How to take bribes under Stalin. From the history of the fight against corruption in Russia

How to take bribes under Stalin.  From the history of the fight against corruption in RussiaA new twist in the "Leningrad case"

After the war, Stalin faced a brand new war — against corruption. So it is not just and not because of fear of losing power, both involve some historians, Stalin began to "tighten the screws" after Russian majestically. And it is not news to the history of the world — that the devastation of war everywhere and at all times the country's recovery begins with the consolidation of power (directly to the state of emergency and even dictatorships) to pause occurred during the war, disorder and disintegration of the management of the economy and society. By the way, due to the use of official position for personal gain has been brought to justice, even the chief military commander — Marshal Zhukov. And just handed them to the state "trophies from marauding activities in Germany" rescued him from the terrible criminal punishment, though not relieved of a serious decline in the party and the state of the strip. But the most serious was the "Leningrad Affair" — a case of nepotism in the governing bodies of the party and the country, which was a direct route to the emergence and flourishing of corruption. Its apex is the abuse of public office for personal gain, you begin benefits and privileges, and ended with the bribes and the reincarnation of municipal own pockets to own …

No, I'm not mistaken. "Leningrad Affair" in reality — the first case of corruption in the leadership environment from top to bottom … At first, like everyone else, I did not know and did not realize. But now, having familiarized with a number of party documents, I come to the conclusion that a purely political prosecution, perhaps fabricated, but the corruption side of things just took place! In any case, the acts committed by the accused apparently made for corruption. (I say this on the basis of party documents, not on the basis of the investigation that never and nowhere in the world has benefited tribute trust. Party documents also appeared in an atmosphere of free explanation of the relationship, and for a long time before the institution of the investigation file.)

But … the first such, seemingly safe example. Agree, it is one thing when it comes to the allocation of funds, for example, to improve the criterion in kindergarten and quite another when the funds needed to restore the scorched orphanage inmates which, unlike the kids, having a roof over your head, have nowhere to go. It seems, of course, that you ought to assist bloodless guys. But thanks to the relations of nepotism often first chief allocates funds are not an orphanage and kindergarten, so how to stroll beloved grandson … It seems nothing special, but specifically with such safety facts corruption starts eating away like rust, the entire government.

Catch dealers in similar sins difficult, but possible. To eliminate the possibility of nepotism or bribery in the middle of the inspectors, in Stalin's time to test the 1st and the same case is assigned to multiple-independent commissions. They served some material checks are one main person, and, for example, each member of the Politburo. This virtually eliminates the possibility of hiding the results of audits and on many fronts (due to publicity) ensure the application of measures honored. If someone managed to neutralize all these commissions, in this case (after the determination of collusion), no one could expect no mercy, because organized crime is punished much harder … and undeniable! It was a typical party tribunal which did not know the statute of limitations, as is the case in our days are. For example, with Mavrodi international swindler in especially large sizes, which, if not held to account before a certain date, then later on to get his law will no longer be …

"Leningrad Affair" began with the Resolution of the Politburo February 15, 1949 due to the irresponsible self-activity undertaken for the All-Union Trade Fair in Leningrad (from 10 to 20 January 1949). Really did not have counted, and instead there was a stock sell their products spoilage and loss … for $ 4 billion. rubles. And it is in the criteria terrible postwar manufactured goods and food hunger. Plus squandering revealed significant travel funds for a trip to the northern capital of Governors from across the country. Simply put, many simply went to "break away from the affairs" and gulnut in a big way … In other words, even this was viewed corruption. Further — more!

The judgment stated: "Based on our audit found that the Chairman of the RSFSR Council of Ministers comrade. Rodionov, MI together with the Leningrad leading comrades with the assistance of a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) comrade. Kuznetsova AA arbitrarily and illegally organized wholesale fair-Union with the invitation to the role of its trade organizations and regions of the Russian Federation, including the most remote, right up to the Sakhalin region, representatives of trade organizations of all Soviet republics. At the fair, were brought to the sale of products worth about $ 9 billion. rubles, including products that are distributed by the Federal Government on the state plan, which resulted in a waste of municipal funds and commodity infringed the interests of a number of territories, regions and republics (And this corruption … and still is! — NAD.) In addition, the holding of fairs dealt harm to the state in connection with bolshennymi and unjustifiable costs municipal funds to the company and fair to move participants from distant places to Leningrad and back. (And this is corruption!)

Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) considers the main perpetrators of anti-state acts designated alternate members of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) Comrades Rodionov and Popkov and a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) ie AA Kuznetsova, who violated basic framework of state and party discipline …

Politburo believes that the above-mentioned anti-state actions were the result of the fact that the Comrades Kuznetsova, AA, Rodionov, Popkov a patient bias, expressed in flirting with the Leningrad organization, in an attempt to present themselves as defenders of special interests of Leningrad, in an attempt to make the mediastinum (in other words obstacle to a specific relationship. — NAD) between the CC and Leningrad organization …

In this regard, it should be stressed that so Popkov, being the first secretary of the Leningrad Regional and City do not want to provide a link of the Leningrad party organization with the Central Committee, the Central Committee of the party does not inform about the situation in Leningrad and, instead of so bring questions and suggestions specifically CC gets in the way around the Party Central Committee, the path of obscure back-room, and from time to time and rvacheskih songs performed by various self-appointed "chiefs" of Leningrad, like Comrades Kuznetsov, Rodionov and others.

In this light, should be considered only now become known that the Central Committee of the Ascension offer "patronize" over Leningrad, which turned in 1948 so that her ass to the NA Voznesensky, and improper behavior that Popkov, when he ties the Leningrad Party organization with the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) tries to replace personal connections with the so-referred to as the chief Kuznetsova AA.

Politburo believes that such methods are an expression of gro
up activity … "(Resolution is given in abbreviated form.)

The more carefully reread this Decision, the thoroughly imposed following conclusion: in such a situation inevitably creates conditions for the emergence and development of relations on the principle of "you — I, I — for you," "how not poradet native little man?" But this there is corruption!

By the way, Kuznetsov, using the post of Chief of the Central Committee on Personnel, was setting "their people" — "Leningrad" to the highest positions in the country. This explains the fact that the repression in connection with the "Leningrad affair" is not limited to Leningrad, and toured throughout the Union. Corruption is then cut down at the root, in order to prevent metastasis and often grabbing uninfected more places, in other words bystanders. However, it already was an overlap of local figures on a "what if something happens", and even ordinary settling. But for all that later, too, had to answer!

It is necessary to draw attention to itself and only a fundamental fact, namely: February 21, 1949 at the plenary session of the Leningrad Regional Committee in connection with this Regulation held a thorough discussion. And, you see, when showdown at the Plenum PS Popkov did not make excuses, and just said, "that the absolute number of issues that were of regional and city party committees, went to the Central Committee by Kuznetsova. I considered this a correct statement. I beheld zeal Kuznetsova control of the Leningrad organization … Here are some facts. I Kuznetsov friend at one point called and indignantly shouted at me (I for one had to yell to notify the Party Central Committee): "What do you build a road to Terioki? In order to make it easier to for you to go to the country? "I said," For a resort area, need a way. There are solutions to the Leningrad City Council session and the City Party Committee. " "This is all you have invented. Such issues should be coordinated with the Central Committee … "Now, I understand that by requiring agreement on such issues with the Central Committee, the Central Committee for he understood himself.

Comes Verbitsky and says: "I was with Alexei Alexandrovich Kuznetsov, who asked me, on what basis do you want to get a tram from the avenue Engels?" Verbitsky said then: Kuznetsov such questions, please consult with him … "(cited in abbreviated form.)

Note! All this would have been tolerable, if instructed by the Central Committee Kuznetsov responsible for the situation in Leningrad, but in fact he did it voluntarily, as chief of the Personnel Committee. Moreover, pressured by using its influence in the selection, nomination and substitution of the people. And it is not only not doing their job, and sought to address all the issues alone, hiding it from the Central Committee and acting because it was profitable to him first: first, from the standpoint of the common cause, and, later, from the standpoint of personal career and personal well-being and … it also led to a complex of corruption, because if something can be superior, it is possible and subordinates! Obviously, in respect of its employees.

This conclusion is well traced by the example of the second secretary of the Leningrad City JF Kapustin, who matter-of-factly said, "In our system, it was this: the trip — so definitely go (in Moscow by Kuznetsov. — NAD). The last time I came to welcome the delegation from the Moscow party conference, again did not fail to visit him. Why should come in? For what? "At that Malenkov quite rightly said," It's not that you are not walking or strolling to Comrade Kuznetsov — he was secretary of the Central Committee: why do not you come? But the fact that the Central Committee is not aware of what you read as with Kuznetsov, which gave instructions Kuznetsov. All this is kept to the group … I have the Secretariat of the Central Committee, have offices there Politburo, and regardless of the importance of the issue resolves Secretariat, Bureau or Politburo. You are supporting a different order — the sole solution to the problem, sole guidance. That's what this is about. " (I quote from the reduction.)

Malenkov rights as specifically with such vneglasnyh debate begins corruption. And who does not think that, that is never overcome corruption.

The historical fact

Natives of Leningrad (for example, in the face of the Voznesensky) and Gosplan not adhered to the rule: friendship is friendship, and service service! As a result, "it turned out that the chairman of the State Planning Commission systematically underestimated the Ascension plan one other ministries and inflated. Accordingly, those whom he adored, was a great performance, bonuses and other delights. " But the other — it is better not to remember …

How heavy for the country like "Leningrad tradition", for people to feel yourself up to date!

What was

All proceedings in the "Leningrad Affair" took place in a purely public order and did not address that part of the "cause", which brought in six months authorities have launched a criminal investigation for political proclivities character, whose aim was the creation of the latest Party (RCP) and registration on this basis in the RSFSR so … tell vsepolnotsennuyu republic. In other words, "Leningrad" was tried for the political plans, which ultimately meant that Yeltsin did in 1980-1990 gg., Namely: Russia declared independent in the Soviet Union, Yeltsin destroyed by Russian Alliance and, therefore, did act that should have been prosecuted to the article, "Treason" by destroying the constitutional foundations of the Soviet Union, as expressed in the change or overthrow of the social order.

In other words, tried and sentenced "lendeltsev" for attempting the creation of that 40 years later still did Yeltsin and his allies in the form of the Communist Party Polozkova — Zyuganov and the independent states of the Commonwealth of accident (CIS), from which the peoples of the former Soviet republics can not come to himself until now. But it was a completely different and more than a horror story, set aside for the second plan even corruption issues discussed above.

In addition to the corruption component "Leningrad Affair" identified at the highest party and municipal level, in the same years was uncovered a series of "cases" of an economic order in the acts of ministries, central boards and companies producing products specifically overvalued and daily demand. This is the first "Bakery Business", "weaving", "Wineries", "Music Business" and "money-spinner", which had a purely corrupt character in the entire country. By the way, the main hero of these "cases", penetrated the machinations of parasitic parts, was a famous Russian detective Theodore S. Nevzorov …

"Bakery Business"

It seems to be secretly "extras" are doing something — "lower classes" here (!) Begin to repeat it. While there are "extras" just prepare, imagination observation of the "bottom" has already draws the fact that the "higher-ups", they say, has long been doing … Indeed, if you can "top" in relation to his subordinates, then why can not it subordinate to their "lower classes"? Corruption — like electricity — instantaneously across all channels of power! And if someone gets in her way, she is here turns it into "his" or throws away (!) Of their own system — particularly as nepokorlivyh simply destroys. Because I call corruption a cancer of society …

In general, a tumor that can arise at all levels of government where power has weakened some reason or when the society was completely without power, as is the case after natural d
isasters, and especially after public disturbances occurring during wars and revolutions.

Here is a heavy setback after majestically Russian and fell to the winner, but a hungry Russian Alliance. And the first of the cases for which came from corruption, of course, was the "bread case." So how hungry people are for the bread were ready to give his last savings!

Identification of "parasites", truly sucks the juice out of the remaining people, began with a study of Nevzorov documents, according to which, during the 1945 People's Commissars of the USSR singled out the baking industry flour, sugar, condensed milk, butter, saccharin, raisins, jam, canned meat and other products of particular relevance to quickly return to the weakened during the war, the people the right set of vitamins.

Incubator and a peddler of corruption in the food industry of the Russian Federation was the distribution system "Rosglavhleb" with the head of the supply department Misha Isaev. In its extensive network of criminal groups (except deputy chief of Shulkina BN, accountant department, DA Rosenbaum and director of the Metropolitan interregional basis Glaucus Buchman EM) of officials from poorly controlled trusts Altai and Tatarstan, as Arkhangelsk , Bryansk, Ivanovo, Stolichnaya, Orenburg and Rostov regions. There were more than 20 people …

Attention Nevzorov and his fellow intelligence agencies lured nice young lady who razozhravshiesya Isaevskogo handsome changed as gloves. Still, when one swung from hunger, these in restaurants and in the cottages tables laden with food and drink, which made it possible to arrange almost competitive selection weak little in the middle of the floor. So much so, that the wife found out about Isayev chalet "choral orgy 'wife … and hung up. Isaev same and his companions on the easy life, to hide the real cause of death, buried her as died of a sudden heart attack …

Asks, and with what resources, and was taken from all of this?

The answer was up to a maximum simple: with the world on the threads — shirt to the body. Indeed, for being designated trusts all the flaws stand out without delay, and even beyond the statutory, their nachalnichki "rolls back" the capital's authorities for follow-scheme.

Discharged, for example, some bread-baking plants or candy factory a thousand kilos of flour or sugar, but let go of, say, only 950 kg of sugar, leaving Isayev as "rollback" 50 kilos. To cover this shortfall (and even profit from the acquired deficiency), the manufacture of, say, the liver produces glucose failure to invest: in 1000 instead of going to the creation of 900 kg … in the hope that the taste did not find much in a kilogram of sugar cookies — 90 g or 100! This can be done only been in the lab.

Or take the cakes 100 thousand rolls, each of which has 10 units instead. raisins and instead went 8 30 grams of sugar — 25 and so on and so forth

Practiced and direct theft of an incomplete posting of incoming food that in the post-war criteria just explained how the loss of rasplombirovannyh undetected in the way of cars and apparent robbery in unloading "Freight Train" by members of numerous gangs who were hired to work as decent human beings, but then all of a sudden disappeared in an unknown direction and, of course, not with empty hands. In the end, the material and the responsible persons had to be acts of injury. Obviously, in this situation, many of them stolen themselves, and wrote off all the bandits.

"Saved" in this rapidly makarom products sold in the market and through the commercial chain stores.

It seems that there may be, but the detective Theodore Nevzorov and his comrades in the secret services managed to expose not only been dubbed the metropolitan center of the criminal food-MI Isayev, and related Isaev senior provincial lovers arrange for themselves "the sweet life" due to a slightly bitter tears of ordinary people.

According to the agents'

List the criminals, corrupt officials and their "business" on the documents of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. So:

"LG Leiderman, a spokesman for the Rostov Trust, under the criminal conspiracy with Isayev and other employees of the Central base and supply department" Rosglavhleb "received the baking industry for companies of various goods to the amount of 123.7 thousand rubles, but in the mountains. Rostov-on-Don has not delivered them. Part of the funds for these stolen products it (in agreement with Sec. Accountant supply department Glaucus Rosenbaum) listed through Moscow gostrudsberkass cash. Part of the products have been written off by the creation of a separate bakeries as Tipo spent at the ready baked goods.

Frolov AE, working as Managing Archangel trust the baking industry in 1945-46. received from the base "Rosglavhleb" food products in the amount of 86,928 rubles, of which 66 569 rubles trust they are not delivered and stolen.

In a similar way were looted and foodstuffs:

representatives of the Mongolian Trust baking forwarder Kurochkin Savoderov-FN and Tsanin YA.T. — In the amount of 183 thousand rubles (their Kurochkin-Savoderov — by 136 thousand);

Chief Engineer of the Altai, and then managing the Bryansk trust "Rosglavhleb" Dashkovskiy MI — In the amount of 10,600 rubles;

forwarder Buzuluksky bakery Orenburg region Ad
vak SM — Amounting to 94 thousand rubles, etc.

In addition, the investigation into the case revealed that Isayev, MI on the orders of the Soviet Union Minpischeproma number 104 of 03/18/46 he received from the Capital Trust "Biscuits" 30 vehicles to be sent under the order of a series of trusts Russian Federation. According to the criminal agreement with the manager's office of the Metropolitan Transportation Trust Melamed GY for sending the car trusts they received bribes from their representatives at the rate of 7 thousand rubles per car. Altogether they received about 200 thousand rubles. For example, the same Leiderman for 10 cars passed Melamed bribe 70 thousand rubles. Documented Leiderman reported so that Tipo designated amount spent on the repair of machinery, which he created in the enterprises of Moscow in person. False documents for a fee was befitting him forwarder Central Database "Rosglavhleb" Rabinovich IZ During the holiday cars Buzulukskaya KhLEBOKOMBINAT with his representative Spevakov Isaev received 60 kg of saccharin, which he was to deliver to its own bakery. As a result, in order to hide the slack, so the stolen makarom saccharin was decommissioned on production …

Part of illegally acquired funds went to the dissolute lifestyle, namely, drinking in restaurants and on sprees with the ladies of easy virtue. The other part was spent on the purchase of jewelry, and household items. I Isayev was withdrawn BEAC book bearer the sum of 100 thousand rubles, and is described in the suburbs dear cottage, which was found and seized a cache of food products, and among them — bags of sugar and flour, a lot of canned meat and milk, hundreds of expensive bottles of wine, vodka and sausages on the 10th of thousands of rubles, and so on.

Isayev criminal group for the period from 14 April 1945 to 1946 inclusive have been kidnapped: Sugar — 1670 kg of flour — 8500 kg, saccharin — 670 kg of raisins — 310 kg of butter — 414 kg, condensed milk — 1,553 cans , jam and marmalade — 2605 kg, etc. — All at retail prices (according to the Order of the Ministry of Trade of the USSR № 550 from 14.12.1947 g) the amount of 1,139,230 rubles. 18 kopecks.

Capital City Tribunal 31 May 1949 sentenced:

Isayev and Rosenbaum to 25 years imprisonment following a defeat in the voting rights of 5 years;

their partners: Kurotshkina-Savoderova — to 15 years in prison;

Melamed, Spevak and Tsanina — to 10 years in prison;

Buchman, Leiderman, Frolov and others — also to long terms of imprisonment;

all — along with confiscation of property their home. "

So Makar, the harm caused by the offense to the state, was offset by a hundred percent. On similar results now do not even dream …

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