Inca Empire and its fall

Francisco Pizarro in 1502, came to America in search of happiness. For seven years he served in the Caribbean, taking part in military campaigns against the Indians.

In 1524, along with Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and a priest, Hernando de Luque undiscovered organizes an expedition to South America. But the participants and can not find anything interesting.

In 1526, a second expedition, in which Pissarro namenyal gold from local residents. During this expedition, the Spaniards were captured three of the Incas, in order to make them translators. This expedition was very hard, They have seen and disease, and starvation.

In 1527, Pizarro enters the Inca city of Tumbes. From local residents, he learns about a lot of gold and silver adorning gardens and temples in the depths of their lands. Understanding that need military force to obtain these resources, Pissarro went to Spain and refers to Charles V for assistance. He talks about the incredible treasures of the Incas, which can be quite easy to get. Charles V gives Pissarro title of the governor and captain governor on all lands that he can conquer and control.

Even before the Spanish conquest of the Incas suffered from the Europeans on their continent. Smallpox decimated whole families have had no immunity to it the natives.

Around the same time dying Huayna Capac (Sapa Inca). The highest state post should go to someone from the sons of the principal wife. Chosen one of his sons, who, according to the monarch, could better handle the responsibilities. In Cuzco, the Inca capital, know proclaims new Sapa Inca — Huascar, which means "sweet hummingbird."

The problem was that the last years of his life the previous Sapa Inca held in Quito. The result is that a large part of the court lived in Quito. The city became the second capital, dividing tribal chiefs into two rival factions. Army stationed in Quito favored another son Huayna Capac — Atahualpa, which means "wild turkey." He spent most of his life with his father on the battlefield. He was a man of acute mind. Later, the Spaniards were surprised the speed with which he learned to play chess. At the same time, he was merciless, could serve as a proof of that fear of the court to incur his wrath.

Atahualpa showed loyalty to the new Sapa Inca. But refused to come to the court of her brother, perhaps fearing that Huascar sees in him a dangerous opponent. After all, the Sapa Inca demanded the presence of his brother next to him at the court. Refused the invitation, Atahualpa sent messengers instead of himself with expensive gifts. Huascar, possibly under the influence of hostile court to his brother, his brother tortured people. After killing them, he sent his army to Quito, Atahualpa ordered to deliver the power to Cusco. Atahualpa urged his loyal soldiers to arms.

Cusco army initially even managed to capture the rebellious brother. But he managed to escape and join his. In the battle of Atahualpa defeated those who captured him. Huascar collects urgently second army and sends it to his brother. Recruits with poor schooling could not be compared with veterans Atahualpa, and were defeated in a two-day battle.

In the end, being captured Atahualpa and Huascar in triumph comes in Cusco, and then was an accomplished massacre over their wives, friends and advisers hapless brother.

In 1532, Pissarro with Almagro returned to Tumbes along with 160-Tew heavily armed adventurers. In place once flourishing city they found only ruins. He has been hit by the epidemic, and then the civil war. In the five months Pissarro moved along the coast, on the way imperial plundering warehouses.

In the end, Pizarro sent to the court of Atahualpa. Nine of the men, fearful of being thrown into a mountainous area, in the realm of the Incas turned back.

Spaniards surprised Inca road, paved with stone slabs, with upset at the edges of the trees provide shade, as well as channels, lined with stone.

After learning about the movement of the white people in his country, Atahualpa invited them to her house. From the words of the Ambassador, he realized that the Spaniards look and are friendly. During a meeting with the Ambassador of Pissarro made gifts monarch and talked a lot about the world.

Pissarro placed his men in the open, on the main square of the city of Cajamarca. He sent Hernando de Soto to pay their respects Atahualpa, so that he tried to seduce him his offer to meet in person.

Atahualpa Spaniards blamed for the looting of warehouses and for its neglect of some Indians on the coast. What the Spaniards began to praise his martial arts and the use of their services. Atahualpa agreed to visit Pizarro in Cajamarca.

During this meeting, Hernando de Soto, would scare Atahualpa and almost ran over him on his horse to stay away in the immediate vicinity, so that a drop of saliva on the clothes horse fell Inca. But Atahualpa did not flinch. Later, he ordered the execution of the court, who showed fear.

Pissarro is following the example of Cortes, who conquered the mighty Aztec Empire by kidnapping the emperor, began to prepare their ambush.

Night Atahualpa sent 5,000 soldiers to block the road to the north of Cajamarca. According to his plan, he later admitted the Spaniards, he wanted to capture alive Pissarro and all his soldiers to sacrifice the sun god — Inti and horses left in the divorce.

At dawn Pissarro put their people in the buildings around the square. The wait was agonizing for the Spaniards, as tenfold outnumbered Inca scarecrow and overpowering. Later, as one of the witnesses admitted "many Spaniards instinctively because they overcame fear urinated in his pants."

At sunset, the area close to the imperial procession. Atahualpa bore 80 servants on wooden stretcher, inlaid with gold, and on all sides decorated with feathers of parrots. Monarch in robes with gold thread and covered with ornaments, seated, holding a golden heraldic shield with the Sun. There were dancers and musicians accompanying them. His entourage consisted of more than 5,000 soldiers (the main forces of the order of 80,000 soldiers who were out of town). They came without weapons.

Inca Empire and its fall

In the square, they saw only a Dominican monk robe with a cross and a Bible in the other hand. Royal council in Spain ruled that the Gentiles should be given the opportunity to convert to Christianity voluntarily, without bloodshed, and the conquistadors decided not to break the law. The monk explained the meaning of the Christian faith, the governor of the Incas, and the interpreter explained to him that he was asked to accept the religion of foreigners. "You say your God accepted death — responded by Atahualpa — and I still live," — he said, pointing at the sun crawls over the horizon.

Atahualpa took up the proffered prayer book. As far as he knew, the Spaniards appreciate this thing as Indians "Huaca", the mascot of which is found in the spirit of the gods. But the subject seemed to him a toy in comparison with their huge stone "Huaca" worshiped by the Incas, so he threw it to the ground. According to eyewitnesses, after the monk turned to Pissarro and told him and his people: "You can attack them after that. Before I let go of you all your sins."

Pizarro gave the signal to attack. Two guns fired a volley into the crowd of Indians. Spanish riders left the building in full armor and attacked the unarmed soldiers Incas. They were followed by the sound of the pipes with the infantry battle cry — "Santiago!" (The name of the saint helps, according to the Spaniards defeat the enemy).

It was a brutal massacre of unarmed Indians. Pissarro hardly pulled out of her Atahualpa. Within hours 6000 soldiers killed Inca in Cajamarca and around, but not one Spaniard was killed. In the few got injured himself Pizarro, who sustained an injury to his same soldier as he tried to break through to the royal opponent to capture that live.

Many researchers have tried to understand why the Atahualpa made a fatal mistake, leaving the Spaniards with unarmed soldiers. Perhaps the chief did not even consider such an option course of events, when such a small squad tries to attack his huge army. Or believe in the Spanish language of the world.

In captivity Atahualpa allowed to keep all royalties. All of his wives and servants were at his side. To him were the great men and executed his orders. In less than a month, he learned to speak Spanish and a little writing.

Realizing that white people attracts gold, he decided to pay off for their freedom by offering to fill the room in which he was held, gold, as well as two "silver stuff Indian hut." Instead of liberation Atahualpa this proposal signed his death warrant. Ordering, pick all the gold pieces, and deliver it to the Spaniards, it only ignited their passion for the precious metal. At the same time, fearing that his brother will be able to offer for their freedom more gold, he ordered the execution of it. The Incas did not take gold and silver as something valuable. To them it was just a beautiful metal. Gold they called "sweat of the sun" and silver "tears of the moon." To them were valuable tissue as their production took a long time.

Spaniards began to suspect that Atahualpa plotted against them. This created panic and fear in their ranks. Pissarro has long opposed the mood of his countrymen. But in the end the panic broke and his resolute spirit.

Atahualpa began to realize the inevitability of his death. His religion guaranteed him eternal life if properly performed the ceremony.

At the council meeting, chaired by Pissarro, it was decided to burn the Atahualpa. When the Spanish leader said of his decision, he burst into tears. The destruction of the body is to deny immortality.

Monk of death once again tried to turn the pagan to the Christian faith. Realizing that if he accepted Christianity, it can not be burned, and udushat with Garrote (hoop with screw, for the slow strangulation of the victim), he agreed to undergo a rite of passage, assuming that the body will be transferred to the people for mummification. But the Spaniards here fooled. Once the leader has been strangled, they burned his clothes and body on fire. The rest of it buried.

Pissarro understand what benefits it promises a local ruler under Spanish control. He opted for his son Huayna Capac — Manco Inca. When the Spaniards arrived in Cuzco as they were greeted well-wishers, restore law governing branch of the Incas, although they appear to mummies were hidden.

The conquistadors did not differ generosity and humiliate Manco, showing disregard for the customs of the Incas. The worst was when Pizarro went to the ocean coast, in order to found a new capital city Lima. Major, he left his brothers Gonzalo and Juan. Gonzalo Manco treated with undisguised contempt. Kidnapped his beloved wife, he abused her.

Atrocities being committed by the Spaniards, led to the fact that Manco flatly refused to cooperate and attempted to leave Cusco. Spaniards brought him to the capital bound with chains. Finally subjected to all kinds of humiliation.

In the end, Manco persuades one of the brothers Francisco Hernando, who recently arrived in Cuzco from Spain, he was temporarily released from prison so that he could pray at the shrine, for he had promised to give a golden statue representing his father. Once Manco get outside Cuzco, he urged the people to rebellion. In the end the siege of Cuzco, which lasted nearly a year. During the siege, the Indians were traitors in Cusco, and beyond, who are secretly dragged food invaders. Among them were even relatives of the Manco, who feared reprisals for their previous support of the Europeans, by the new governor. The hopelessness of the siege became clear when reinforcements arrived from Spain. Some supporters even Manco broke away from him, realizing that a good time to dissipate.

After the failure of the siege of Cuzco Manco led off with a thick jungle in 20,000 of his countrymen. There they built a short time a new city Vilkabamba. It occupied an area of about two square miles and has about three hundred and sixty houses and monumental buildings. It had comfortable roads and canals.

From this city the Incas sometimes raided the invaders, attacking outposts. In 1572, the Spaniards decided to do away with this last stronghold, as evidence of the power of the old natives. Reaching the Vilkabamby, they found on the site of a deserted ruin. Defenders before leaving town burned it. The Spaniards continued to chase, getting further and further into the jungle. In the end, they had captured the last Inca leader Tupac Amaru. He was brought to Cuzco and beheaded in the town square. So cut short dynasty rulers of the Incas.

The result of fifty years of residence Spaniards was to reduce the indigenous population — by three-quarters. Many died from diseases brought from the Old World, and many of the hard labor.

In Spain was taken huge amounts of gold and silver. Art usually melted prior to removal. The finest products delivered to the court of Charles V, then they have been exposed for all to see in Seville. When Charles began to experience a shortage of funds to carry out military campaigns, was ordered to recast these outstanding works of art of the Inca.

Category: Mystery stories

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