Subsequent mention of rubber appeared only in 1735, the year when the French traveler and naturalist Charles Condamine, exploring the Amazon, opened for Europeans geveyu tree and its sap. Members of the expedition discovered an unusual trees stand, fast curing epoxy, which thinkers of the Paris Academy later was given the title of "rubber". Once in the 1738th Condamine had brought to the mainland standards of rubber and miscellaneous articles thereof together with a detailed description of the methods of production in Europe began the search for methods of implementation of this substance. French rubber thread weaved with cotton and used as garters and suspenders. Hereditary British shoemaker Samuel Peel in 1791, the year of a patent on the ready fabrics impregnated with rubber substance in turpentine, creating a firm Peal & Co. At that time, there were the first experiments on the protection of shoe covers of such tissue. In 1823, it was a certain Charles Mackintosh of Scotland Fictions first waterproof, adding between 2 layers of fabric narrow piece of rubber. Cloaks rapidly became popular, received the title in honor of the founder and marked the beginning of a true "rubber boom". And soon in America in wet weather have worn over shoes awkward Indian footwear of rubber — galoshes. McIntosh continued until his death combine rubber with different substances such as carbon black, oil, sulfur, in an attempt to change its characteristics. But his experiments were not successful.
Made of rubberized fabric clothes, hats, vans and roof houses. But similar products was one drawback — a narrow temperature range of elasticity of rubber. In cool weather, such tissue hardened and could crack, and the warm, in contrast, softening, and transformed into a smelly goo. And if odezhku could be removed in a cold place, the owners of roofs made of rubberized fabric had to put up with nasty smells. So Makar, the fascination with the new material rapidly passed. A hot summer days brought ruin companies, has engaged the creation of rubber, since all their products are transformed into bad-smelling jelly. And the world is once again a couple of years has forgotten about rubber and everything associated with it.
Survive the second birth of rubber products has promoted the case. Who lived in America Charles Nelson Goodyear has always believed that the rubber is able to transform into good stuff. He hatched the idea for many years, stubbornly linking him with everything that came to hand: with sand and salt, even with pepper. In 1939, having spent all their savings and owed more than 35 thousand dollars, he headed for of success.
Walks legend that he discovered chemical process, which received the title of vulcanization came through on the stove a piece of forgotten cloak mac. Either way, but specifically the sulfur atoms combined molecular chains of natural rubber, turning it into heat-and cold-resistant, flexible material. Specifically, it is now customary to call and rubber. The history of this stubborn man has a happy ending, he sold the patent for invention, and paid all their debts.
During the life of Goodyear began the rapid creation of rubber. U.S. immediately took the lead for the production of galoshes that sold around the world, including Russia. They cost is not cheap, and could afford to buy them only rich people. The most curious that the rubbers used not to save from getting wet basic shoes, like slippers for guests, so they do not mess carpets and flooring. In Russia the first companies that make rubber products, revealed to St. Petersburg in 1860. German businessman Krauzkopf Ferdinand, who had already galoshes plant in Hamburg, about the prospects of a new market, investors sought out and did "The Association of Russian-American manufacture."
In the second half of the 19th century, Brazil was experiencing the peak of its own prosperity, a monopoly on the cultivation of rubber trees. Manaus, the last center of the rubber-bearing areas, became the richest city in the western hemisphere. That only cost a cool Opera House, built in the concealed jungle town. Its architects were doing the best of France, and building materials for it were brought from Europe itself. Brazil carefully guarded the source of their own luxury. For trying to smuggle the seeds of rubber trees was death. But in 1876, the year of Briton Henry Wickham secretly brought into the holds of the ship, "Amazonas" 70 thousand rubber tree seeds. These formed the basis of the first rubber plantation and incorporated in the UK colonies in Southeast Asia. So on the world market has a cheap natural rubber English.
Soon various rubber products captured the entire world. Were made of rubber conveyor belts, various belts, shoes, flexible insulation, rubber underwear, children's balloons, springs, gaskets, hoses, and much, much more. Similar to other rubber products do not exist. It has insulating qualities, waterproof, flexible, can stretch and contract. With all of this durable, strong, simple processed and resistant to abrasion. Redskins legacy was far more valuable than all the gold in the famous El Dorado. Without rubber impossible to imagine all of our technological civilization.
The main application of the new material received with the discovery and spread of the vehicle-first rubber, and later cars have tires. Despite the fact that the crews with tires made of metal were very uncomfortable, and made a terrible noise and shaking, a new invention was met with no hunting. In America, even forbade the crews on the powerful one-piece tires, as they were reputed to be very unsafe because of the impossibility of noise to warn pedestrians of the proximity of mc.
plate characters. This was done in order to townspeople could see and draw their own offenders to justice.
Create rubber grown many times over, but the need for it has continued to grow. About 100 years, scientists have people all over the world have found a method to learn how to make his chemical method. Uniformly found that natural rubber is a mixture of several substances, but 90 per cent of its mass is a hydrocarbon polyisoprene. These substances belong to the group of polymers — Macromolecular goods produced compound very many similar molecules more usual substances, called monomers. This rubber — it was of isoprene molecules. Under appropriate criteria molecule monomers connected among themselves in a longish, flexible strings chain. A similar reaction to the appearance of the polymer has been called polymerization. Another 10 percent of the rubber made resinous mineral and proteinaceous substances. Without their polyisoprene became very unstable, losing to air their valuable characteristics of elasticity and strength. So makarom to learn how to get artificial rubber, scientists had to decide three things: a synthesis of isoprene, polymerize and to protect it from decay acquired rubber. Any of these tasks proved to be very difficult. In 1860 a British chemist Williams got isoprene rubber, which was a dull liquid with a characteristic odor. In 1879, the year the Frenchman Gustave Bouchard, heated and isoprene with hydrochloric acid was able to perform the reverse reaction — get the rubber. In 1884, English scientist Tilden identified isoprene, spreading turpentine during the heating process. Despite the fact that any of these people has brought its own contribution to the study of rubber, sanctuary of its production remained unsolved in the XIX-th century, as were all discovered methods are not applicable for industrial production due to the low yield of isoprene, the consignment of raw materials, the difficulty of technical processes and a number of other causes.
First, the twentieth century, researchers have reflected, and indeed whether the need for the production of isoprene rubber? Is there a method get other hydrocarbons desired macromolecule? In 1901, the year of the Russian scientist Kondakov found that dimethyl left in the dark for a year, converted to rubber-like substance. This method later used during the First World War, Germany, cut off from all sources. Synthetic rubber came out very ugly properties, the production process was very complex, and the cost is immensely high. After the war, similar methyl rubber nowhere and never carried out. In 1914, the year of research scientists Matthews and Strange of Britain got a very good rubber from butadiene using iron sodium. But further experiments in the laboratory of their discovery did not matter, because it was not clear how, in turn, produce butadiene. Also, they were not able to do the installation for synthesis in the industrial criteria.
Fifteen years later, the answer to both these questions is found by our compatriot Sergey Lebedev. Prior to World War II, Russian factories produced from imported rubber about 12 thousand tons of rubber a year. After the revolution ended with the needs of modern government, conducting industrialization of the industry, in the rubber repeatedly grown. One tank sought 800 pounds of rubber, the car — 160 pounds, the plane — 600 pounds, the ship — 68 tons. Each year buy rubber abroad grew and grew, despite the fact that in 1924, it reached a value of 2-a-half thousand gold rubles per ton. Management of the country was concerned not so much to have to pay so much money, how much dependence, which put the Russian government suppliers. At the highest level, it was decided to create an industrial method for the production of synthetic rubber. To do this, at the end of 1925 the SEC proposed a competition for the best method for its production. The competition was international, but according to the terms of rubber had to be made of the goods produced in the Russian Union, and the cost to him was not to exceed the global average over the past 5 years. The competition results were summed January 1, 1928-the year in Moscow, according to the analysis provided samples weighing more than 2-pounds.
Sergey Lebedev well represented for all the difficulties of the production of synthetic rubber, but decided to take part in the competition. Times were hard, Lebedev headed the Leningrad Institute of the Department of General Chemistry, had to work hard because in the evenings, weekends old days and absolutely free of charge. Fortunately, several students decided to assist him. To have time to date, have all worked with great tension. Sophisticated experiments were carried out in the most bad criteria. The participants of this company later recalled that completely lacked nothing and had to do, or find without help of others. For example, ice for cooling chemical processes all together pricked on the Neva. Lebedev than their own specialty mastered the profession glassblower, fitter and fitter. And the same thing was moving. Thanks to many years of previous research Sergey outright refused tests with isoprene and braked to divinyl as the initial product. As vsedostupnosti raw materials for the production of butadiene Lebedev tried oil, but later still braked by alcohol. Alcohol was the most real feedstock. The main problem of the decomposition reaction of ethyl alcohol to butadiene, hydrogen, and water was in the absence of a suitable catalyst. Sergey imagined that they may be one of the natural clays. In 1927, the year while holidaying in the Caucasus, he constantly found and studied samples of clay. He found suitable to Koktebel. The reaction in the presence of clay gave them to find a good result, and at the end of 1927 has been derived from divinyl alcohol.
emical formulas. Many times while sitting in a concert, and the music being worried he quickly took out their own notebook or even a poster, and began to write anything down, and later cleaned everything in the pocket. The same thing could happen at trade shows. "
The polymerization of butadiene Lebedev were made using the English explorers to the presence of ferrous sulfate. At the final step, the acquired rubber combined with magnesium, kaolin, carbon black and by some other components to protect against decay. Since the finished product came out in small quantities — a couple grams a day — the work went almost to the last days of the competition. In late December, the synthesis of 2-kg rubber was over, and he was banished to the capital.
The jury sent graduated to teach the standards in February, 1928. They proved to be quite small. The results of the work of scientists from France and Italy, but the main struggle was between Sergey Lebedev and Boris Byzovaya, which received butadiene from crude oil. In total rubber Lebedev was the best. Getting butadiene from crude oil was more difficult to implement on an industrial scale at the time.
The event was a tremendous value for the Russian industry will reduce the consumption of natural rubber. Also, a synthetic product having novel properties, for example resistance to gasoline and oils. Sergei Vasilyevich was entrusted to continue research and to make industrial rubber production method. Work began again languid. But now the abilities of Lebedev was in bulk. Realizing the significance of the work, the government gave up everything you need. In the Leningrad Institute lab made synthetic rubber. During the year it was built an experimental setup that produced two to three kilograms of rubber per day. At the end of 1929, the development of an industrial process has been completed, and in February 1930 in Leningrad began construction of the first plant. Industrial laboratory, equipped with the orders of the Lebedev was the real center of science of synthetic rubber and immediately one of the best chemical laboratory since then. Here famed chemist later determined the rules that allowed his followers to determine the right materials for the synthesis. Apart from this, Lebedev had the right to choose for themselves all the professionals. On emerging issues he addresses himself to Kirov. The construction of the experimental plant was completed in January 1931, and in February, has already received the first 250 pounds a cheap synthetic rubber. In the same year, Lebedev bestowed the Order of Lenin and chose the Academy. It was soon incorporated construction of 3 more giant plants for one project — in Efremov, Yaroslavl and Voronezh. And before the war came factory in Kazan. The capacity of each of them was 10 thousand tonnes per year rubber. They were built around places where alcohol is carried out. The raw material for alcohol initially served food in the main potato. Per ton of alcohol required to twelve tons of potatoes, and for the production of tires for the car at the time took about five hundred kilograms of potatoes. Factory announced Komsomol construction and constructed with astonishing rapidity. At the 1932nd first rubber gave Yaroslavl factory. Initially, the criteria for the production of butadiene synthesis took place with difficulty. Needed adjusting because Lebedev together with its employees first went to Yaroslavl, and later to Voronezh and Efremov. In the spring of 1934 in Efremov Lebedev caught typhus. He died soon after returning home for the sixtieth year of life. His body was buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.
But the point to which he had such an important basis to develop. In 1934, the Russian Alliance released eleven thousand tons of synthetic rubber in the 1935th — May 20 thousand, and in the 1932nd — 40 thousand. Complex scientific and technological task was successfully solved. Ability to equip motor-vehicles tires produced in Russia played a significant role in the victory over fascism.
In second place for the production of synthetic rubber at the time were the Germans, who intensively preparing for war. Their creation has been adjusted at the factory in the town of Schkopau that after the victory of the USSR under the terms of reparations brought to Voronezh. Third producer was the United States of America following the first loss of 1942, the market for natural rubber. Living in the country of the rising sun captured Indochina, Malaya and the Dutch India, where over 90 percent of the natural product. After America's entry into World selling them has been suspended in response to the U.S. government less than three years, has built a factory 51.
Science also does not stand still. Improved methods of production and raw material base. Synthetic rubber for use divided into general and specific with specific qualities. There are special groups such as synthetic rubber latex curing oligomers plastisizer consistencies. By the end of the last century the world creating these products have gained 12 million tons a year, produced in the Sept. 20 countries. Right up to 1990 our country has delayed the first place in terms of the production of synthetic rubber. Half of the Soviet Union made of artificial rubber was exported. But after the collapse of the Russian Union, the situation has changed radically. With the leading position our country came first among the laggards, and later fell to the category of catch-up. In recent years improvements in this industry sector. Shred the Russian Federation on the world market for the production of synthetic rubber is now nine percent.