Alexander Chernyshev was born on January 10, 1786 (12/30/1785 under Art. Style) to some, but not a rich noble family. His father, a distinguished himself in almost all the wars at that time was already a lieutenant-general and senator. Alexander and youth differed lively character, sharp brain and wit. Like his father, he beheld himself another fortune, not counting military service, the benefit to the young sergeant was recorded in the Life Guards Horse Regiment.
In 1801, the younger Chernyshev during the coronation celebrations in Moscow presented to Alexander I. Apparently, the emperor liked the beautiful and precocious smart guy. Alexander summoned to St. Petersburg and was appointed to the chamberlain's pages. But the court career Chernyshev do not have desired and headed for translation cornet in the Cavalry Regiment. In 1804, he received the rank of lieutenant and was appointed adjutant to Lt. Gen. FP Uvarov.
Peaceful life in the capital, without looking at the success with the ladies, weighed down by Alexander. He longed for military glory and awards. And the case soon presented, started another war with Napoleon. Baptism of fire Chernyshev received November 16, 1805 in the battle of Wischau. Then there was Austerlitz, in what initially was a lieutenant in the 3 cavalry attacks, managed to get out of it without a scratch, but a burr on his saber showed that behind the backs of his comrades, he was not hiding. By the end of the fight he was already doing errands ruler, bringing the fire under his orders to continue to fight the troops.
For Austerlitz Chernyshev was first military merit — the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree with a bow. This is the end of life awards he had so many that they were not placed on the uniform, and then he was truly happy. Besides, soon followed, and the next rank of Staff Captain.
Glory to the brave love, and courage he could not hold. But his courage was mixed with an obvious military talent and ability to make the right decisions in the most difficult situations. And new fights have confirmed this, as evidenced by an officer purchased a gold sword with the inscription "For Bravery" and most notable military achievement — the Order of St. ZHoru 4th degree.
War ended Tilsit peace, which led to severe changes in the fate Chernyshev. The governor, who apparently favored the brave and lucky in combat officer, began to send him with the necessary instructions to Napoleon. First as an audience Chernyshev the French governor has shown that the choice of Alexander I was faithful. The young Russian officer amazed and intrigued by Napoleon thorough and profound reflections on years of past military campaigns.
Over the subsequent letter of Alexander Chernyshev I had to go to Napoleon in Spain, where the French were then languishing fights. Revolving way he managed to organize so that rode on the rear of the main French army, intelligence gathering basic information. In this case, it was an initiative Chernyshev, because such tasks he was not put. Serious Chernyshev report produced by Alexander I's not a bad memory, he even promised to make an officer in the adjutant. And in yet another trip to Napoleon sent him not only with the letter, and the request to consist in the French army headquarters.
And at this time, Napoleon took kindly Russian officer and left him not at the headquarters, and the emperor. About Mission Chernyshev was announced in the next newsletter for the French army. Interestingly, in the bulletin dubbed Count Chernyshev and colonel. To the bewilderment of the officer, Napoleon passed through a column of Duroc, the answer was that governor Sure, rank and title for Chernyshev not far off. With the rank of Bonaparte was right, unwittingly contributed to it himself, making it possible to deploy a Russian scout storm of activity surrounded by the governor.
Accompanying Napoleon during the Austrian campaign, Chernyshev was able to perfectly learn the French army, to be a witness of its victories and defeats, and make connections in the middle of the generals and officers. Strengthened and credibility of Napoleon. This has contributed, not surprisingly, unsuccessful battle for the French Aspern. After the fight Napoleon Chernyshev said accompanied him, that sends a courier to the Russian emperor, who can pick up and his letter to Alexander I with a description of all that beheld.
Chernyshev was aware that his letter be read attentively by Napoleon, who treated his painful plight, but found a unique outlet. Having described in ecstatic tones acts ruler France and the grace with which he showered the Russian representative, Chernyshev graduated from an excellent description of a bad bout with the phrase: "If at that time the Austrians commanded by Napoleon, the French had a perfect death is inevitable." Followed by the subsequent invitation to Napoleon morning for breakfast showed that the government appreciated the diplomatic tact Chernyshev, who was then only just 23.
After that option even Napoleon began to give Chernyshev secret missions, which considerably strengthened the position of the latter in the eyes of pravitelskogo environment. After Wagram fight, victoriously conclude the campaign, gave a noble Order of the Legion of Chernyshev, and sent to St. Petersburg with a report to Alexander I of successful completion of the war.
In 1809, the attitude of France and Russia were very complex, but Chernyshev continued to ply between their capitals, constantly encountering a warm welcome Napoleon's not based on the content of the messages that he brought. The scope of its activities have expanded, being only just a captain and a colonel in November 1810, he was commissioned by Alexander I met with the king of Austria, Sweden and the hereditary ruler of a Swedish prince (former Napoleonic Marshal Bernadotte). Surprisingly, but he was truly a favorite of luck in all difficult matters diplomatically accompanied him success.
With all this he found time for an active social life, setting the stage for the French society immense love and conquering loving Frenchwomen. It was rumored that his charms could not resist the ruler of the Neapolitan queen sister Pauline Borghese. Maybe it's just a rumor, but even their presence speaks volumes.
About Chernyshev secret affairs in France very few people knew, and yet he managed to make a short term extensive intelligence network, received secret information from the highest echelons of the French government. His informant was foreign affairs minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, which supplied Chernyshev not only concealed information about the foreign policy of France, and an important military information, including the mobilization plans and preparations for war.
Chernyshev was the undisputed success and recruitment of the War Ministry bureaucrat, who for a decent reward feeding him cop
ies of hidden military documents. At the same time, part of the Russian spy acquainted with the documents earlier than they got on the table to Napoleon. Naturally, the whole process of preparation for the war in France, including the deployment of troops to certain regiments, was perfectly known to Alexander I and the Russian Minister of War Barclay de Tolly.
After 1810 Napoleon's attitude began to change to Chernyshev. To select your displeasure of, governor even occasionally ignored Chernyshev at official receptions, not healthy and not deigning to talk. Quite clouds thickened to top 1812. Chernyshev already was looking for a plausible reason for the departure from Paris, where 13 February 1812 he was invited to an audience with Napoleon.
French government met Chernyshev cold, regular criticisms voiced in regard to the position of the Russian Federation and presented a letter to Alexander I, noting that "the rulers do not need to write large letters in such circumstances, when you can not be nice to say to one another." In practice, this was a harbinger of a complete break.
In St. Petersburg, Chernyshev spent a short time, soon after leaving the retinue of Alexander I in Vilna, where the headquarters of the 1st Russian army. Examining the state and the deployment of Russian troops, before the war, he presented to the Emperor a "Note on the means to prevent enemy invasion in 1812." In the note, he made a number of individual proposals, including the urgent need of the 1st and 2nd Armies. Began fighting acts confirmed the rightness Chernyshev.
In the initial period of the war Chernyshev was doing errands ruler, including Abo accompanied him to negotiate with the hereditary prince of the Swedish Bernadotte. The Russian army continued to retreat, and these criteria were very fundamentally secure the neutrality of Sweden, much less that a couple of years back our homeland Finland recovered from it. The negotiations culminated in the signing of the Russian Federation lucrative contract, which contributed to Chernyshev and personal meetings with him to sympathize with Bernadotte.
At the final stage of the war, Alexander Chernyshev could remember his combat youth. Sent on a mission to Kutuzov and Chichagov commanding the Army of the Danube, it fulfilled its purpose, was given command of a cavalry squadron and flying off to the raid in the rear of the housing Schwarzenberg. And then Chernyshev accompanied success, his squad acted boldly and decisively. During the destruction of one of the French columns he managed to free general FF Vincengerode, who was captured when the truce went to Marshal Mortier, who is going in the retreat from Moscow to undermine the Kremlin.
Received in November 1812 the rank of Major General, Chernyshev continued to successfully wage war, distinguished themselves in a number of battles. Thus, specifically his group has brought a decisive contribution to the defeat of the French at Marienwerder and Berlin, for which the young general was awarded the Order of St. ZHoru third degree. Followed by further successful fighting, already on the ground in France. Chernyshev war ended in defeated Paris, becoming at that time a lieutenant general and a knight of many orders of the Russian Federation and the Allied Powers.
After the war was again necessary diplomatic experience Chernyshev, he has accompanied the governor on a trip to the UK, and then was with him during the Congress of Vienna and Verona. Followed and the new destination charge, Chernyshev became a member of the Committee of the wounded and the Committee on the device of the Don Host, the commander of the Guards Cavalry Division, also at times required to perform secret missions and obligations of the Adjutant General of the governor.
In 1825, Chernyshev accompanied the governor on a trip to Taganrog, where Alexander I practically ran out of the capital, learning about the ripening komplote. As fate would have it witnessed the death of a ruler. I had to do the necessary in this case woeful affairs in the specially made by the committee.
As a confidant of Alexander Chernyshev I knew of the existence of komplota and was familiar with the recent denunciations of the 2nd Army, which have been listed, many members of the Southern Society. Even before the Decembrist uprising in the capital, he was entrusted with the investigation into the armed forces in the south. He also led the 2nd Army sworn Nicholas I.
Apparently, the new ruler, like his older brother, had to Chernyshev full confidence because it included in the Commission of Inquiry of the Decembrists, in honor of the coronation of his own gave him the title of Count (albeit with a delay, but the prophecy was realized Napoleon), and through year Alexander Ivanovich proclaimed senator and minister of war. This was followed by the construction of the princely dignity, purpose chairman of the Municipal Council and the Committee of Ministers.
The new posts Chernyshev served Radzivil, with the War Department, he headed for 25 years, but especially not earned laurels. Clenched tight bureaucratic framework, he swiftly lost improvisation and brutality characteristic of his work in his youth. Unfortunately, a similar fate not only understood it, Nicholas I needed were not professional associates, and honest artists.
The peak of glory Alexander Ivanovic Chernyshev occurred in the period of the Napoleonic Wars, because he has remained in history as a brave military officer and a general, a career diplomat and a brilliant spy who managed to win Napoleon himself.