How to eliminate technical and technological backwardness of of the economically advanced countries

How to eliminate technical and technological gap between Russia and the developed countries

Russian Federation is now "pregnant" modern industrialization and is "about to give birth." Without these "labor", without going to the subsequent technological way before her loomed the prospect of energy forever remain an appendage of the West, Upper Volta with missiles. After that followed the collapse of the economy, the degradation of infrastructure, population … Specifically, it seeks to convey the idea to the federal and regional politicians, managers of production and labor societies Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, in their own working trips.

There was an exception and nedavneshny three-day visit (19-21 April), deputy prime minister in the Ural region, which, Rogozin said, is the backbone of the Russian statehood. Locomotives to introduce innovations here can and should become a business "defense" — more susceptible to everything and best newcomer, retained after heavy 90 experts. But immediately move up and force the heavy flywheel spinning machines defense very seriously.

Need a jump in industrial

Technological leaps can be made, simply put, in 2 ways: carrot and the stick. Stalin spent the industrialization of the country, during which for 10 years has been built six thousand businesses today. But he did so at the expense of agriculture, through repression, restriction of freedom and the crackdown …

"We motivate enterprises of different forms of property that can produce products as a civilian and military mission"
Now such methods do not take place. Compel people to tear veins for just has not come out. Means necessary material and moral incentives, the harsh investment in "defense". And they've gone. Of the 23 trillion rubles allocated by the State for the implementation of State programs from weapons-2020, three trillion directed to update machinery equipment, the purchase of new production lines and facilities. But even such means alone for himself not guarantee of success. Requires new ideas and personnel, high-quality configuration in the minds of engineers and technical personnel and skilled workers.

The last 20 years for the Russian Federation were, admittedly, years of decline and stagnation. Many fled to the experts at defense companies, as they were not needed. Someone trades in the market and lost skills, someone retired. As the saying goes, the other is no more, and those far away … They have not passed the baton to anyone. But most importantly — will have to answer the question: why do it? It will give a certain person working? Without an understanding of each one of us need a technological breakthrough for the Russian Federation, the full impact and challenging a lot of money can be spent with a zero result.

It is well aware Dmitry Rogozin. So no pressure, not force, not force, and calls. During trips to the deputy prime minister had never seen, that he had threatened to someone in the form of an order sought by exaggerated tones. On the face — a friendly grin myagenkaya, benevolent manner of communication. He visited many enterprises of the Ural region, estimated as new technologies are introduced, took part in starting the modern lines, met and spoke with the mass of managers senior and middle managers, by ordinary workers. Gave start foundry Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant (JSC "PO" UOMZ "), included in the GC" Russian Technologies ", brand new mechanized line which will produce large parts for electro-optical systems, military aircraft and helicopters. This will reduce the labor-intensive production of foundry castings by 45 percent, the amount of their next machining — 70, the cost of materials — 20, and the cost of the final product — by 30 percent. General Director of JSC "PO" UOMZ "Sergei Maxine said the order book signed for 5 years. Established and production of Innovative Research — electro-optical systems and optical-location stations, modern models of medical equipment, economical LED lighting. The service life of such devices — a few decades, with the lowest power consumption.

In general, the situation as it is not so bad. According to the last measure there, where he had been deputy prime minister. Even from the shows that people are working with enthusiasm, introducing new technologies. On the Ural Turbine Plant have entire machining centers (Chiron, Schaublin, etc.). The Pervouralsk New Pipe Plant (site ESPK) Rogozin expressed smelting process of getting to the ultramodern equipment "Iron Ozone 32", the production technology of oil country tubular goods. This is the latest creation, which in the world of unity. Even the young people here studying in the institute (Educational Center of "PATH").

On the Ural Turbine Plant Deputy Prime Minister became a party to the presentation of "New Technologies JSC" Ural Turbine Works ". In the Company "Ural Locomotives" acquainted with the prospects of the development of production in 3D. And in Nizhny Tagil took part in the presentation of the federal state enterprise "Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metal tests" in Russia and the head of the Special Design Bureau polygon measuring equipment (CSC IZAP FSE "NTIMT").

T-90 — a good tank

Perhaps one of the main purposes of the trip was the vice-premier visiting Uralvagonzavod. Here Dmitry Rogozin acquainted with the creation of armored vehicles, namely the T-90S and T-90ms. He personally tested them on the go, and in a combat shooting at targets and praised the machines. "This is a good tank", — said Rogozin, referring to the T-90 and T-90ms. On the trip he was accompanied by the first deputy defense minister Alexander Sukhorukov, workers Industry and Trade Ministry and other officials authorized to make decisions. Representatives of the Defense Ministry Rogozin here at the plant gave the order to negotiate with the management of the enterprise edition of armored vehicles to the latest unified fighting platform "Armata" from 2015.

According to the views of Deputy Prime Minister, we do not need intermediaries in supporting the defense industry, and we need people who are ultimately responsible for decisions on new economic projects that would have made the Russian defense industry products competitive in global markets. "Russia can no longer enjoy the role of exporter of hydrocarbons, — Rogozin explained. — It's time to renew itself as a strong industrial power. This requires even industrialization, and the industrial leap-horizon planning of the economy of the country. This will help ensure that the armed forces with modern arms and military equipment. "

Honestly, without varnishing said about the problems of today and the defense industry at a meeting with the presidential envoy in the Urals Federal surrounded by Eugene Kuyvasheva. He highlighted that the UFO produces more than 30 percent of the country's engineering products with the products of the defense mission. Number of employees at defense companies exceeds 300 thousand. To address the challenges faced by the country in the 40s, there were built a large factory with a complete production cycle and expanded infrastructure, designed for mass production, the range of which, rarely changing, establish a centralized planners.

Unfortunately, far not all enterprises neighborhood c
ould adapt to changing economic conditions. At the moment, there is a very large depreciation of equipment (about 70%), buildings and structures (50%). Capital-workers are two to three times lower than in advanced countries. More than half of machinery equipment is worn, with somewhere almost 100 percent. Lost production technology of strategic materials. All this leads to a direct technological dependence on zabugornyh partners production which is, for example, over 70 percent of our electrical component base.

Decrease in years gone by spending on military R & D is 13 times led to the loss of highly qualified scientific, technical and engineering staff. To achieve scientific and technological advantages at the global level are needed Eager measures. Enterprises need for additional funds. Is focused on SAP, other federal motivated utilities that are already intensively have allowed to carry out activities on modernization and technological upgrading of production facilities. But at the current time defense R & D funding is only just a little more than 10 percent, and Innovative activity shrouded in only about 10 percent of the companies. Most of the products produced little old ways, new technologies, going very slowly.

Another problem — the staffing industry. Now in the defense industry employed more than 40 percent of all academic staff. For example, in the area of the Urals Federal operates 250 neighborhood organizations engaged in research and development. But the average age of employees, according to various estimates — more than 55 years. In defense research institutes average age of the scientific and engineering staff and very close to 60 years, which is acceptable for the defense of the Russian Federation as a whole. The level of professionalism does not match the difficulty of the task of strengthening the military security of the country, as well as low wage level, which is below the influx of young cadres. Need meaningful programm action to increase the attractiveness and prestige of a "defense".

Order BMD-4 to impeach …

There are difficulties with the deployment of municipal defense order. It later competitions, the long procedure of concluding contracts which had not once mentioned. Until now, the controversy did not subside for pricing.

Directly affects all of this research and development. In such criteria businesses just on the physical level does not have time to do the work, to carry out research and development are required to go to the extra costs. And in general it is not certain defense contracts, as, for example, in the ammunition industry. It is necessary to bring to the companies of the defense complex information in terms of product range and defense contracts in accordance with the approved applets. This will allow managers to think of business plans to modernize production, diversification, promotion of foreign exchange and research programs.

A very difficult situation on Kurganmashzavod, largely because of the uncertainty in the position of the Ministry of Defense.

— There is information that the delivery of BMP-3 will not be renewed, — said at the meeting Eugene Kuyvashev. — But apart from this, and from the Ministry of Defense refuses procurement BMD-4, although the pioneer of this development, which puts Kurganmashzavod dependent on export contracts.

But on this company employs more than 5 thousand people, with more than 90 per cent of its production of defense mission. It was suggested, along with the Defense Ministry to make out way out of the crisis of the plant.

And yet the potential for a high-quality R & D in "defense" of the Ural region is. But to go to the highest technological way to ensure there interaction Innovative structures. For example, in the Sverdlovsk region is planning a center of competence Machinery, which will forms the list of tasks for the needs of companies.

One solution to the difficulty of increasing the pace of technological upgrading and production Innovative products is to establish public-private partnerships. This will ensure that not only decrease the burden on the budget, and a more flexible, productive management system defense, a certain set of guarantees and preferences.

— Private equity entrenched in Russia, began to invest in the development of the economy, industry — recalled Rogozin. — In Yekaterinburg, we have seen the company capable of providing competitive products. Because a large private assets there should be an opportunity to find a role in the decision of the municipal programs. Our task — to intrigue him make a competitive environment that will push for innovation.

Do not leave without attention and small and medium-sized businesses, but it will claim finalization of several legal units.

System-wide instruments of state

A number of steps in this direction have already been taken. For example, implementing a set of priority actions aimed at the development of a lively defense organizations capable on the latest technology base to create a promising AME standards and competitive products and civilian dual purpose. By the way, the growth of defense contracts has led to an increase in shred of military products in the total volume of production CMO. Its volume rose to 67 percent.

Coupled with the fact if the trend is increasing production of competitive civilian products will continue to grow, it will ensure sustainable economic and financial organizations and innovator of defense. Most of them have the resources to do so. Despite the crisis and the failure of the 90s, many enterprises are promising developments are carried out products that are not inferior and superior zabugornye immediately and analogues, are in high demand in the global market. Because the main purpose of defense reform — the creation of more competitive embedded structures: the new centers of excellence capable of self-development, professionalism and efficient asset management, ensuring the implementation of SAP and exercising active placing on the market of products and services sverhtehnologichny.

Currently developed and put into practice programs from innovator of joint-stock companies with state, municipal companies and federal municipal unitary enterprises, which are carried out within the framework of the development of promising technologies, the creation of the latest products. Implementation of corporate programs built structures in the defense industry is closely linked with long-term municipal programm in criteria will allow globalization to overcome technological gap between the leading foreign countries.

As the main instruments of state-wide CMO government implemented a long-motivated applets, SDO, are various kinds of subsidies, with contributions to the share capital, is targeted support for maintaining the customs and tariff regulation and restructuring of the tax debt, steps are being taken to establish and develop the necessary raw materials and materials science base industry. To identify and test breakthrough scientific advances of science and technology innovator thoughts and concepts of the Russian government has prepared a draft federal law "On the Fund promising research" (a very risky nature of these research achievements can not guarantee the expected results, asks the availability of a specific mechanism of their funding in the form of the fund ).

Another direction of formation of Innovative infrastructure — the creation of technology parks in the defense industry at large manufacturers of military purpose. Similar projects are being implemented by individual organizations CMO. At the current time, the Ministry of Industry is working to form the foundations of the functioning of such parks in view of their specificity.

— We wish that we have formed a coherent picture of the potential of the Ural region. Particularly in regard to the occurrence of in the latest step of industrialization, — said D
mitry Rogozin. — We motivate enterprises of different forms of property that can produce products as a civilian mission and military.

Principle and the possibility of retraining for new machines and lines that will be purchased. Which machines require the substitution of products for very different properties? For the answer to this question will involve experts "Open Government", they are not so long ago made a report to President Dmitry Medvedev about the public-private partnership in the development of DIC. "We want to understand the contours of cooperation between the federal government, governors, heads of regions. To us through the "defense" principle ripples throughout our industry, to breathe into it a fresh breath — Rogozin explained. — Without realizing national development plan is unrealistic to model and plans for the development of companies. You will need to link all in a single design. "

Deputy Prime Minister recalled the words of President-elect Vladimir Putin that the decision to develop a "road map" for each company, the CMO as a whole. In accordance with her promising companies will have their own plan and timetable for upgrading to this release of funds, procurement of new equipment, the substitution of an old. Maybe not all are called to a bright future. Some factories have to restructure or even close. But with all this, as said Rogozin, we will certainly let us take into account the social factor.

It remains to express the hope that the future modernization of Russian defense industry will obmyslena in detail and therefore end success.

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