In 1913, the U.S. had a negative balance of foreign trade, and investment in the countries of the American economy of other countries, in the main countries of Latin America were less than the external municipal debt. At the end of 1913 were located abroad North American capital in the amount of 2.065 billion. bucks, and States themselves had to 5000000000. bucks. It must be said that the then bucks — the standard in 1873, was a real currency unit, each Bucks was equal to 1.50463 g. untarnished gold. However, with the outbreak of World War II picture structurally changed. U.S. State of the debtor's creditors have become major global powers.
The first global war has claimed millions of lives, devastating tornado walked through the territories of France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia, and was for the South American governments true manna from heaven. On August 1, 1914 on January 1, 1917 the United States provided the belligerent powers of loans of 1.9 billion dollars. bucks. Already in April 1915, one of the owners of the monetary empire Morgan Thomas Lamont, speaking to the press, said that the U.S. needs as much as possible to help European allies, as this will lead to the repayment of their debt obligations Yankees ahead of the UK and France. Another huge flow of loans to European countries went when the U.S. entered the war themselves. Until the end of the First World War, total loans amounted to more than $ 10 billion. bucks. Approximately 7 billion. dollars went to purchase guns, ammunition, ammunition, various war materials. And all of this was bought in the very same dollars. Funds remain in the United States and stimulated its economy. It is clear that large profits were obtained financial magnates and industrialists. One of the outcomes of the First World War, the United States has become the reincarnation of the debtor in the world naikrupneyshgo naikrupneyshgo lender. France and England, on the contrary, of the world's largest creditor to the debtor reincarnated.
In the case of France, the country's transformation into a big debtor contributed to the fact that on its territory were conducted lengthy combat actions, millions of workers have been isolated from the national economy and north-eastern regions, where there was a significant focus of the heavy industry was under German occupation. French gold supplies to the beginning of the war were estimated at 845 million dollars, and they have already been spent in the first months of World War II.
Fascinating that in informal conversations with their British partners South American municipal leaders throughout the war and the first time after it was assured that after the war the U.S. will write off the debts, some to pass on to the defeated countries. The schedule of payments of debtor proposed to link with the schedule they have received reparations from the defeated powers. The situation for the debtor countries became clear only in March 1920, when the South American financial institution in response to the letter of the English Minister of Finance said that the United States is not concerned about the delay of payments by Germany, Britain should pay the United States just right. In a letter dated November 3, 1920 British Prime Minister David Lloyd George asked the South American President Woodrow Wilson to renegotiate payments. But the answer to the South American president was born in approximately the same spirit as the post office money. In the end, the question of war debts was brought to the Genoa Conference. It was decided that those 4 billion. 600 million dollars, that England was due to the United States, will be paid over 62 years. With all of this until 1932, the British had to pay 3% per annum, and from 1933 to the end of the payments — 3.5%. As a result, the amount of interest was higher than the amount of the debt. Britain had to pay 11 billion. 105 million dollars. This is despite the fact that a large part of German reparations received France — 54.4%, while the UK has received 23%.
Berlin once a year had to pay staranm-winners by 650 million dollars, 149 million of them 760 thousand dollars owed the UK. Until 1933 London was to transfer the Yankees once a year by 138 million dollars. So Makar, virtually all German reparations, which relied UK, U.S. sucked. But in 1923, Germany was unable to pay any stamp. France in response to the occupation of the Ruhr. The British convened the London Conference, which in August 1924 approved a new plan for reparations Germany. It has developed an international committee of professionals headed by South American banker Charles Dawes Gheit.
The plan was adopted under U.S. pressure. To start the mechanism of the German economy, the plan Dawes Berlin is not only paying reparations, but immediately received international loan. Initially Germany provided a loan of 200 million dollars (110 million provided South American banks) for the stabilization of the mark. Until 1929, Germany received loans worth 21 billion. marks in the greater extent in the USA. Because for the first year the implementation of the Dawes Plan Berlin had no other means to pay only 200 million gold marks. The Dawes Plan found that, in 1924, the Germans pay reparations in the amount of 1 billion. gold marks (at that time was about 238 million dollars) in the first couple of years, the amount grew to 1.75 billion dollars. gold marks, and in 1928 was to increase to 2.5 billion. brands. So Makar, the yearly payments of Germany went down considerably, now a huge part of the benefit of annual payment of U.S. British had to pay out of their own pockets. In addition, these amounts Berlin paid irregularly, and in the early 1930s ended up paying at all.
The Hague Conference on Reparations 1929-1930 gg. was adopted by the second plan of reparation payments Germany (plan Jung). United States formally participated in the conference, but almost become a pioneer Young Plan. The plan was prepared by a team of professionals headed by cash with the Yankees Owen Young and reflect personal interests, first American, German lenders. U.S. put pressure on the participants of the conference, so the plan was adopted. Young Plan foresaw a certain reduction in the size of annual payments — an average of $ 2 billion. stamps canceled reparations tax on industry and the reduction of taxation of transport, settlement of international monitoring bodies. He also foresaw the reduction of total German payments to 113.9 billion dollars. gold marks with a maturity of 37 years (likely to revision in the future.) But the plan worked only one year. In 1931, Chancellor Heinrich Brüning was able to impose a moratorium on reparations payments and more Germans paid nothing. Another blow to the finances of England struck the Soviet Union, which refused to recognize the debts of the Royal Government and temporary — 13200000000. gold rubles (and taking into account the debt of governments of Kolchak, Wrangel Island, Miller and other "governments" of — 18.5 billion. gold rubles). As a result of the First World War, the major world powers — Britain, France, Germany and Italy, have become debtors of the United States.
More U.S. earned the second world war. September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland on September 16 is the Polish government and the high command fled the country to Romania. Together with them from Poland has been taken out of the country and gold in store. Soon he came from Romania to France. France was also the gold of the defeated Belgium. After France was defeated, Polish, Belgian, Dutch part of the gold, and m
ost importantly, gold in store French State Bank, which was at the end of May 1940 2 billion. 477 million dollars, were taken to the French Africa. In November 1942 in Dakar Posada Americans, in 1943, gold was transported to the United States and moved into storage in Fort Knox. Even before the Americans evacuated Norwegian gold. However, it was not so much in front of the German occupation, the country had 84 million gold dollars.
In addition, it should be noted that the gold, silver and jewels are different from Europe, like themselves flocked to the United States. Their owners, private individuals, companies, transferred their savings in non-hazardous location — the U.S., since the war raging in Europe. Thus, in October 1939, the U.S. Federal reserve system stored gold worth 17 billion. bucks, then by February 1940, this amount has increased by a billion (then Bucks cost about 25-26 as modern ones). Since the beginning of active hostilities in Europe, the influx of gold in the United States has grown even more. Thus, only for 10-14 May 1940 in the United States received a gold for 46 million dollars. When it became obvious that France is doomed, the flow has increased even more — for June 3-4 in the United States received a gold for 500 million dollars.
It should also be the fate of that South American companies earned on the financing of the Third Reich. During the war, the U.S. enriched by supplying weapons and military materials to the Allies. When war ended, the United States gave war-torn European countries already vzaem. Europeans take on loans South American products. The U.S. economy grew, and again vorachivalis funds were given to the growth of already junior partners. So, December 6, 1945 between the United States and Britain signed the loan agreement, which entered into force on 15 July 1946. According to it, the British gave 3 billion. 750 million dollars. Article 6 of this agreement forbade the UK before 1951 to borrow from other countries and use the funds to pay off other loans. The 9th article is forbidden to use this loan for the purchase of non-US products. United States immediately after the entry into force of the contract raised the price of their products. Britain has lost up to 28% of the loan amount due to the increase in food prices. Part of the money was lost due to exchange dollars for pounds (more than 6% of total).
In 1947, the South American Municipal Secretary George C. Marshall was nominated "European Recovery Program" (Marshall Plan). The plan went into effect in 1948 and enveloped 17 European countries. Almost U.S. put them under its own financial and economic control.
So Makarov, U.S. Steel after the second World War, the richest country in the world, with the previously robbed, robbed and enslave much of the world. One must also consider the fact that this South American financial-industrial groups to take an active role in the preparation and fueling fires first and second world wars. Two world wars have allowed the United States to establish control over the money of the planet.