According to the views of J. Kovalenko, one option remains — Kazakhs are prepared to share the Caspian Sea.
Kazakhstan does not carry his fleet. For example, in the late 90's Kazakh sailors managed to lose 5 patrol "Dontlesov" (gratuitous gifts to the United States and Germany) — boat sank at the time of the storm. Certainly, from the time the fleet of Kazakhstan has strengthened, but, according to experts, its combat effectiveness is not very high. And so new, are quite unique attempt to increase the country's position on the Caspian Sea. Will it have the Kazakh military swim the seas on the tanks, let's see.
So, first in 1951 in the Soviet Union began work on designing different systems for tanks. Seasoned standards for T-54 have already been made in 1952. In the same year, on the Oka River, they were the first tests of the river. In the period 1953-1954's private swimming facilities for the tanks were tested at sea. In 1957, the flotation device that has received the title of PST-54, a policy adopted by the Russian army. According to the staffing Infantry Division, such systems should be in it by the presence of tanks, ie, up to 187 pieces. Creating a PST-54 was carried out at the factory number 342 in the town of Navashino. Additional equipment of the T-54 for fixing PST-54 was conducted in Kharkov, in the factory number 75. T-54 tank, which was adapted for use PST-54, received the code name "to 485".
Once in the construction department was working to create personal floating systems for new T-55 tanks and self-propelled anti-aircraft ZSU-57. These systems were called PST-55 to T-55 and modified for ZSU-57, which received factory index "to 510", PST. In the 59th year of the Leningrad Municipal Tank Plant number 174 and 342-m mechanical plant in Domodedovo TPA was unified. Already in the 60 th year of the last century, advanced PST-I was in service with the Soviet army.
Structurally, the system PST-I consisted of a 5 iron pontoons (two main pontoon were on the sides, two hinged, which are also placed on the sides, and the 1st of feed). Filling foam pontoons provided 40% of supplies buoyancy PST-I with the T-54. Total weight of PST-I was 10 tons. The drive wheels of the tank drives two propellers, providing the highest water speed of 12 km / h On land the highest rate of T-54, equipped with PST-I was about 19 km / h 500 l. fuel tanks provide water craft cruising range of about 60-80 km, with all this fuel tank is not used.
The tank is equipped PST-I could move on the surface of aqua, the excitement which reached 5 points. Conducting fire from tanks can be had with waves of 1.5 points. In addition, together with the tank is allowed to transport up to 25 troops (for ZSU-57 assault could be up to 40 people. Crew of flotation device to hang on the tank for 35 minutes. Not out of the car, the crew could throw off the PST-I actually once. Transportation PST carried out on a 4-ZIS-151.
The development of special floating systems continued to develop. Thus, already in the 62 th year was a relief flotation device PS-1, destined for tanks T-55 BPS and tank trucks. Weight of the new PS-1 was already a little more than 5.5 tons. Lowering the mass was achieved by the use in the construction of pontoons duralumin alloys. BTS tractor with the PS-1 afloat developed the highest speed above 13 km / h and when reversing around 8 km / h When towing the water system's speed reaches 19 km / h Overland truck BTS with the PS-1 can move at speeds up to 25 km / h Up to 100 km. stroke was increased in store system. Transportation of PS-1 was carried out with 2 cars ZIL-157B.
PS-1, on the basis of tests carried out to be superior to PST and PST-U-54 for its seaworthiness. Already in the 65th year, after minor modifications, PST-63 (new designation PS-1) was taken at the SA arms of the USSR.
Work on the improvement of floating systems for T-55 and T-62 led to the emergence of new modifications that took the name of PST-64 and PST-63M.
Do not lack attention and languid Russian tanks. Thus, in the years 1955-1957 Leningrad CDB-50 were the development of "Project 755" is a languid similar flotation device for the T-10. Three experienced reference "Project 755" were built in Gorky, on the shipyard "Red Sormovo". But the future development of this project was not.
Go with displacement floating craft for tanks at the end of the 50s worked on the design of high-speed amphibious floating systems hydrofoils. Thus, Navashino shipyard in 1958, was developed by a high-speed tank-landing system hydrofoil, which received the title of "Project 80." The system consisted of two boats with folding hydrofoil. Each boat had a displacement of 12 tons. "Project 80" enables the transport medium tank on the removal of up to 400 km at speeds up to 30 knots. On board each boat, pontoon had its own 1,000-horsepower engine. In the 61-year benchmark was created by the most experienced of the complex.
In the years 1967-1968 the two head benchmark tests have been completed and have started mass creation of floating funds. "Project 80" was rehabilitated two battalions — one on the Black Sea and the Baltic.
More carefully about the "Project 80" you can read here.