More than 25 years have passed since those events, but to this day historians and experts at asking questions about the causes of the incident. This can not motivate, because the five-kilometer depth of the left one of the most unsafe at the time in the world of ships, which is a hybrid of some of the submarine and raketodroma. In addition to weapons-grade plutonium and uranium rods on board had several quintals upressovannogo TNT, tons of nitric acid and sulfuric acid are also very corrosive rocket fuel oxidizer — heptyl. And all the listed arsenal stored in the compartments of the submarine, was pumped into barrels, woven by cables, wires and sent to sea with Weave the people on board. About the crash occurred removed the feature film, written many books and articles, but the real root cause of the tragedy remained unclear.
Strategic missile submarine K-219 mission was equipped and sent to America for a timely response to an attack by the enemy. Sixteen ballistic missiles stationed aboard the submarine and having less flight time, were ready to launch and impact on Detroit, Washington and San Francisco. This was in response to missile systems, placed on the ground in Germany, Turkey and England, restoring balance typical diabolical "cold" warfare. The submarine was 20, the first ship of the series, released for the project 667A, and joined the Navy December 31, 1971. In 1974, the submarine has been modernized Project 667A. After that, in its own arsenal ship had 16 SS-N-25 missiles with a range of about 3 thousand kilometers and 28 torpedoes, 20 of which were located in the first compartment of the ship, and 8 — in the tenth slot. Besides power plant (the main power plant) boat had two nuclear reactors. The ship's tonnage was 9300 tons at maximum immersion depth of 400 meters, and autonomy was 90 days. On board the ship was a crew of 119 men led by the commander, Captain 2nd Rank Igor A. Britanova, VVMURE graduated in 1971. Admission to the management of the ship without help he received in 1981. This was the third in a combat patrol, led Britanova, which in addition to control of the ship of this type had a significant swimming qualification.
Despite the fact that according to the analysis of the personnel, who went on active duty in that ill-fated expedition of the 30 1st officer was replaced eleven, including the assistant commander, heads of major combat units, as 16 of the 38 warrant officers, with all the crew Liability preliminary operations performed correctly according to the hours worked schedule. So severe personnel changes were motivated by the fact that once looked out on patrol 5 large ships and had to deal with questions on the formation of the team on the move, in a fairly short period of time. In fairness it should be noted that during this period of time, under the circumstances, the hard confrontation nuclear powers significantly increased load on the warships that were walking to hiking two or three times a year. This naturally affected the technical condition of vehicles, working at the limit of their own abilities. In addition, the level of repair facilities available at that time, it is not appropriate for the task before the fleet harsh. Under the pressure of existing events when the submarine had to constantly go out to battle, and many of them have forgotten about planned vacations, personnel access to the confusion and "non-native" ships have become the norm. Such criteria of cohesion of the crew and "team spirit" and no one remembered. And yet the level of training of the members of the team and the state of the submarine, no one raises fears everything was slightly messy, but at the appropriate level. Directed by K-219 crew had an experience similar to the hulk of the K-241, and the commander could not turn away from him on patrol with other people's people. As we usually happens, Motherland aggressively to enforce the debt, despite the adverse conditions.
So, September 4, 1986, in full accordance with the plan, the PKK CH Go to-219 out of combat service. The disaster began in the Sargasso Sea in the thirtieth day hike when the October 3 at 4.56 boat sailed to periscope depth to conduct scheduled session, and then, after 5 minutes, began to sink again at the 85 meter depth. The following activities have evolved rapidly in the following chronological order:
5.14 — crew members from the stub second missile silo was found drip leak. Attempting to remove the leak by compression of the plug led to the fact that it has increased even more and went jet.
5.25 — submarine commander takes the decision to ascend to a secure (it is 46 meters) deep, just to drain the second shaft driven pump.
5.32 — in the fourth compartment under the caps start coming brown toxic fumes fuel oxidizer. Commander WH-2 reports on the situation in the SME and declares an emergency alarm. The staff of 9 people not counting the dreaded bay leaves, and the remaining crew members are set to adopt measures similar situations in the struggle for survival of the ship and make the sealing of compartments.
5.38 — in the second mine explodes. By this time the boat is already on the depth of non-hazardous. Fourth compartment is filled with black smoke, and the explosion of the damaged pipeline began taking on water, mixed with a propellant. Assessing the sit
uation, the commander decides to start bubbling on the surface. Time is the fourth compartment there's a strong fumes, and the number of filled the emergency bay water is about 4.5 tons. Unsafe was that for a certain period of time has been lost control of the missiles in other mines. Faulty: general speakerphone, radio transmitter P-651 and the communication devices in the fourth and fifth compartments. In addition, it was partly damaged by lighting and high-pressure piping. Remote control power plant whistleblowing electronic supply port side, so that the valves are opened the water supply for steam generators in this part of the boat and a series of valves third circuit. Immediately energy system "Kama" signaled the total breakdown of the insulation in electronic networks of both sides. In the 3rd and 5th compartments team SCE established defense lines and blowing air.
6.10 — Team fifth and sixth sections are translated into eight turbine unit.
6.17 — from the fourth compartment of the report to the impossibility of the people in this part of the ship, ready for translation fifth compartment.
6.35 — emergency personnel leaving the fourth compartment, but the three men led by Commander WH-2 remain inside. BC-5 commander gives the order to enter into force GEM port side.
6.45 — to assist and assess the situation in the fourth compartment sent an emergency team of 2-crew members. Inflated smokiness not allowed them to study in detail the state of the second missile silo and look for the commander BC-2, but were handed the body of sailors and Smaglyuk Kharchenko. The members of the reconnaissance was unable to find the source of fire, which caused an explosion.
7.25 — started venting the fourth and sixth sections, and with the coming of the light day or senior assistant commander can look around a sixth of the shaft enclosure cabin. Found torn cover mine deformed missile deck, partially torn flaps covers other mines. In the area of emergency mine, from which he continued to go brown smoke, visible structural damage.
8.51 — in the fourth compartment again push off the rescue team of 2 persons. Due to the lack of visibility and additional revenue water body was found Petrachkova, Captain 3rd rank (commander BC-2). Across the main highway was drained compartment bilge pumping system and prepared seawater second shaft. But after starting the pump because of the damage to the pipelines in the higher part of the mine began taking on water and smoke brown, because the pump was shut down, and out of the bay made all the gas appliances and satellite.
9.25 — put in place GEM port side. A decision about the emergency drain rocket oxidizer and pumping of mine. For work and were instructed to be sent in the fourth compartment of four groups of team members BCH-2 and BC-5. Any attempt pumping contributed to increased gas content in pairs and oxidizer flow of water in the emergency compartment. When the last group failed to start emergency drain pump, water began to fill the incoming electrical equipment. This caused the closure flaps in, the consequence of which was on fire. Pumps braked due to a power supply, and an emergency team was ordered to leave compartment.
17.54 — SCE takes the decision to submit to the fourth compartment of the refrigerant system of chemical extinguishing the third compartment. But with the start of gas inflow due to flaws in the pipeline freon leak in the third compartment, because it has to suspend the filing.
18.00 — due to the deterioration of the gas composition of the air in the 3rd compartment and a large concentration of oxides of nitrogen in it, the crew was required to go in the second compartment. Radio communication was interrupted because the personnel had to leave the post of communications. The command has not been transferred situation report on the submarine, and they have not received a radiogram Commander SF containing tips to deal with the consequences of the tragedy and the struggle for survival.
18.40 — after opening the bulkhead door between the fourth and fifth compartments and a large smoke detection in the fifth compartment, conducted a survey of the crew decided that it started the fire, as was reported at SCE. Freon has been started from the sixth inning in the fifth slot.
19.30 — food disappears in the network starboard. Was launched reactor protection, but failed completely offsetting lower grille.
19.50 — from the seventh compartment reported that the bottom of the sixth enters smoke. People were ordered to leave the bay, but could not close the bulkhead, so that everyone had to go further in the eighth slot. It was found that the pressure in the hydraulic system of the ship had fallen to zero, and, in order to prevent a nuclear catastrophe in the seventh compartment to lower the compensation grids were manually oriented team members WH-5 Belikov (lieutenant) and Preminin (sailor). Three times they tried to lower the lattice, then the lieutenant Belikov lost consciousness, and Sergei Preminin had to operate without the help of others. Immediately passed ventilation eighth, ninth and tenth sections, thus reducing the pressure to atmospheric pressure. In the seventh compartment, it remained inflated. For this reason, it was difficult bulkhead door opening leading to the eighth slot. If you try to equalize the pressure vacuuming the bottom of the eighth compartment of the pipeline began to flow again brown smoke. To reduce the pressure Preminin tried to open their lives to vent, but he did not manage to do it. With this objective can not cope and the alarm group that tried to open the flapper on the back.
21.30 — to the area of the tragedy has already begun to handle ships of the Navy to assist the K-219. The first to the scene of the tragedy came the ships' Krasnogvardeisk "," Fyodor Bredikhin "and" Bakaritsa. "
23.00 — on the grounds that the gas content in the compartments constantly increased, and satellites have already developed their own resources, with all this, the temperature of the damper between the third and fourth compartments continued to grow, the commander of the submarine in order to avoid the explosion of rockets takes the decision to stop the reactor port side. It starts with the preparation of personnel for evacuation to the Court came to the rescue.
1.00 — completed the evacuation of the crew, were closed and battened down all the hatches. On board there were only five officers of the K-219 and Britain.
1.46 — Navy transferred to the NBI post commander of the fire in all compartments and the lack of progress, Britain asks for permission to leave the ship.
3.00 — Commander of the Northern Fleet gives the order to abandon ship, on board the K-219 is just the commander.
22.45 — on a boat to assess the situation planted emergency group. The first three sections were dry, emergency lights worked, the pressure in them was common. The hull of the fourth and seventh compartments had excessive temperature, pressure had fallen by half in the air, and in the hydraulic system it is completely absent. Blowing nose ballast tanks brain failure group managed to align the trim and start preparing to tow the boat. With the coming of darkness emergency team left the boat, and the work was suspended.
With the coming of dawn and continued at 18.15 "Krasnogvardeisk" began towing the K-219. With all of this trim on the nose and sediment ship continued to grow, resulting in 6 October at 6.20 rope, unable to bear the load, broke, and the stern and the bow hatches went under water. Go down to the third slot is not probable, because the lower conning-tower hatch jammed. In the end, the boat with each moment lost buoyancy, and when the water level headed for the superstructure deck, emergency group left the boat. But commander K-219 remained on board until 11.00 in the order of the Navy Commander. T
he boat almost went out from under him and sank 11.03.
While the higher ranks of municipal decide how best to present information to our people and to the world, the relevant authorities have considered the facts of disaster. Usually, a criminal case, the perpetrators of adverse finals were those who showed real heroism in the rescue boat and fought to the end. Commander of a submarine commander and political officer warhead fired 5-under "official non-compliant", and the crew was disbanded. And that's just for the fact that they were able to prevent the price of 4 lives nuclear catastrophe, stabilizing the situation and conducting a full and alternate set of measures for damage control. But these measures seemed missing. Sergei Preminin posthumously bestowed the Order of the Red Star, and only eleven years later he was awarded the title of Hero of Russia. At the end of the Commission of Inquiry decision was made, in what was said that the premise of the tragedy was the flooding of the second mine water and hit her in rocket fuel. As a prerequisite of fire, explosion and fire were called incorrect actions of the crew, which failed to meet irrigation and did not produce otdraivanie racks duct cover when the boat surface position. In the guilt of the team put the submarine and distribution of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere compartments. After all, in the views of authoritative commission, gases spread specifically because the crew is very often visited the emergency bay incarnation of operations for exploration and rescue ship. And, after all, was a prerequisite for the sinking of the ship entry through leaks in case sea water and spread it through the left uncovered clack valves and ventilation between compartments.
According to one version, the cause depressurization could be significant mechanical damage to the hull of the submarine, purchased during combat patrol. But nothing is clear that this damage really found later on the body of the submarine could completely throw in close contact with each boat, owned by the U.S. Navy. In the study of the respective disk imaging, it becomes clear that this version is not entirely without foundation, but it remained buried hidden behind the doors of offices of the two powers 'cold' confrontation. It also controls the USSR there were questions about the ability of sabotage, which led not only to the tragedy on the boat, and to the edge of the cable during towing ship. According to some opinion, it was manufactured in order to be able later to raise the sunken boat from American shores for the study. There were those who blamed the incident commander and outraged, why he did not go to the bottom together with the submarine.
Even the reverse side of the political conflict recognized the competence and the right actions commander K-219, showing tribute to honor a man who was a few nights alone with smoldering beneath the nuclear powder keg. Shards of the submarine so far are based on the old days, the spread of radiation due to the destruction of nuclear warheads with plutonium is not fully understood.
Based on the correct analysis of all occurrences of accidents on the water and in the water, their painstaking research, you can create a productive system in order to prevent potential problems, which will be made in the lifetime of the ship. But time passes, each similar event ends the creation of commissions of inquiry, the imposition of certain, sometimes quite absurd, decisions, and the ships continue to sink under mysterious circumstances.