40-50-ies of XX century was the era of dominance konvertoplanov. These funds soared as flying helicopters, then the engine was subjected to conversion in the horizontal plane and the car was flying on a plane. Lifting capacity is achieved by the introduction of the flight of aircraft wings. British Fairey Rotodyne company was the winner of an air show in the world.
"Rotodayn" though konvertoplanov went to class, but it did not change the positions of the screws. He had a helicopter rotor, and two motors with pulling screws are on the wings. Such a type of design is called a rotary wing. In January 1959 Rotodyne set a world record for a flight to one hundred km closed loop in a new subtype E.2 for konvertoplanov, showing the speed of 307.2 km / h, which is 80 km / h more than the average for "turntables". But the record stand for long. In 1961, the rotorcraft Ka-22 (USSR) gave a straight flight speed of 356.3 km / h
The history of the creation of the KA-22 tiltrotor
During the discharge of tension between the capitalist and the socialist camp our aircraft designers have such a puzzle cargo helicopter that would ensure the delivery of ballistic missile tactical radius acts to the area with difficult terrain and at high speed. Engaged in Mil Mi-6 from designing for monovintovoy scheme with the tail rotor, and in the Kamov design bureau solved the problem of the Ka-22 tiltrotor with 2 rotors on pins wings. For the "base" have decided to use the plane's fuselage Li-2. Experienced model in linear dimensions superior to the British Rotodyne.
In the box Ka-22 used a rather complicated scheme for transmitting torque from the 1st to the various motor screws. This motor is rotating the aircraft gear puller tool, the torque transmitted to the helicopter carrying the screws. The pilot could not without the help of other motor power switch on the pull screw, by simplifying the angle of attack and unloading the rotor. In the management of rotorcraft participated ailerons and tail of the embodiment of aircraft control.
The Ka-22 tiltrotor in general came very difficult to pilot. With control of rotorcraft pilots understood very long, so that the tests are so very delayed.
At the same time, and the designer himself had a cool pressure from officials and functionaries of the Central Committee of the CPSU. But, as luck would have it, not all went. During the dynamic tests, revised the initial plans, schemes, chain, changed gear at the end of the reporting period, even changed the direction of rotation of the propellers.
In the end, the beginning of 1961 all of the major prepyadstviya have been resolved, but there are still many small, unsolved problems. In April this year, was made the first flight. Immediately trouble — separation of the blade on one of the wings, and the machine does not proparhav and half-goal range, had to land. Again, completion products, and by the middle of summer — the official flight.
At the current time to go on the record beaten by unfinished car — is nonsense, many would have thought it was a direct recklessness, and then the pilots agreed. Protocol had been met, invited the Stewards, flights conducted under the auspices of the FAI, special equipment were conducted survey by the rules Internatsionalnaya Aeronautical Federation. In the end, October 12, 1961 had a record result: the average speed on the route — 336, 76 km / h
But that was not all. Designer to directly control the industry has been said about the need to set the record for the maximum lifting height. In the criteria of severe time constraints, a very bad weather and poor flying conditions in the area Luberets airfield, the crew all the same managed to score a record high of more than 16 tons of cargo. International Aeronautical Federation confirmed this record.
The tragic fate
But in the history of the rotorcraft, of course, lay a dark print fate. 4 crews, who were engaged in a test flight of this machine in the living there is only one — the first, which then was removed from the flight for unknown reasons. Two other crew also crashed during flight tests Ka-22 tiltrotor .. fatal fate awaited the crew that installed all imaginable and unimaginable record for this rotorcraft.
A year after the record-breaking flights, the aircraft commander Dmitri Efremov crashed on the stretch of the Ka-22 from Tashkent. When landing rotorcraft because of cable breaking lost control and fell to the ground. Almost before this flight mechanic E. Filatova transferred to the crew of the famous test pilot Yuri Garnaeva, who also did a test tiltrotor. The last crashed and Ka-22 that crashed, entering "into a tailspin." Himself pilot and two crew members were rescued, they were landed, and the two pilots crashed.
In this biography of the Ka-22 tiltrotor over. This trend is the development of rotorcraft technology in the world of future development not poluchila.Munitsipalnaya Commission recommended the adoption of MI-6.
A few words about the machine XV-22 Osprey
Need to pay tribute to the Yankees — in their armed U.S. Marine Corps rotorcraft is the V-22 Osprey. The Yankees tried to overshadow the achievement of the KA-22, but it also ended in disaster, and a crew of four pilots crashed. But the U.S. continued tests and faced with a very complex aerodynamics, they had to overcome and "the stick wing", and turbulence, and many other emergencies.