anti-Hitler coalition. Because at that point in the Allied Forces (the western, should see) no tanks equivalent Pz.VI Ausf.B Tiger-II, it was decided as soon as possible to create and launch a series of similar car. Work on the development of tanks were carried out even in occupied France, and after his release continued with renewed vigor. Many of the solutions and even nodes were taken from the tank languid Char B1, which although accelerated design, but it was impossible to name the best technical solution.
Received the designation ARL 44, brand new car from the outside looked like a grotesque hybrid tank of the First World and the German Tiger-B — appropriate housing spanned tracks and a massive body side by side with the whole body tilted frontal armor significant thickness and welded turret with elongated aft developed a niche and a small frontal area the reservation. Long-barreled 90mm gun with armor-piercing projectile initial velocity of 1000 m / s (made by Schneider-based maritime anti-aircraft guns) completes the look. Although initially adopted for the tank was missing, and was supposed to use the British 17-pounder gun or South American M1A1 76mm — specifically with 76mm gun and was released on the first layout in 1946. Changes in the composition of weapons led to the fact that the company issued 40 FAMH bodies were placed in storage, and only in 1949 received a new tower with 90mm guns. An additional 20 tanks were produced by concern Reno.
The tank had a traditional assembly, engine comprising an internal combustion engine of German Maybach HL230 output of 575 hp and E-box was placed in the rear. In the middle of the hull crew compartment and placed in the front — office management. The frontal armor corps in 120mm with a slope of 45 ° 44 ARL made the most heavily armored French tank for a long time. Entering service in 1950, already in 1953 the tanks began to be replaced by South American M47.
For so short-lived life of the tanks had once (in 1951) to take part in the parade, which was the only how much or whether significant event in their career. In the daily operation of the tanks also showed their worst side, which was fully expected from so hastily launched in the creation of the standard.
The subsequent attempt to form a heavy tank, France has taken in March 1945, well aware of all the flaws ARL 44. By AMX was a draft number 141, in accordance with which the two models were ordered, received index "M 4". Initially the tank belonged to the middle, and in its details unmistakably strong influence of German tanks, first Panther and Tiger-B. Housing as a whole was similar (if not "more than"), but slightly smaller. The corresponding chassis, with a huge diameter road wheels, staggered, with nine on board, too, was just recognizable. First adopted the thickest armor in the 30mm was considered totally unacceptable, and the final version at the request of the military defense has been significantly strengthened. Immediately conventional tower was replaced not long ago projected FAHM swinging.
Built in 1949, the body of the first prototype, which from now on called AMX50, winter was the latest 100mm gun, developed Arsenal de Tarbes. Soon been completed and the second layout, just received the 100mm gun, but in a slightly modified turret. The mass of these prototypes have already reached 53.7 tons, but the developer continued to regard them as "average." The problem was how to find the right motor, because the initial plans of the tank had to surpass all available at the time medium tanks in speed. We tested the German carburetor Maybach HL 295 and the diesel engine of Saurer. But both of them were unable to disperse the tank is above 51 km / h (which for such machines in general is a good achievement).
The subsequent step of the evolution of the project started in 1951, after preliminary testing of prototypes. In response to the languid Russian tanks IS-3, it was decided to strengthen the arms installing 120mm guns, once again increase the security. To organize gun was designed by a tremendous tower of ordinary type, but later revised the project under the swaying tower. In the end, all made configurations equipped weight of the tank, it is now officially known as "heavy", has increased to 59 tons. The first of 10 ordered prototypes DEFA (Direction des Études et Fabrications d'Armement, the state weapon design bureau) filed in 1953.
This was followed by a decision to strengthen the re-booking, and marked "dobronirovannaya" model nose done in the style of the EC-3, "typing in the title," for all that up to 64 tons. Tests have revealed the layout built numerous difficulties, first with the suspension, which also sought to gain.
In the end, it was decided to radically revise the draft to the creation of the "reduced" version anew by designing a new body cast of reduced height, and the other tower ("Tourelle D" — that is, the fourth model of the tower).
The work paid off, and it is shown in the 1958 final layout weighed 57.8 tons. But the difficulties with the engine not been resolved, and the estimated speed of 65 km / h and has not been demonstrated.
Because it was released just 5 prototypes of tanks AMX50, careful to stay on their device and the tactical and technical properties does not make sense — they are all different from each other. In general, they had a traditional assembly, with frontal driver's compartment, fighting compartment in the center and aft placement of the engine compartment (as opposed to German tank "Panther" and "Tiger-B", in which box in the front of the nahodilas Corps). In addition to the main gun and coaxial with it 7.5 mm machine guns planned to install a very different secondary weapon — one or two 7.5 mm machine guns on teruli, Spark of 7.5 mm machine guns and 20mm cannon MG-151/20 and additional hatches nab gun loader.
Copy of the latest version of the AMX 50 with a cast body and 120mm gun at the moment is an exhibit of the tank museum in the French town of Saumur.
Short tactical and technical characteristics of tanks:
Crew — 5 people.
Equipped with a weight — 50 tons
LOA — 10.53 meters
Width — 3.4 meters
Height — 3.2 meters
The highest speed — 35 km / h
In store down the highway — 350km
90 mm rifled gun DCA45, ammunition 50 rounds unitary loader.
7.5 mm machine gun in the front motionless body armor and 7.5 mm anti-aircraft machine gun with 5,000 rounds ammunition common
Forehead body — 120mm top
AMX 50 (final version with a molded hull and turret "Tourelle D")
Crew — 4 people
Equipped with a weight — 57.8 tons
Overall length — 9.5 meters
Width — 3.58 meters
Height — 3.1 meters
The highest speed — 65 km / h (calculated almost reached — 51 km / h)
120mm rifled gun, ammunition 46 rounds
7.5 mm and 7.5 mm twin anti-aircraft guns
Forehead body — 80mm top
Board — 80mm
Tower — 85mm frontal armor of the swinging