The process of the collapse of the Russian Union of Socialist Republics was launched back in 1982, or rather, began its active phase, the same degradation processes have been launched under Khrushchev, only if they were able to "freeze". Died "gray cardinal" Suslov, and then Brezhnev. The Soviet Union, many quite suddenly, headed Andropov, former head of the KGB.
It took quite intensively for the strengthening of the country, decided to major reforms, but because it almost did not have time to do, it is difficult to judge them — they were the strengthening of the Union or not. His idea of restoring order at all levels of governance, including the "extras" could be called proper if it were not for her organization. Dealt a blow to the already formed in the Soviet Union "of an independent principality," local clans range — launched the "Uzbek", "Sochi", "fish" and a number of other cases. But the mistake was that things did not advertise, did not do their indicative, that people beheld that is punished and "extras." An example was necessary to take from the era of Stalin or China where corrupt senior shot while in public. USSR, not even "wash their dirty linen in public" did for myself only worse. Well, not continued good cause, nomenclature, particularly government-leaning, it was necessary to "clean" and further, for it was she was one of the "shock troops" of "democratic revolution" in 1991.
Another mistake was how the organization "of discipline," catching truants because they are not intimidated by anyone, and their effect was faster turnaround. At this time, began to weaken centralized planning and rassredotachivaniya, introduced more liberal pricing mechanisms, eventually the prices have gone up. Andropov and Gorbachev pushed upward. More Andropov did not have time to do anything, he was seriously ill and in February 1984, died.
Chernenko which under Brezhnev was listed as his "successor", and really did not have time to do anything, because was a man of almost incapacitated and in March 1985 "moved" to the cemetery. Here came the high point of Mikhail Gorbachev, here the interests of "young reformers" and the West coincided. The man is completely driven and controlled. Specifically when it processes all the USSR's collapse was launched in full force.
Moreover, the "international conspiracy" organized a successful diversion — has brought down the price of oil and the Soviet Union at that time already was sitting on the "oil curse". Gorbachev himself struck the second money source Russian budget — liquor monopoly, starting anti-alcohol campaign. This was a good provocation — the second a powerful blow to the budget and the "build-up" of the population.
To overcome the crisis, began a campaign of "perestroika and speed." True, about the "acceleration" will soon be forgotten, at the helm since Stalin was not Beria, who could lead a "ship" in the worst storm, and the full "dummy". A "restructuring" for some reason did not begin in the economy, in order to eliminate dependence on crude oil, and in politics. Again began to "expose" of Stalin and his era has begun rehabilitation of various TUKHACHEVSKOGO, Bukharin, Zinoviev and Trotsky, etc., however, did not venture to rehabilitate, but made full use of his work, the arguments in the fight against "Stalinism". Its the same model used for the purpose of suppression of resistance in the party-state apparatus, destroying enemies of perestroika under the slogan "fight the bureaucracy." Gorbachev identified themselves as "revolutionaries" were even published a brochure with a soft-spoken title: "October and transformation: the revolution continues. 1917-1987 ".
At the same time began "glasnost" — printed that accumulated for decades in the offices of the creators, something that was previously unacceptable. Started printing and various White emigre literature. Was to promote a "co-operation", it declared heritage NEP, which turned Stalin, violating "the Leninist path." In the end, was legalized "gray economy", which is already done in the previous period, the country swept the muddy jumble of cooperatives — program "NEP-2." In this system begin to pump gostovary arrived municipal sector. In the same period the West "left" of the USSR gold in store, as his time Gold Russian Empire.
Gorbachev wrote off huge debts of the "Third World" to the Soviet Union and this time got a lot of credit in the West. All they have left "in the sand", or rather, back to the West, because they were not used for the modernization of the country, but simply "ate."
In the area of foreign policy, the era of continuous donations — Gorbachev behaved as if because the USSR was defeated in a terrible war, surrendering everything and everyone. Troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan, from Eastern Europe, abandoned bases, towns, infrastructure, which cost our people full-length billion rubles. Was handed the GDR, all pro-Soviet regimes was "hunting" for the Communists and the "pro-Soviet elements". Walked endless "perestroika" in the army, associated with the reduction and liquidation of military programs, production technology ("Conversion"), a reduction of personnel. However, when experienced managers release the money, the resources could be used skillfully, but just braked to destruction. Then started the decline of authority applets army, the army poured buckets of "slop", undermining her mental stability, confidence in their government.
Inside the Soviet Union abolished art. 70 of the Criminal Code — the anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda, in 1987, the release of all "political" prisoners. Ultimately, freedom of action received various nationalists, separatists, dissidents, activists NTS (People's Labor alliance Russian Solidarists), etc. Of course, they are also engaged in activities aimed at the destruction of the Union.
Rapidly "reconstructed" cinematography, which began with the fervor "liberate" people's minds, like journalism, filled with "progressive" material. Then take a ride the wave of "ridiculing" the Union, its achievements, Russian general, their "stupidity", "laziness", "incompetence", "backwardness" in this made for them the name of the whole cohort of comedians.
Like mushrooms after a rain, "there were" various parties, movements, associations. Skillfully played the card of nationalism — provocations with "popular" unrest in Kazakhstan, Armenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Moreover, the sample of the army and security services to restore order were hesitant, once zealous pulls. Nationalists and separatists practically encouraged rather than suppress th
eir activities in the bud.
In place of the Gorbachev prepared and shift — Boris Yeltsin, more meaningful figure. Training had a good — make an image "offended" by Gorbachev, whom the people are suspected of "bad", this had a few scandals, to "promotion". Then skillfully as before the February Revolution of 1917, organized a lack of goods, causing discontent of the people.
And in the end played a "spectacle of the Emergency Committee" — even though all the "rebels" was introduced into the power of Gorbachev himself. August 18, the other day "coup" they came to Gorbachev, debating, get the latest annotations. And on August 19 declared themselves the Municipal Emergency Committee. According to the "oversight" on the air comes out, Yeltsin called for resistance. Yes, as Lenin on the armored car, armored personnel carriers with Yeltsin, which was the performance of clean water. Thousands of people believed and went to the white house army and intelligence agencies have already laid out the "democratic" propaganda, stayed away, some even supported mass. And the parts that would have complied with the order of restoring order, have not received it. Although the experience of China states that if there is political will on the similar "p-revolutionaries" have no chance of winning. August 21 "coup" surrendered, the people rejoiced, not realizing that his hands pull down his power.
"Coup plotters" did not even try, soon released, but some apparently knew a lot, "committed suicide." 8 December 1991, Yeltsin, Kravchuk and Shushkevich signed the famous Bialowieza agreement — the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the development of the Commonwealth of independent states (CIS). Although these figures do not have the legal rights to this action. Gorbachev could order them arrested, well, for treason could safely send them to the firing squad. But he did not and stated liquidation USSR, cede power voluntarily. In the end, the Soviet Union fell-eaten "worms", as in his time Russian Empire …
Kara-Murza SG Russian civilization, from the beginning to the present day. Moscow, 2001.
Yuri Mukhin Code Yeltsin. Moscow, 2005.