In November 1941, Army Group "South", commanded by Field Marshal H. von Rundstedt, headed for another of success. November 19 advanced units of the division of 1st Panzer Group, Colonel-General E. von Kleist, breaking through heavy snow, took Rostov-on-Don. Reading the report of the capture of the victorious Rostov, Hitler came to believe that the gates are open and the Caucasus are in his hands. But after a while the Fuehrer vyznat that as a result of sudden and rapid head of the South-Western Front, commanded by Marshal of the Russian Union of SK Tymoshenko, Kleist was obliged to withdraw. Not understanding what happened at Rostov, Hitler did not give consent to the diversion of German troops to limit the Mius.
In December 1941, German troops were not able to execute and Hitler's order to capture the Soviet capital. Plan of Operation "Typhoon", during which German troops were to be in Moscow, was frustrated counter-offensive of the Red Army troops.
During the Battle of Moscow, German divisions suffered the first major defeat. Army Group "Center", commanded by Field Marshal von Bock, in January 1942, retreated, leaving already won their place.
Russian troops transition to the offensive in the battle of the Metropolitan stunned Hitler. The Fuhrer could not believe that his troops, who had gained the victory over the armies of virtually all European countries, retreating. Trying to change the situation, Hitler sent Field Marshal von Bock resigned.
On the eastern front developed situation that could disrupt the plans of the German command in the war against the Soviet Union. Because Hitler began to take positive steps that have to change the position, allow him to regain the strategic initiative and make the conditions for service in summer 1942 campaign decisive of success. One of the critical steps to anticipate the use of force against the troops of the Red Army's chemical warfare agents (CA) that existed in surplus in Germany, but the introduction of which was forbidden by international treaties.
But the decision of Hitler in the spring of 1942 was thwarted. Prevent the introduction of Nazi Germany chemical poisons on the eastern front CONTRIBUTE successful acts of Russian military intelligence and joint concerted efforts of the Supreme Commander IV Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
Reports of military intelligence called attention
First, in 1942 in Moscow by military intelligence officers operating in the capitals of some European countries, there have been reports in which reflected the transfer of German troops from France and Germany to the east front, indicates the number of divisions of the enemy, a place for their future deployment, the state of the military industry in Germany and production guns and ammunition.
January 24, 1942 in the center of Switzerland from a resident of Sandor Rado, managing the activities of residency, "Dora", the sources of which have access to the principal German military secrets, received a sudden message that activated the work in Germany chemical industry plants that produced poisons. A resident reported that he had received from the chief chemical protection Swiss military information ministry, which show a dramatic increase in the production of chemical warfare agents in Germany and symptoms that may indicate the preparation of special units of the German command for the introduction of chemical agents against the troops of the Red Army.
In his report their own encrypted Chief Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army Sandor Rado reported: "… The Germans are manufactured in large quantities following OS: mustard gas, phosgene, diphosgene, difenilarsintsianid …
Against all these OB except mustard in the German army protection is only three-layer filtering respirators. The filter consists of absorbent materials, two pieces of coke with 3 parts of hexamine or other absorbent material … Against LOST or mustard protection serves only protivoipritny suit. "
Sandor Rado has reported that it is not yet clear why, and for what specific purpose the Germans increased the creation of chemical warfare agents and promised to get updates on this topic.
In the Intelligence Agency of the General Staff of the Red Army Post Sh Rado interested professionals. Enthusiasm is the fact that Germany has to increase the creation of chemical warfare agents in the period when the German troops under the pressure of the Red Army suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Moscow.
On the reactivation of chemical industry plants in Germany and said some other military spies. These data could indicate that after the defeat of Hitler, German troops in the Battle of Moscow took the decision to use harsh on the Eastern Front of chemical weapons. The use of chemical poisons the enemy could bring down a significant amount of personal fronts, defending Moscow by Russian fighter to make a strong psychological impact, and even disrupt the Russian counter-offensive. The danger was great. Implications of the enemy chemical OB were unpredictable. Because S. Rado reports and other intelligence officers have caused the command of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army's attention.
The introduction of chemical weapons and of bacteriological methods in warfare was banned in the 1925 Geneva Protocol. The signing of the international treaty was caused by unsafe effects of the introduction of chemical gases during the First World War, when from poison gas affected some 1.3 million people, of which about 100 thousand were killed.
Post S. Rado, arrived from Switzerland, suggesting not only that Hitler may violate one of the fundamental international treaties, and plans by the unexpected introduction of chemical weapons to change the situation on the Soviet-German front.
January 28, 1942 Acting Chief of Military Intelligence, Major General AP Panfilov sent Sandor Rado further instructions read: "… Art. Doorway. There is evidence that Germans fundamentally decided in connection with the coming of the Red Army in droves to apply poisons on the Eastern Front. Immediately check through all your sources, especially through Groote, Lucy, Long and Zaltera:
a) whether the decision of Hitler and staff of the Supreme Command on the issue. At what stage and in what areas is planned to use chemical agents
b) Where does the transports of chemistry?
c) What are the factory in Germany and France produce poisons at the moment, what OS are carried out and in what quantity?
d) Are there any new OS? What?
All this data is sent out of the lineup. Director ".
On the basis of the data received by the Center from Sandor Rado and other residents, the chief of military intelligence prepared and submitted January 30, 1942 the members of the Municipal Committee of Defense a special message: "On the preparation of the German army to the use of chemical means."
Immediately Center February 1, 1942 sent to all residents in force in European countries, the job is to get information about the status of chemical industry in Germany, on the location of plants, which are carried out chemical warfare agents, and asked to produce chemical formulas of these agents.
Sandor Rado, which had great ability to obtain information on the composition of parts of the Wehrmacht, the additional task was oriented in what was required to establish:
"… 1) Do the Germans chemical division and where they are stationed.
2) What is the organization and armament of these divisions? … ".
The heads of the intelligence division of the headquarters of the fronts of the western areas were also targeted guidance on obtaining information that could indicate the preparation of the enemy the use of chemical warfare agents against the troops of the Red Army.
The officers of the intelligence service headquarters of the Western Front, commanded by General of the Army GK Zhukov, produced information that in a POW camp, which was located in Varvarovo (26 km south-east of the settlement Hillock Zhurkovsky), the Germans made some tests of a new type of agent.
Chief of Staff of the Intelligence Division of the front, Colonel James T. Ilnitsky reported to the chief of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army that the Germans carried out these barbaric tests for Russian prisoners of war, equipped with Russian gas masks. The experience ended disastrously — all prisoners of war who were forced to take part in this experiment were killed.
Information on Germany's preparations for use on the eastern front of chemical warfare agents came to the Center from the resident with the pseudonym "Conrad". February 2, 1942 "Conrad" said the Center that "… the Germans were prepared for shipment to the East front a huge number of containers for the transport of chemical poisons. The information obtained from the summary received by the Directorate of railways … ".
Performing a task chief of military intelligence, Sandor Rado in February 1942, has extracted the new information that the German army is not only taking steps that indicate the beginning of the preparation for the unexpected use of chemical warfare agents against the troops of the Red Army, and steps are being taken to strengthen the anti-gas protection case the response of the Russian command. According to S. Rado received by the Center February 12, 1942, "… in the German army anti-chemical training is hard. In every company has a non-commissioned officer as himinstruktora. "
Stavka demanded clear information about the plans of the enemy
February 16, 1942 order of the USSR People's Commissar of Defense Intelligence Agency number 0033 GS SC was transformed into the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army (GRU CA). GRU chief spacecraft and Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence was appointed Major-General AP Panfilov.
The new position of the central organ of the Military Intelligence in the General Staff, not only raised the status of the command of the military intelligence, as evidenced by the fact that military intelligence was an important body of work to ensure the highest political control of the USSR and the Red Army command information about the enemy, necessary for the efficient organization of defense and opening of the German High Command plans. The results of operations of military intelligence during the Battle of the Metropolitan testified that military spies are able to obtain valuable information about the enemy military, military-political and military-technical nature. Before the end of the war was still far away. The enemy was still strong. Supreme Command (WMC) required precise details of his plans. Getting hold of them could only military spies.
In accordance with the decision of the Supreme Command had been taken to improve the interaction GRU spacecraft with the General Staff, who often had to define the tasks of exploration enemy for planning and conducting combat operations the troops of the Red Army. GRU SC concentrated in the hands of the management of their own strategic, operational and tactical intelligence.
In the organizational structure of the GRU was created two spacecraft control: undercover and information. Employees of the company responsible for the first human intelligence. The Office comprises departments: German, European, Far Eastern, Middle Eastern, subversive, and tactical, military intelligence and the District. Second control also had to own part of the German, European, Far Eastern and other departments. The officers of this department developed the intelligence reports, special reports for the top political control of the USSR and the command of the Red Army, the daily reports, maps to the situation at the front, manuals and other documents. The number of troops GRU spacecraft has been increased.
It was scheduled to be a real improvement of military intelligence, put some puzzles to equip its forces by means of radio intelligence and transport aircraft, identified measures to increase the properties of the training of military intelligence.
At the time when the Intelligence Agency occurred organizational configuration, the Centre continued to receive reports of military intelligence on the situation at the front and the plans of the German command. Were in the midst of those reports and the reports of Hitler's plans for use of chemical poisons on the Soviet-German front. February 22, 1942, these data were used the command of military intelligence in the following special report "On the continuing training of the German army to the use of chemical means." This document is completely hidden military intelligence chief Maj. Gen. AP Panfilov sent IV Stalin, VM Molotov, GM Malenkov, NA Voznesensky, LP Beria, AI Mikoyan, LM Kaganovich AM Vasilevsky and BM Shaposhnikov.
"… Acquired Glavrazvedupravleniem data for February 1942 — reported to Major-General AP Panfilov, — confirm the continued accelerated training of the enemy the use of chemical agents against the Red Army.
Events German command directed towards the preparation of chemical warfare not only on the front, and in the deepest rear.
On the Eastern Front marked the arrival of chemical troops in Bryansk and Kharkov areas … According to a number of sources, the beginning of the war chemical is dated to the spring of this year in connection with the alleged offense. "
Significant evidence of enemy preparations for chemical warfare was extracted and the military command of German spies task own intelligence. Head of the Abwehr, Admiral FW Canaris sought "… to establish the degree of readiness of the Red Army to conduct chemical war."
Completing this particular message, the chief of military intelligence made a concr
ete conclusion: "… accelerate the training of the German army to the use of toxic substances is an indisputable fact."
In March 1942, in accordance with the assignment of the General Staff's military intelligence was to solve the following tasks:
"1. Germany's ability to find the human resources to continue the war in 1942.
2. Obtain data on the number and composition of the new formations, prepared by Germany in the hinterland.
3. Find terms of readiness of new units and the time of their transfer to the Eastern front.
4. Open the command of the head of German intentions on the Eastern Front for 1942:
a) Obtain information on the main line of defense, which must retreat German army on the eastern front and crotch defensive lines in front of the Volkhov, the Northwest, the Kalinin and Western Fronts Russian troops. Set the starting front line south of Bryansk and the Falcon, which the Germans were preparing to move in the coming spring of 1942.
b) Find the strategic reserves of the Germans, as the inside of Germany, and in the area occupied by it states.
c) Watch and timely warning of the transfer of the force from the 1st to the front of the other, and especially in the East front.
5. Set the actual production capacity in Germany in 1942 for the production of the main weapons (tanks, planes, artillery weapons).
6. Install fuel supplies to continue the war, and the ability to replenish it.
7. Install security personnel more fundamental specialties (aircraft technicians, experts at the tank units).
8. Determine what new weapons are prepared by Germany and can be used on a large scale in 1942 (new types of aircraft, tanks and artillery systems). "
Measures taken by the Stavka, improved the efficiency of military intelligence.
In the spring of 1942 from zabugornyh residencies Military Intelligence Center received a significant amount of valuable information about the enemy. Thus, by Sandor Rado of Switzerland received the reports not only on the direction of head impact on the Eastern Front in the summer campaign of 1942, and the status of chemical industry in Germany and the preparation of the German army to the use of chemical poisons on the eastern front.
Reports of military intelligence officers to prepare the German command of chemical attack on the troops of the Red Army continued to arrive in the Intelligence Department. Analysis of these data was performed spices Center, trained at the Military Academy of the Red Army Chemical.
March 11, 1942 on the basis of information acquired from the residents of the head of Military Intelligence Maj. Gen. AP Panfilov prepared by the Supreme Commander IV Stalin's another special message "on the ongoing training of German troops to chemical attack." GRU chief reported: "… the German High Command continues preparations for chemical warfare. Found that the chemical preparation of the German troops carried out on all fronts. Enemy units are located in the towns of Krasnogvardeisk, Chernihiv, Nizhin, Kharkov, Taganrog hard studying the use of toxic chemical substances and chemical protection measures. Part of the "SS" in Warsaw were ordered in a hurry to start-protection training. Marked version of the standard issue gas masks troops in 1941.
Lasts transfer to the Eastern front toxic substances and chemical munitions priemuschestvenno chemical shells and bombs …
The enemy continues a rich preparation for chemical attacks … ".
Specialists Head Intelligence Agency at the time prepared for the members of the Supreme Command and Chief of the General Staff of the special message "concerning the new chemical attacks and to prepare for mass use flamethrowers German army." In this Special report argued, not without reason, that the special units of the German army are on their own arsenal technical tools that allow them to be applied on a large scale chemical poisons.
The threat of the introduction of German troops on the Eastern Front of chemical survival was mainly intelligence agency separate area in the work of the officers and analysts. These spices continued to hunt down the signs of preparation for the application of the Germans against the troops of the Red Army fighting chemical poisons.
In the intelligence department staffs of fronts, operating on the Soviet-German front, focused additional guidance on opening events of the enemy, aimed at training the use of chemical poisons.
Follow the instructions of the Centre, the scouts have extracted new German gas mask «FE-41." The center of his painstakingly researched and handed spice Head of military chemical control of the Red Army.
Specialists Glavhimupravleniya so appreciated a new type of German gas mask:
"… Studies of the new German gas mask« FE-41 "showed that the mask represents for us a lot of enthusiasm, because he's in a constructive matter, especially on the defensive power is significantly different from samples of old times« FE-37. " By the time the true mask «FE-41" is the first foreign prototype that holds a universal protective power …
Very fundamentally determine what percentage of these German troops equipped with gas masks. In addition, for the forthcoming study of gas masks «FE-41" should get them very large amount … ".
By studying the reports of residents "Dora", "Conrad," "Edward," Report of the Chief Intelligence Division headquarters of the Western Front, experts at the Center concluded that the threat of the introduction of the German command on the Eastern Front of different poisons and poisonous gases continue to increase.
Churchill made a public warning to Germany
Reports of military intelligence, enters the Supreme Commander, subject to peer review in the main military-chemical control of the Red Army. The data, obtained by residents of military intelligence, have been validated and deserve special attention from the highest political control of the USSR.
But Stalin and the Red Army commanders had several options for preventing chemical attack Hitler on the Eastern Front. Supreme Commander could order troops to strengthen the anti-gas protection. But from the reports of military intelligence in the Kremlin, it was clear that the Germans made new OS, against which the Russian gas masks were not able to protect the personnel of the Red Army.
Stalin could come up with an official statement and say that in the case of Germany, the introduction of chemical agents against the troops of the Red Army Russian Government reserves the right to also use its arsenal against the German chemical weapons. But it is unlikely such a statement Stalin could stop Hitler. He had already made his decision and was ready to implement.
In Moscow, the third solution. In a strictly confidential manner IV Stalin through the Russian ambassador in London, IM The May informed the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill that Germany plans to use on the eastern front fighting poisons.
Churchill took seriously the disk imaging, which he said on behalf of Stalin's Russian salting. He, of course, aware of when Hitler get away with use of chemical poisons on the eastern front, then Germany will be able to use chemical weapons and against the inhabitants of the British Isles.
March 21, 1942 British Prime Minister sent a secret message to Stalin personally, in which reported: "… Ambassador Maisky I was at a luncheon last week and mentioned some signs that the Germans while trying to own the coming vernal can use gas against your country. After consulting with my staff and the chiefs of staff, I wish to assure you that His Majesty's Government will consider any introduction of poison gas as a weapon against Russia exactly as if the gun was aimed against u
s. I made a huge supplies of gas bombs to be dropped from airplanes, and we will not fail to use the bombs to be dropped on all suitable sites in West Germany, from the time when your army and the people are attacked similar means … ".
Next Churchill continued: "… It is necessary to distinguish the question of whether there should be a corresponding point us to make a public warning that this is our decision. A similar warning could have prevented the Germans from the addition of a new nightmare for so many people, in which they have plunged the world. I ask you to tell me what you think about this, and justify any signs of preparation Germans gas war this warning … ".
From the message of Churchill, Stalin learned that the British government alarmed by Hitler's preparations to use chemical weapons on the eastern front, and the British are ready to do action against Germany. Of Churchill's letters, it was clear that England can go on use of chemical weapons against the only cities in western Germany. Objects in the area of East Germany were struck by appropriate means of the Red Army. Churchill apparently so willing to share makarom with Stalin historical responsibility for the use of chemical weapons against Germany.
The main message in Churchill still lay in the fact that he shares the concern about the ability of Stalin occurrence of chemical war and is ready to support the Soviet Union in the war, in the case of the Hitler of his plans.
Head of the Head Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army Maj. Gen. AP Panfilov in March 1942 continued to report IV Stalin new facts training in Germany for chemical warfare.
March 29, 1942 Churchill, Stalin replied: "… I express my gratitude to you for the Russian government assurances that the British government would consider any introduction of poison gas against the Germans, the Soviet Union as well as if the gun was directed against England, and that the British military Air Force will not fail to use available immediately in the UK are huge supplies of gas bombs to be dropped on the appropriate objects of Germany … ".
"I think — Stalin, Churchill wrote — that would be entirely advisable, if the British Government acted in recent years with the public warning that Britain would consider the use of poison gas against the Soviet Union by Germany or Finland, as if the attack was made against the UK itself, and that the UK would respond to it using gas against Germany … ".
The principal's message was Stalin and Churchill's proposal, which indicated that: "… if the British Government wants, the Soviet Union is willing to turn a similar warning to Germany, bearing in mind the likely German gas attack on England."
Churchill accepted offers of Stalin. April 10, 1942 British Prime Minister wrote to Russian favorite: "… In the beginning of May I make a statement, in which the Nazis will be warned us about the use of poison gas in response to these attacks on your country. Prevention, of course, will be in a similar degree of concern and Finland, and it will also be mentioned, although I do not see how we'll get to it. "
The British Prime Minister has agreed to take in London Russian special on matters of defense and counter anti-gas in order to implement the transfer requests Stalin Russian Union of certain chemical defenses, as the means of chemical retaliatory strike.
Concluding his message, Churchill reported: "… Of course, if necessary, until we receive the message of this special regime will be able to give you first the coming steamer, at least, a thousand tons of mustard gas and a thousand tons of chlorine. Sprinkle mustard poses a great threat to the troops in the open field than for the inhabitants in the cities … ".
Stalin expressed his willingness to put things in London as a professional on its own chemical defense Deputy People's Commissar of chemical industry Kasatkina.
Exceptional perseverance in getting information about the chemical weapons of the German Army in the spring of 1942 showed a resident of military intelligence in Switzerland Sandor Rado. April 22, he said the chief of military intelligence, "… the Germans are prepared as a last resort to thwart Russia's resistance to the general application of chemical bombs containing tear gases …".
Supreme Commander IV Stalin continued his secret correspondence with the Prime Minister of England Winston Churchill on the subject. Favorites 2-Hitler coalition tried to work out a solution that would assist thwart Hitler's plans for use of chemical poisons.
11 May 1942 Churchill told Stalin: "… When I tomorrow evening (Sunday) will be speaking on the radio, I want to make a statement warning the Germans that if they begin chemical war against the Russian army, we, of course, immediately Germany retaliate in the same … ".
Churchill kept his promise.
May 14, 1942 one of the residents of the Russian intelligence, who had sources in Germany, reported to the Centre: "… A huge memory on civilian population of Germany has made Churchill's speech about the introduction of gas against Germany in this case, if the Germans would use poisons on the Eastern Front. In the towns of Germany strongly few reliable gasproof shelters that can envelop no more than 40% of the population … ".
According to a resident of the military intelligence, "… in the case of introduction of chemical weapons by Hitler on the Eastern Front during the completely real retaliation would be lost about 60 percent of the German population from the British gas bombs."
Fearing the inevitable retaliation, Hitler in 1942 refused to use chemical poisons on the eastern and western fronts. Thwart those plans have allowed successful acts of military intelligence, energetic reports GRU chief of the Red Army Supreme Commander and coordinated acts of Governors of the USSR and England. Disruption of Hitler's plans has permitted to save the life of tyscham Russian soldiers and officers, also warned the introduction of the German control during the second world war chemical agents against British and American troops.