How was the Russian Crimea

How was the Russian Crimea

Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (1739-1791)

April 8, 1783 issued a manifesto of Catherine II of the Crimea to the Russian Federation

In Crimea there were riots constantly, creating concern on the southern borders of the Russian Empire. This lasted from 1774 to 1783, 10 years of the Crimean Tatars to conduct experiments on their own Khanate in existence as independent state. Experience has failed, showing complete failure and the ruling dynasty in the Crimea and Crimean Tatar elite, which was occupied only by internecine strife and anti-Russian intrigues. The result was the elimination of the insolvent countries and the accession of his country to Russia.

Make out the process and all that preceded it. In 1441 the first khan of Crimea — Haji Giray separated their possessions from the Golden Horde, and made himself independent ruler. Gireys dynasty descended from Genghis Khan and highly appreciated its grandeur and independence. But the rise of the military and political power of the Ottoman Empire led to the fact that the subsequent Mengli Giray Khan acknowledged the supreme authority of the Sultan of Turkey and now the Crimean Khanate became an ally and vassal of the Ottoman Empire.

Since the XV century raids Crimeans have become a real curse for the Russian country.

The economy of the Crimea was to a large extent is based on revenue generated from the raids to the north, the terrain inhabited by Russian, which over 3 centuries were plundered and driven away into slavery. Our home for a long time, not a lot that could oppose the Crimean raids. Defense zones in the south — "defense line" — made in the middle of the XV century and refresh in over XVI century served only partial protection against the raids, especially because during the Time of Troubles defense line fell into disrepair and was restored only in the late 30's XVI century.

British envoy D. Fletcher reports that the method Tatars fight was the fact that they were divided into several groups, and trying to attract Russian to one or two places on the border themselves attacked any other place left without protection. Attacking small units, the Tatars were put on horses stuffed in the form of people, so that they seemed more. According to Jean Margeret as 20-30 thousand Mongol horsemen to distract the attention of the main Russian forces, other troops devastated the Russian territory and vorachivalis reversed without enormous damage. Sent via spoken Khans tried to say in Moscow incorrect information about their own intentions and abilities.

Almost in the Crimean khanate established a special type of economy, which received the title of "raiding economy."

Wandering lifestyle most of the population of Crimea allow rapidly mobilize very significant force, exposing more than 100 thousand soldiers. In raids attended virtually all of the adult male population of the Crimea. But only the smallest part of it involved in specific combat. Most of the participants in the raid looting and capturing prisoners, mostly children. In just the first half of the XVI century, it was about 40 attacks of Crimean Tatars in the Russian area of the country. Raids in the main accounted for the time when Russian farmers participated in the field work and could not take refuge in fortresses rapidly: during the planting or harvesting. Occupied Russian people were sold on the Crimean slave markets. Crimea in the XV-XVI centuries was naikrupneyshim center of the slave trade, and the Russian government had to allocate significant funds for the redemption of the Orthodox, captured by the Tatars. Still, most of the prisoners was provided in Turkey, the countries of Near East, where they remained slaves for life.

We'll see if we chronicle the Crimean campaigns in Russia, we will see how to vsepostoyanstvom were razoryaemy southern lands of the Russian country, Ukrainian and Belarusian territories of Lithuania and Poland. In 1482 the Tatars captured and burned Kiev, in 1517 the Mongol army comes to Tula, 1521 — Siege of Moscow, in 1527, the ruin of capital land, 1552 — Crimeans again came to Tula, 1569 march on Astrakhan, 1571 — is taken and burned Moscow, 1591 — a new march on Moscow, 1622 — Tula ravaged land, 1633 — ravaged Ryazan, Tula, Kolomna, Kaluga, 1659 — a campaign to Kursk and Voronezh , 1717 — Mongolian troops reach the Tambov. And that's just the most horrible pages Crimean raids.

Khanate troops committed war hiking on Russian soil every 2-3 years, as production ended, acquired in the last raid.

In 1768, after Turkey declared war on the Russian Federation, it directly supported and the Crimea. January 27, 1769 the Mongol army of seventy Crimea Giray run across the Russian border. The Crimean Tatars were able to reach only Elisavetgrad (Dnepropetrovsk) Bachmuth, where they were stopped and dropped troops governor-general of Little Russia, PA Rumyantsev. Capturing two thousand prisoners, Tatars went beyond the Dniester. This raid was the latest in Russian history. February 5, 1769 Rumyantsev reported to Catherine II of the reflection of the Mongol attack. In 1770, negotiations began with the new Selim Giray Khan of the Crimea, which was offered independence Crimea on the results of the Russian-Turkish war. So our homeland hoped to split off from the Ottoman Empire, a strong ally and secure its southern border. But Khan refused, saying that the Crimeans are satisfied with the power of the Sultan and do not want independence. But reports of Russian intelligence officers testified that the Tatars were unhappy with the new Khan. PA Rumyantsev, in a letter to Catherine II wrote: "The man who brought the letter, predicts that the new khan very unloved Murzas and Tatars, and virtually anyone message does not have, and Tatars, who were in poverty in a dignified subsistence and horses are … Mongolian same company, though under the patronage of the Russian surrender and lust, but that is not in a position to ask for that today Khan keeps them in great rigor and to suppress that very watch. "

In the 1771-1772 years. in the course of military operations in the areas of Crimea Russian troops under the command of Prince Vladimir Dolgoruky defeated Khan's army, and Selim Giray fled to Turkey. New Crimean Khan was supporter of friendship with Russia Sahib Giray. As a result, November 1, 1772 in Karasubazar Crimean Khan signed by Prince Dolgorukov a contract in which the Khanate of Crimea was declared independent under the protection of Russia. By crossing the sea of the Russian Federation Black Sea ports of Kerch, Kinburn and Yenikale. Leaving garrisons in the Crimean towns and releasing more than 10 thousand Russian prisoners, the army Dolgorukova went to the Dnieper. The war ended with the signing with Turkey Kucuk Kainarji in 1774, according to which the Russian Federation withdrew the land from the Bug and Kinburn fortress at the mouth of the Dnieper to the Kuban and Azov to the Azov Sea and Kerch Fortress Yenikale which shut out of the Dark Sea of Azov. The Crimean Khanate was declared independent of Turkey. The Russian merchant vessels have the right to pass the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles on par with English and French. Turkey paid a contribution of the Russian Federation four and a half million rubles. The threat of Russian lands from the south was finally resolved. But the problem was not solved inconstancy in the Crimea, where the contr
adictions between multiple naikrupneyshimi Mongol clans led to the same internal conflicts that did not contribute to the establishment of the peninsula measured and peaceful life.

Friendship with Russia is constantly exposed to threats on the part of pro-Turkish aimed elite.

Began a string of coups komplotov and frequently changing rulers. Already in 1774 overthrew the pro-Turkish nobleman Sahib Giray Khan and elected Devlet Giray which in the summer of 1774, supported by Turkish troops invaded the Crimea naval landing. Right up to 1776, Devlet Giray was in the Crimea, but then was knocked out Russian troops under the command of A. Suvorov and fled to Turkey. Khan became a follower of the Russian Federation Shahin Giray. New Khan began to implement reforms aimed at westernization and modernization of the Crimea. But this only led to an increase in the internal conflict in an unstable state, and in 1777 began a rebellion against Shahin Giray. This immediately enjoyed Turkey, leaving no desire to return Crimea under his own power, Shahin Giray was proclaimed wrong for what he "sleeps on the bed, sits on chairs and did not pray, as befits a Muslim." In Istanbul, the Crimean Khan was appointed Selim Giray, which with the support of the Turks had landed on the peninsula at the end of 1777 in the Crimea began plainclothes war between supporters of the 2-khans. In Crimea entered the Russian troops who were engaged in bringing order to chaos enveloped the Khanate.

In the summer of 1778, the Turkish fleet of over 170 ships went to the Crimea to the Russian ban ships sailing along the Crimean coast, threatening to drown them in the event of non ultimatum. But the tough stance AV Suvorov, who prepared the Crimea on the defensive, forced the Turks to lead the fleet home. Balancing on the edge of the latest war ended March 10, 1779 signing of the Convention Anayly-Kavak RF and Turkey, where the two powers are arranging the withdrawal of troops from the Crimea, Turkey recognized the independence of the Crimean Khanate and Shahin Giray as its ruler.

Shahin Giray, who considered himself, in the words of Potemkin, the Crimean Peter majestically ruthlessly dealt with his enemies, than did large numbers of the discontented.

Samples Turkey reject Crimea continued. In 1781, the Ottomans inspired rebellion brother Khan — Batyr Giray, which was suppressed by the Russian army. Then began a new rebellion, proclaimed Mahmut Giray Khan, but his army was also defeated. Shahin Giray again returned to power, revenge former opponents than sparked a new rebellion. For the Russian government has been saying that Shahin Giray incapable of governing the state, he was asked to abdicate and pass the Crimea the Russian Federation, with which Khan, crushed fruits of their own bad government, agreed.

In February 1783 Shahin Giray abdicated, and the manifesto of Catherine II on April 8, 1783 Crimea became part of the Russian Empire. In June 1783, Karasubazar on the top of Mount Ak-Kaya, Prince Potemkin took the oath of allegiance to the Russian Federation Crimean nobles and representatives of all sectors of the Crimean population. The Crimean Khanate was not there. It was cooperated zemskoe Crimean government, which included Prince Shirinsky Mehmetsha, Haji Agha-Kyzy, Kadiasker Musledin Effendi. By decree of Catherine II from February 2, 1784 was established Tavricheskaya area under the control of GA Potemkin, consisting of the Crimean peninsula and the Taman. A February 22, 1784 by decree of Catherine II Mongolian murzas was granted Russian nobility, saved ground of possession, but were forbidden to possess the Russian serfs. This measure immediately made a huge part of the Mongol nobility supporters RF, while disgruntled Russian authorities chose to emigrate to Turkey. Serfdom was not introduced in the Crimea, Russian prisoners were freed. As the base of the Russian fleet in 1784 on the coast of the Crimea in the comfort of the Bay was founded Sevastopol — the "great city."

Began more than a century the era of the welfare of the Crimea in the Russian Empire.

During this period of time Crimea from a poor land, whose people lived off farming and looting neighbors turned into a thriving countryside, the resort, the beloved Russian emperors, the center of farming and winemaking, industrialized region, the largest naval base of the Russian fleet.

An integral part of, inhabited by Russian appeared, and remains one of the more fertile lands of her, but fate Crimea once again changed and in Russian during the process of reform voluntarist NS Khrushchev Crimea was unclear under the pretext presented to Ukraine. It is to this day generates a lot of problems, both in the domestic life of Ukraine, as well as in its relations with Russia.

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