In November 1985, issued a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, according to which TSKBMT "Ruby" began design studies for the two variants of the nuclear-powered submarine (APKR) fourth-generation — Project 955 (code "Borey-I», involves equipping promising complex SLBM D-31) and 935 project ("Borey-II», complex D-35). Manage the work of chief designer S. Kovalev.
"Later, one of my deputies made up for a very intelligent and vastly erudite Vladimir A. Zdornov, who later became the main designer of projects and managing our group. In his role as chief designer missile fourth and fifth generations Zdornov has brought crucial and invaluable contribution to the ships of project 955 ("Northwind"), "- says Sergey Nikititch.
But the revision of the values in the changed geo-political criteria, cost-efficient financing deficit and the adjustment to the new requirements of military systems alternately led to the closure of work on the D-31 and D-35. In 1995, Presidential Decree approved a proposal to equip the Navy's Project 955 of the D-19UTTH "Bark" with the R-design 39UTTH Municipal Rocket Center (SRC), named after VP Makeev. This set was created in the development of the D-19 with a view to re submarines of Project 941. The decision to place on the "Boree" languid and massive D-19UTTH (12 missiles) required to make significant changes to the initial view of the ship.
Bookmark the head boat (serial number 201) was accomplished November 2, 1996 in Severodvinsk, Northern machine-building enterprise. But the economic difficulties and the systemic crisis in the "defense" of the country is seriously hampered the pace of construction. At the time, CEO David SMP Pashaeva of strongest pressure exerted to conduct a large-scale layoffs of employees Sevmash also renounce, for example, to continue the project of building ships 949A, dropping them into scrap metal.
Dramatic reduction of the state defense order has caused difficulties in paying salaries. To retain qualified personnel, management of SMEs went to owe measures, including the supply of goods rassredotachivanie middle of the employees on the cards and free lunches in industrial canteens. These and other steps have allowed Sevmash to survive a very difficult period at the turn of the century and preserve the core of the workforce. It took the Russian Federation, when the new management of the country led by President Vladimir Putin began to pay tribute to the attention of the Public Safety and Support "defense".
"The last decade of the last century and the first decade of the new were critical period, when the question is not only to maintain the combat capability of the Russian Navy, saving design offices and shipyards, but also all the great industrial cooperation, and it includes hundreds of companies specializing in their fronts — said the president of the United Shipbuilding Company (USC) Andrew Diachkov. — Due to the fact that in the late 90's at the level of control of the country decided to start construction of APKR type "Northwind", all of this cooperation has been supported financially, before her set certain tasks and requirements. Teams were able to bring their own scientific and technical potential, without fear of closure of their companies on financial and economic reasons. The decision to start construction vehicles of the "Northwind" has allowed our designers and scientific organizations, manufacturing companies, creating deliverable standards, do not lose staffing, to maintain continuity, as required in the design of complex equipment such as a warship. "
But after taking a decision on the fate of a fundamentally "Boreas" applets implementation was difficult. Unfortunately, the three test missile launch complex "Bark" on the ground in Nyonoksa in 1993-1997 were bad. Analysis of the "flight" was completed in September 1998 and the decision to close the program from. But from the "Boreas" Russian military and political control is not waived. There was a competition for the development of modern solid-fuel missile under the code "Mace". SRC proposed "Bulava-45" launch weight of 47 tons, and the Capital Institute of Thermal Technology — "Bulava-30" weighing about 36 tons. They chose the second sentence, as MIT undertook to unify the latest marine system with just completed their tests complex "Topol-M" land-based.
Selecting "Bulava-30" has led the introduction of regular configurations in drawings "Boreas" at the end of the last century. To save money, we decided to use in the construction of the first ships had at the Sevmash groundwork for hull structures unfinished submarines "Lynx" and "Cougar" Project 971. Construction of the lead ship "Yuri Dolgoruky" resumed the formation of his body graduated in 2004.
Conclusion "Yury Dolgoruky" from shop number 55 in Severodvinsk trigger floating dock "Sukhona" dated April 15, 2007. The boat was launched on February 12, 2008-th, and nine months later — on 21 November, it was produced by the physical launch of the reactor. Mooring tests submarine began on March 17 of 2009, from June 19 to July 10, the ship passed the first step of running tests. Second step was launched in August of the same year.
Adopting missile system D-30 missile "Bulava" was planned for 2004-2005, but a series of failed launches forced to revise program from and to the schedule she moved "to the right". It turned out that the unification with the surface complex is difficult, and even the latest generation found a wide application in the "Bulava", though had to design a rocket anew.
According to data provided by the Russian side as an exchange of information with the United States, a three-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile 3M30 complex "Bulava" has a ton of 36.8 tons, a length of 12.1 meters, is divided head warhead with a throw-weight of 1150 kg (6 warheads personal guidance ). The stated maximum firing range — 9300 km.
In pursuing the objectives of economy, refused test launches "Mace" from the landfill in Nyonoksa. For the latest missile tests have finished a head boat project 941. On board the TK-208 "Dmitry Donskoy" September 23, 2004 had a throwing (at a height of 40 meters) from the water tests. Then, in the period from 27 September 2005 to 9 December 2009, "Dmitry Donskoy" performed 11 launches "Bulava", from their three successful and two partly successful.
Sergei Kovalev, October 1, 2005, said: "It is not without controversy, but it was decided our only probable solution is to hold all the throwing and flight testing of the submarine. In 1-x, Balaklava is not ours, but the shield is not submersible, ground shield is not in the best condition and test complex "Bulava" is
not adapted. In-2, in contrast to all previous ICBM missile complex "Bulava" has pneumatichydraulic ties with the boat, which eliminates the possibility of incorrect actions during its prelaunch. "
Tremendous impact on applets had a systemic crisis in the defense industry, reflected in the many suppliers and spawned severe prepyadstviya with quality devices. Management of the country aggressively responded to the failed test results, changing the main figures in the leadership of MITA. Accomplished a severe adjustment of industrial cooperation. The outcome is not forced himself to expect. In October of 2010, "Dmitry Donskoy" performed a couple of successful start-ups, "Bulava". Then June 28, 2011 rocket successfully launched from the "Yury Dolgoruky". As part of the joint municipal programs from the test launches of "Mace" from the head "Boreas" completed in August and October 2011. A Dec. 28 was carried volley with 2 missiles.
The successful passage of the final step test "Bulava" opens the possibility of signing the acceptance certificate APKR "Yury Dolgoruky".
Succeeding at the highest municipal office of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin and Vladimir Putin corrected policy of strategic nuclear deterrence forces. This allowed the first of the new century to come back to the issue of the construction of a series of APKR Project 955. It is planned to enter into the Russian Navy's eight submarines of this type is written in the arms of the State program there until 2020.
2nd case — "Alexander Nevsky" (serial number 202) laid the March 19, 2004. "At a bookmark in 1996," Yury Dolgoruky "angry and hungry workers shouting was present at all of this festive event Chubais:" Red, whip grandmother! ". And during the laying of the first in the 2004 serial ship the general mood was upbeat and solemn. The plant has already come out of the crisis ", — says Sergey Kovalev.
Bookmark the third ship was accomplished March 19, 2006, he called it "Vladimir Monomakh" (serial number 203). In the first day of December of 2010, "Alexander Nevsky" was taken out of the shop to trigger dock "Sukhona" and 6 December lowered the water. Boat began sea trials 22 October 2011. It is expected that this fall will perform two guided missile cruiser launch. Transfer of "Alexander Nevsky" Russian Navy is scheduled for late 2012 — early 2013. Formation of the case "Vladimir Monomakh" completed last fall. Maybe the boat into the water at the end of 2012, and will start running tests in the coming year.
"During the creation process is unchanging perfection — explains the CEO of CDB ME" Rubin "Igor Villeneuve. — The design were provided provision for upgrading vehicles (upgrading usually performed at step operation, but as required) and during construction. Because ship built a couple of years, the project laid the phased introduction of new techniques, which are created by our counterparties after the Bookmark missile, these new systems are tested and put into operation together with the ship. Because the second and third missile will be different from the "Yury Dolgoruky".
After delivery to the customer, "Yury Dolgoruky", "Alexander Nevsky" and "Vladimir Monomakh" of "Sevmash" will the construction of a series of 5 APKR like "Borey-A." The actual construction of the first boat of the series (the fourth "Boreas") plant in Severodvinsk began in late 2009. By the time the true total techno willingness housing increased to 50 percent. The official ceremony for the ship, received the title of "Prince Vladimir" was accomplished on July 30 of this year to the CAP in the presence of Russian President.
On the need for Russia to have a group of naval strategic nuclear forces of the nuclear submarines of the fourth generation of Vladimir Putin announced in November 2011. Then the Ministry of Defence and USC signed another contract to develop the project 955A, executor of the acts which the CDB ME "Rubin". As emphasized by the head of the Russian country today in one of its own software articles posted in February of 2012, "we are not talking about the militarization of the Russian budget. In fact means that we identify — is a "pay the bills" for those years when the army and navy are chronically underfunded, when actually carried out the supply of new types of weapons. While other countries in turn increased their "military muscle."
Documents for the construction of the head boats improved project and the subsequent 4 ships were delayed for some time to step harmonization due to the fierce debate between the Ministry of Defence and the USC price characteristics. After the personal intervention of the President of the Russian Federation 28 May 2012 the War Department immediately signed three agreements: performance of CDB ME "Rubin" development work on the project 955A, the construction at Sevmash head boats 955A project and the contract specifically with USC to build 4 serial submarines Project 955A.
Vladimir Putin explained: "The Ministry of Defence is laying by a 20 percent margin contracts — this is quite enough for the realization of the above objectives. Moreover, the customer — the Ministry of Defence in accordance with label profitability and more — 30 percent, maybe even 35 percent, but only in this case it is clearly and correctly understood that these funds will be used for the modernization of companies. Our shipbuilding industry should be ready for serial production of promising models of equipment and weapons that are one hundred percent meet the current requirements, the task facing the Russian fleet, while we need the high-quality products, obviously, at economically reasonable prices. "
With all of this USC will have the right to request a 2015 War Department to increase funding for this program there. In November last year, it became clear that the Sevmash began preliminary work on the construction of the fifth and sixth "Boreas", without waiting for the conclusion of the contract. "Borey-A" — the ship with advanced features, it is about modernization project taking into account the most recent scientific and technological achievements, — says Igor Villeneuve. — So Makar, projects "Northwind" and "Borey-A" provide a forthcoming improvement and development of the Russian missile-carrying submarine fleet in the coming decade. "
Speaking of "Boree", it must be emphasized that its creation returned to the path of Russian shipbuilders excellent equilibrium projects. In the historical line project 955 follows a diverse project 941. The last "fell" from the world of statistics on many of the main characteristics, first because of the tremendous total tonnage, almost twice the size of its Western counterparts and its predecessor — the project 667. Comparative analysis indicates that the "Northwind" with missiles "Mace" fits perfectly into a number of modern nuclear submarines formed S
outh American, British and French projects (see table). It can be concluded that the painstakingly analyzed the situation at the beginning of the 90s, Russian politicians, soldiers, engineers and industrialists seriously adjusted their old, time of submission of the Russian submarine fleet of the future and make the right decision systemic character, laying the foundation of modern deterrence based on the principle of reasonable sufficiency.
"Plans to build submarines fourth generation were adopted in the late 80's, but due to the collapse of the USSR and the lack of funding for the implementation of these plans lasted for decades. Now, when the management of the country came to the realization that the need to protect the interests of municipal power, and not just a game of democracy, and that the military industry within reasonable limits and contributes to the progress enriches rather than impoverishes the government, there is hope for a fleet, without which no Russian statehood could be "- Sergei Kovalev wrote.
Successful completion of the test lead ship of Project 955, building 2-production and laying large enough for today's times of a series of five ships of advanced project is a remarkable achievement of the Russian defense industry, which symbolized the beginning of a new step in its development. Construction of these ships shows the ability of the country's Russian-to-date support the potential of their strategic nuclear forces and produce in tribute to the political will and the concentration of resources complex technological programs from the state level.