The history of Latin America has a lot of dark stories, one of the most horrible and bloody — the killing of an entire country, "Heart of America" (Paraguay). This murder became known as the Paraguayan War, which lasted from 13 December 1864 to 1 March 1870. In this war against Paraguay made an alliance of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, supported by the then "world community" (West).
Few of history
First Europeans visited the land of the future of Paraguay in 1525, and the beginning of the history of this Latin American country is considered to be August 15, 1537, when Spanish colonists founded Asuncion. This area was inhabited by tribes of the Redskins Guarani.
Evenly Spanish founded more stops pt, with Paraguay in 1542 (translated from the language of the Redskins Guarani "Paraguay" means "from the majestic river" — a view of the river Parana) began to appoint special managers. Since the beginning of the 17th century in this country began to establish their settlements Spanish Jesuits ("Society of Jesus" — a male monastic order).
They make a unique Paraguay patriarchal-theocratic kingdom (Jesuit reduction — Indian reservations of the Jesuits). It became the basis of the primitive tribal way of life of local Redskins, the universities of the Inca Empire (Tiahuanaco) and the ideas of Christianity. Almost Jesuits and Indians made the first socialist government (the local specificity). It was the first large-scale attempt to build a just society based on the rejection of private property, the priority of a public good, the primacy of the collective over the individual. Jesuit fathers very well researched management experience in the Inca Empire and its creatively developed.
Redskins moved from wandering to a sedentary lifestyle, the basis of the economy was agriculture and cattle trade. The monks planted the Indians base material and spiritual culture of Europe, and non-violent manner. If necessary, the community exhibited militia, repulsing the attacks of the slave traders and their mercenaries. Under the direction of the monastic brotherhood Indians have gained the highest degree of autonomy from the Spanish and Portuguese empires. The settlements prospered, labor Redskins was quite successful.
Ultimately, policy-independent monks led to the fact that they decided to get rid of. In 1750, the Spanish and Portuguese crowns entered into an agreement under which 7 Jesuit settlements, including Asuncion, had to pass under Portuguese control. The Jesuits refused to comply with this decision, in the end a bloody war that lasted four years (1754-1758), the Spanish-Portuguese forces defeated. Followed by the complete expulsion of the Order of the Jesuits from all Spanish possessions in America (it ended in 1768). The Redskins have vorachivatsya to continue lifestyle. By the late 18th century, about a third of the population was composed of mestizos (descendants of white and red-skinned), and two-thirds were Indians.
In the process of the collapse of the Spanish Empire, in which took an active role young predators — the British, became independent of Buenos Aires (1810 year). Argentines tried to start a rebellion in Paraguay, in the so-called. "Paraguayan expedition ', but the Paraguayans militia troops defeated them.
But the process has been started, in 1811, appointed the independence of Paraguay. Country was headed by lawyer Jose Francia, the people recognized his favorite. Congress, elected by popular vote, acknowledged his dictator with unlimited initially for 3 years (in 1814) and then the perpetual dictator (in 1817). Francia ruled the state until his death in 1840. It introduced autarky (economic mode assuming the country's self-sufficiency), foreigners rarely allowed in Paraguay. Jose Francia regime was liberal: the rebels, spies, conspirators brutally exterminated, were arrested. Although we can not say that the regime was different enormity — for always reign of dictator was executed about 70 people, and about 1 million had been thrown in jail.
Francia had secularization (removal of the church and the monastery property, land), inhumanely eliminate criminal gangs, resulting in a couple of years, people have forgotten about the crime. Francia partly revived the idea of the Jesuits, although "without kinks." In Paraguay, there was a special national economy, based on a public work and personal small enterprise. In addition, there appeared such amazing phenomenon (the yard was the first half of the XIX century!) As free education, free medical care, low taxes and public food banks. As a result, in Paraguay, especially taking into account its fairly isolated position with respect to global economic centers, has created a strong municipal industry. This allowed to be economically independent state. By the mid-19th century, Paraguay became the fastest growing and better off country in Latin America. It should be noted that this was a unique government where there was no poverty as a phenomenon, though rich in Paraguay enough (rich layer has been fully integrated into society peacefully.)
After the death of Francia, which was a disaster for the whole of civilization, by Congress, the country was led by his nephew Carlos Antonio Lopez (up to 1844 rules together with the Consul Mariano Roque Alonso). It was such a hard and alternate person. He held a series of liberal reforms, the country was ready for a "discovery" — in 1845 opened access to foreigners in Paraguay, in 1846 the former protective tariff replaced by a more liberal haven Pilar (on the river Paraná) is open to external trade. Lopez reorganized the army by European standards, has brought its population to 5 thousand. to 8 thousand people. It was built several fortresses, created by the river fleet. The country has stood the seven-year war with Argentina (1845-1852), the Argentines were obliged to recognize the independence of Paraguay.
Lasted work on the development of education, revealed scientific societies, improve the ability of Railways, Shipping, Shipbuilding perfected. The country as a whole has maintained its uniqueness, as in Paraguay, almost all the land belonged to the state.
In 1862, Lopez was killed, leaving the country on his own son Francisco Solano Lopez. New People's Congress approved it possible for 10 years. At this time, country headed for the peak of their own development (and then just destroyed the country, not letting go for a very promising way). It has a population of 1.3 million people have gained, municipal debt was not (the country did not take external loans). Lopez's first reign of the second built a first metal road length of 72 km. In Paraguay invited more than 200 foreign professionals, who laid the wire and steel strip of the road. This has helped in the development of the steel, textile, cardboard, printing industry sectors, the production of gunpowder and shipbuilding. Paraguay made its defense industry, producing not only gunpowder and other ammunition, but the guns and mortars (foundry in Ibikui, built in 1850), they built the ships in the shipyards of Asuncion.
The occasion for the war and its origin
By the successful experience of Paraguay asked the price adjoining Uruguay, and after that experience could pass triumphantly across the continent. The probable association of Paraguay and Uruguay thrown challenge the interests of England, the local regional powers — Argentina and Brazil. Naturally, this caused resentment and fear of British and Latin American ruling clans. In addition, with Argentina, Paraguay have been territorial disputes. What was needed was an excuse for the war and its rapidly find.
In the spring of 1864, the Brazilians w
ere sent to Uruguay diplomatically goal and claimed compensation for losses caused by Brazilian farmers in border conflicts with Uruguayan farmers. Chapter Uruguay Atanasio Aguirre (from the State party, which stood for the Alliance against Paraguay) rent the Brazilian claims. Paraguayan favorite Solano López offered himself as a mediator in the negotiations of Brazil and Uruguay, but Rio de Janeiro has opposed the proposal. In August 1864, the Paraguayan government broke diplomatic affairs with Brazil, and declared that the intervention of the Brazilians and the occupation of Uruguay will be an imbalance in the region.
In October, Brazilian troops invaded Uruguay. Supporters of the party of Colorado (probrazilskaya Party), supported by Argentina, entered into an alliance with the Brazilians, and overthrew the government of Aguirre.
For Paraguay, Uruguay was strategically principal partner, because in its capital (g.Montevideo) was virtually the entire Paraguayan trade. And Brazilians occupied the port. Paraguay was forced to go to war in the country held a mobilization, bringing the size of the army to 38 million people (out of 60 million in reserve, in practice it was the militia). December 13, 1864 the Paraguayan government declared war on Brazil, March 18, 1865 — Argentina. Uruguay, already running probrazilskogo policy Venancio Flores, entered into an alliance with Brazil and Argentina. May 1, 1865 in the Argentine capital, the three countries signed a contract for the Triple Alliance. World Society (first England) supported the Triple Alliance. The "enlightened Europeans" have been very helpful alliance ammunition, weapon, military advisers, gave credit to the war.
Army of Paraguay on the initial stage was stronger, both numerically (the Argentines first war there were about 8.5 million people, the Brazilians — 16 thousand Uruguayans — 2 thousand), and in terms of motivation, organization. Also excellent was armed, in the Paraguayan army was up to 400 guns. Base military forces of the Triple Alliance — comprised of the Brazilian armed priemuschestvenno of the units of local politicians and some parts of the State Guard, often it was the slaves who were promised freedom. Then, in the part of the coalition poured various volunteers, adventurers from all over the continent, who were willing to participate in the robbery of a rich country. It was believed that the war would be short-lived, were very different characteristics in Paraguay and 3 states — population, the power of economies, help the "world community." The war practically sponsored by the Bank of England loans and banking houses of Baring Brothers and "H. M. Rothschild and Sons. "
But had to fight a war with the armed people. At the initial step Paraguayan army won a series of victories. On the north captured the fort Brazilian Nova Coimbra, in January 1865, and took the town of Albuquerque Corumba. On the south part of the Paraguayan successfully operated in the southern part of Mata Grosso.
In March 1865 the Paraguayan government appealed to the Argentine president Bartolomé Mitre with a request to pass through the province of Corrientes 25 thousand army to invade the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul. But Buenos Aires refused, March 18, 1865 Paraguay declared war on Argentina. Paraguayan squadron (first the war, Paraguay had 23 small ship and a number of small vessels, and the flagship of the gunboat "Tacuary," most of them were alterations of the State Courts) going down the river Parana, closed the port of Corrientes, and then took his land forces. At this time, the Paraguayan part of the Argentine crossed the border and through the countryside of Argentina hit on the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, 12 June 1865 capture of the town of San Borja, August 5 Urugvayana.
The situation is complicated because of the defeat of the Paraguayan squadron 11 June 1865 at the Battle of Riachuelo. The Triple Alliance now has to control the river basin of La Plata. Evenly advantage was able to affect, by the end of 1865 the Paraguayan troops were driven from the previously occupied territories, the coalition focused 50 thousand army and began to prepare for the invasion of Paraguay.
Invading army could not immediately break into the country, they were detained by strengthening the nearby confluence of the Paraguay and Parana, there were fights over two years. So Umayta fortress became a real Paraguayan Sevastopol and detained by the enemy for 30 months, it fell only 25 July 1868.
After that Paraguay was doomed. The invaders, while the content of the "world community", slowly and with a loss bolshennymi Burst defense Paraguayans, almost grinding it, paying for it with countless losses. And not only from the bullets, and from dizentirii, cholera, and other beauties of tropical climate. In a number of battles in December 1868 were virtually destroyed the remnants of Paraguay.
Francisco Solano Lopez refused to give up and retreated to the mountains. In January 1969 fell Asuncion. It must be said that the people of Paraguay defended his country actually polls, waged war even ladies and kids. Lopez continued the war in the mountains in the north-east of Asuncion, people went to the mountains, jungle, the partisans. During the year, there was a guerrilla war, but in the end residues Paraguayan forces were defeated. March 1, 1870 Solano Lopez detachment was surrounded and annihilated, the head of Paraguay died with the words: "I die for the Motherland!"
— Paraguayan people fought to the end, even the enemies of the celebrated heroism of the population, the Brazilian historian Roche Pombo said: "A lot of ladies, some with pikes and clubs, others with small babies in her arms angrily threw in attacking sand, stones and bottles. Peribebui of the parish, and Valenzuela fought with guns in their hands. Boys 8-10 years old lay dead, and with them their gun lying around, others wounded showed a stoic calm, not uttering a single groan. "
At the Battle of Acosta-New (16 August 1869) fought 3.5 million kids 9 — 15 years, and the detachment of all Paraguayans were 6 thousand people. In memory of their heroism on August 16 in the modern day is celebrated Paraguay child.
In fights, battles, acts of genocide were killed 90% of the male population of Paraguay. Of the more than 1.3 million of the population, by 1871 there are about 220 thousand people. Paraguay was absolutely devastated and thrown to the side of world development.
— The territory of Paraguay curtailed in favor of Argentina and Brazil. Argentines are generally offered absolutely dismember Paraguay and share "fraternally", but Rio de Janeiro is not accepted. The Brazilians wanted a buffer between Argentina and Brazil.
— Britain won the war, and behind it are the banks. The major powers in Latin America — Argentina and Brazil were in the monetary dependence, taking large amounts of debt. The ability to open the Paraguayan experience, have been destroyed.
— Paraguayan industry was eliminated, most of the Paraguayan villages had been devastated and abandoned, the remaining people moved to the neighborhood of Asuncion. People fled to subsistence farming, a significant part of the land was bought by foreigners in the main Argentines, and turned into private estates. The market of the country was open to British products, and the new government for the first time took a foreign loan of 1 million pounds.
This story teaches us that if people united and defend their homeland, idea, it can be overcome only by a complete genocide.
The territorial losses during the war, Paraguay