The issue of invisibility concerned not only science fiction writers, and the military all the nations of the world.
In the recent past is comparable, just over 100 years ago, the military odezhka was still catchy and colorful. The uniforms of all colors, shiny buttons, pyshnovatye aiguillettes, colored sling, glittering epaulettes, red and white trousers, the highest quiver with longish colored plumes, glowing in the sun copper breastplates and helmets topped with falcons. Fighter could be seen from far away, and mix it with a civilian man, and even more so with an inanimate object was unreal. This had two purposes: on the one hand, to intimidate their opponent stern look, and on the other — to enable the commander to build their forces from afar, and distinguish between a shelf. More severe forces vpribavok distinguished by any great detail prominent clothes. For example, in the Russian Army XVIII century gunners wore red uniforms, and grenadiers — the highest caps with gleaming brass nalobnik. None of what kind of disguise here was out of the question.
Camouflage pattern deprives the eyes of ordinary points of support. And if in addition to distort the outer contours of the person wearing it weird hoodie, the disguise will be virtually absolute. Camouflage — a method to become invisible if not, then at least unrecognizable
And yet, surprisingly, it was already a camouflage, disguise, taken (perhaps unconsciously) in the world of insects and animals. Remember the big "eyes" that we litsezreem on the wings of butterflies or the hood spectacle snake. Butterfly can not escape the keen-eyed eye carnivorous birds, but it just right to open wings attacking side baffle tremendous frightening sight of the unknown (and of course great) of the animal. This may frighten predators and to compel it to abandon the sample eat prey. So does the cobra, and standing up in a threatening posture and inflating his neck with painted eyes. Forward predator confused: instead of a snake in front of him suddenly there was something huge and incomprehensible, with tremendous frightening sight. And in the animal kingdom is the usual rule — all unfamiliar unsafe and should be avoided.
This is the camouflage. It is not necessary to try to become completely invisible to the enemy. It's very hard, and often quite unrealistic. But that's to be facing an opponent totally not who you are in fact, and so confuse him — much easier.
A brilliant example of this camouflage was shown during the famous Battle of Poltava 27 June 1709. The night before the battle, Peter I ordered the regiment Novogorodskomu exchange uniforms with not so long ago formed Ladoga. First had blue uniforms, and the second — grayish. As expected, Peter, Swedes hit on the shelf, dressed in a grayish uniforms, hoping to just crush the Russian recruits. But in their way were veterans of Novgorod, which had significant combat experience (about 8 years). The Swedes were deceived by the color of the uniforms. The attack was repulsed.
But it was not the first experience of Peter's camouflage. Even during the second siege of Narva, in the summer of 1704 he changed into his uniform of two Swedish dragoons and two regiments of infantry, and with the help of their simulated attack from the rear to the Russian troops besieging the fortress. The commandant of the fortress fell for the ruse and made a sortie, I almost ended in the fall of Narva.
But in general, throughout the XVIII-XIX centuries a special need in disguise was not. Fire guns and rifles was conducted in so short distances that are truly impossible to hide it. And success does not dare fight the fire and close combat, where no masking is needed.
War Paint. Principle — "break" the vertical and horizontal lines the eyes, nose and mouth. Bias is applied, starting from the forehead and temples. Forehead, cheeks, nose and chin are stained dark, everything is different — light
Who is not hidden
Everything changed dramatically with the armies of rapid-and long-range repeating rifle even more long-range rifled guns, shoot shells filled with strong brisant explosives. The troops immediately began to incur large losses. Polk, who was standing on the field of battle in close order, rifle fire destroyed an hour. Shelter soldier in the trenches and the trenches helped only in a defensive battle, and advancing chain in the brightest uniforms are beautiful targets for shooters. Now it took to fighter in the field was as much as possible invisible to the enemy.
A warning bell sounded back in 1854, when the first battle of the Crimean War, the Alma River British shtutserniki half hour killed all Russian officers, whose colorful form vpribavok significantly different from the soldiers. And later started for the fighter. The answer to the question of how to avoid losses or at least reduce them, lying, it would seem, on the surface. But it was still almost half a century before that concept of military odezhki changed.
Experimental digital camouflage combat uniforms of the U.S. Army recalls enlarged pixel monitor. According to the American professionals, he does what is not inferior to the two main types of South American camouflage — for woodland and desert terrain. But on bolshennom distance "pixel" camouflage better harbors in urban criteria
Drab, Khaki and other
In the years 1899-1902 in South Africa was Anglo-Boer War. The Boers were naughty fighters. They were ignorant of dense infantry formation, measuring soldier step by hum drums, they had no training of infantry Bolyai could not stand the attack of the British infantry. But the Boers were good hands and a single well-aimed fire from a great distance knocked out British fighter for a long time before they could open fire volley shot. But the Boers themselves, dressed in a shirt and a jacket made of grayish tissue unpretentious against the scorched grass and brown earth was virtually invisible.
British officers were reactionaries and quickly figured out the reason for the tremendous losses in battles with the South African farmers. The British Army was the first in the world dressed in uniforms that are similar in color to the South African bush (olive drab). Sometimes it came to fun. Realizing that this color helps life, the British began to repaint it all that defied the colors. Uniforms and pants, hats, shoes, blankets and handkerchiefs, staff furniture and tents, belts and underwear — all acquired color tobacco leaves. More zealous in trying to repaint Drab … even cavalry horses, mules and code no dogs.
Since 1880 uniforms similar color began to a
ppear in the British units in India. In the classic form of the tropical British Army prevailed snow-white color, and received the title of brand-new form of "hacks" in Hindi means "dusty, dirty" (a Hindi word got from another language — Farsi — where it meant "gryazyuka" in the sense ground or soil). Now that word is actually in all languages of the world.
Living in the country of the rising sun, these diligent students who are always rapidly surpass their own teachers, simultaneously made tribute to conclusions. Right behind by the British, they dressed his army into a form that match the color tone of the countryside. The landscape of South-East Asia has a different color palette, if African. Living in the country of the rising sun picked a more appropriate tone, somewhere between olive and yellow. Two years later, in the uniform of khaki Japanese fighters met in the fields of Manchuria from Russian shelves. Russian Defense Ministry has not made any conclusions rovnenky account of the Anglo-Boer War. In general, other countries, too. Even in England, after a long and fierce debate found a compromise solution — the British Army uniforms remains constant, but the fighting on special theaters are allowed to wear a uniform color Drab.
In general, in the Russian-Japanese war the Russian army entered the Soldiers of white tunics and almost dark pants. The officers sported a dazzling snow-white tunics with glittering gold and silver epaulets, officer's belt and shoulder strap trimmed with gold and silver braid, colored caps with white covers. Well-aimed fire of the Japanese infantry, to which was added a consuming more while small machine guns, quickly stole our infantry desire to go on the attack because it was done in the XIX century. Living in the country of the rising sun shot themselves while remaining invisible. Had Russian soldiers and officers of a protective coloring already during fights.
Between 1905 and 1914 the military of different countries have studied the dependence of the visibility of a soldier on the battlefield of the color of his uniform. It turned out that the most conspicuous color — white, bright yellow, black, blue, reddish, green, bright green, brown and blue, and the less conspicuous — yellow-brown, gray, blue-gray, olive-green, yellow-green-gray and gray-blue.
Many countries have made of Russian-Japanese war right conclusion. But the introduction of khaki was given a military accustomed to the flashy colored uniforms, is not easy. In Russia, the khaki uniform was introduced everywhere only in 1907, in Sweden — in 1906, in Austria-Hungary — in 1909, in Germany and Italy — in 1910. The French were the most limited. First experiments with protective uniforms they began only in 1912, so that by the beginning of the First World War, brand new marching order lay only in warehouses. In their first attack the French infantry went in red pants, bright blue uniforms with tremendous reddish colored epaulettes and cap. Hard to believe, but the fact remains — the French army wore protective equipment only by the summer of 1915.
By the end of the First World Russian army wore a faded gray-yellow-green color, the British — Drab, Germans — feldgrau (greenish-gray), the French — gray-blue. But when the understanding of the experience of war, spices came to a particular conclusion — khaki camouflage for reliable enough. Color odezhki more suited to one area, unmasked soldier to another, well, quite a large one-color spot (figure of a soldier in riot gear) still stands out from the area, which is very rarely has a uniform color. For example, khaki, a good summer color masking against the burnt grass, shells plowed land, looked faded spot on the background of lush greenery catchy vernal fields, or even more so — against the backdrop of snow in the winter.
Zeal to make suitable for all terrain clothing led to the realization that it is not obliged to have a uniform coloring. First spotted camouflage idea was that clothes should be in several colors at once. Thus was born the great all popular camouflage pattern.
Who designed hundreds of samples of camouflage. But in general, we can restrict 4 types: for sand-desert, snow, vegetation and urban backgrounds
Achieve a suitable set of colors that at least some of them are similar to the background terrain, is virtually impossible. You have to enjoy only the general coincidence: on the ground with the dominance of green color — different colors greenish, on the sandy desert — a gray-yellow and gray-brown tones.
There is another question — what should be the color saturation masking odezhki? And how many colors are required to have camouflage? Much — it turns out that one or two matching colors obviously not enough to mask. Not a lot — hard to expect that the terrain will be specifically those tones.
By trial and error spetsy finally realized — man recognizes excellent and stand out items, interior and exterior contours of which he is familiar. Often the eye rather at least in part to recognize the object, and the brain dorisovyvaet in the minds of all others. On the contrary — quite often show the subject from the perspective under which the people had never beheld, and perfectly familiar object can not be found.
In general, it is a difficult task — to make so that the enemy saw, but did not recognize what needs to be nestled away. And not recognize the subject, it is impossible to understand — whether it is dangerous. This is just what is the basic principle of camouflage — to be invisible, being visible.