Khanate of Kazan had to "force for peace." The question arose — how to do it? Previous policy to support the pro-Russian party in Kazan and Planting the throne by Moscow virtually collapsed. Usually, as Moscow planted on the throne of Kazan "his Khan", he started to rapidly develop and carry out an aggressive policy of the Russian Federation, focusing on the Crimea or the Nogai Horde. At this time a huge impact on Russian policy of the country provided by Metropolitan Macarius, who was the pioneer of many companies of Ivan IV. Evenly around him began to emerge Metropolitan thought the power to address the issue, as the only means to stop the Mongol invasions in the eastern region of the country. With all this you first complete the conquest and subjugation of Kazan was not provided. Kazan was to retain autonomy in internal affairs. Already in the process of fighting 1547-1552 gg. These plans have been adjusted.
Kazan campaign of Ivan IV (1545-1552 gg.)
Clearly some of the Kazan campaigns of the emperor Ivan, most of which he took a personal role. This underlines the importance given to the campaigns of the coming monarch and his entourage. Almost all the operations were carried out in winter, when the Crimean Khanate usually not carried out campaigns in Russia, and it was possible with the main forces of the southern borders of the Volga jibe. In 1545 took place the first troops of the capital campaign against Kazan. The operation had a temper military demonstration in order to strengthen the capital's party, which at the end of 1545 was able to drive out of the Kazan Khan Safa Giray. In the spring of 1546 at the Kazan throne was planted Capital protege — Kasimovskiy Prince Ali Shah. But soon Safa Giray, supported Nogai could return to power itself, Shah Ali fled to Moscow.
In February 1547, "in Kazan place" sent troops under the governor Alexander Hunchback and Seeds Mikulinskaya. Shelves under their command were sent from Nizhny Novgorod in response to an appeal for help Cheremisska (Mari) Centurion Atachika (Tight) "with fellow" who expressed the desire to serve the majestic Prince metropolitan. The governor himself was not involved in the campaign, because I was busy with the affairs of the wedding — he married Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina-St George. Russian troops came to the mouth of the Sviyagi to war and many of Kazan's place, but then returned to Nizhny Novgorod.
The subsequent operation was headed by the governor. In November 1547 from Moscow to Vladimir transferred troops led by Dmitry Belsky, and on December 11 of the capital and left myself sir. Vladimir was concentrated artillery and infantry regiments ("outfit"). The troops were from Vladimir to go to Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and then on. On Meshchora prepared to march the second army under the command of the governor Theodore Prozorovskiy and Shah Ali. It consisted of cavalry regiments. Because of the unusually warm winter dragged out of the main forces. Artillery was brought to Vladimir, with bolshennymi efforts and because of the rainy off-road, but on December 6. A Nizhny Novgorod main forces have gained only at the end of January, with only 2 February army went down the Volga to Kazan border. After a day or two because of the warming of the new army suffered heavy losses — most of the siege artillery fell into the river and drowned many people, the troops had the brakes on the peninsula processing. Loss of Artillery, drowned in the Volga river in the beginning of the campaign, did not promise of success conceived enterprise. This event forced the king to return to Nizhny Novgorod, and then to Moscow. But the bulk of the army, joining the river on February 18 Tsivil cavalry regiments Ali Shah, moved on. In the battle on the field Arskoe fighters of the Front Regiment defeated the army of Prince Mikulinskaya Safa Giray and Tartars were running behind the walls of the town. But to go on without siege artillery assault on the Russian generals did not dare, and standing for a week at the walls of Kazan, retreated to their limits.
Tatars have organized a counter attack. A large force under the Arak attacked the Galician lands. Kostroma governor Zachary Yakovlev organized persecution, overtook and defeated Polona burdened and production of the enemy on the field Gusev on the river Ezovke.
In March in Moscow received the news of the death of an implacable enemy of the Russian country Khan Safa Giray. According to the official ruler 'drunk was killed in a palace. " Kazan embassy failed to obtain a new "king" of the Crimea. In the end, Khan announced the two-Khan, son of the deceased — Utyamysh Giray (Utemysha Giray), whose name has become a rule of his mother Queen Syuyumbike. The news was told to Moscow Cossacks, who intercepted a "Field" Kazan ambassadors. The Russian government has decided to use the come in the Kazan Khanate dynastic crisis and to the latest military operation. In the summer of progressive forces were sent under the Boris Ivanovich and Leo A. Saltykov. The main force for the late fall of 1549 have been busy — guarding the southern border.
Winter campaign 1549-1550 gg. was prepared very thoroughly. Shelves were going in Vladimir, Shuya, Murom, Suzdal, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Rostov-on-Don and St. George. December 20 from Vladimir to Nizhny Novgorod has been sent artillery under the governor Basil St. George and Theodore Naked. The governor, having received the blessing of Metropolitan Macarius, made a shelf in Nizhny Novgorod. January 23, 1550 the Russian army went down the Volga to Kazan ground. Near Kazan Russian regiments were Feb. 12, Tatars have not ventured to give battle under the walls of the town. Preparations have begun for the assault perfectly fortified town. But the weather once again had a decisive influence on the failure of the operation. According to chronicles winter was very warm, sleet, heavy rains is not allowed to conduct regular siege, to organize a strong bombardment of the fortress and to the rear. As a result, had to withdraw.
Preparing for the newcomer campaign. The political situation in the Kazan Khanate and negotiate with
Russian commanders came to the conclusion that the main reason for unsuccessful campaigns 1547-1550 gg. hiding in the impossibility to supply the troops is not bad, the lack of a strong logistical support base. Russian troops were obliged to act on a hostile terrain, away from their own cities. It was decided to build a fort at the confluence of the Volga River Sviyagi, near Kazan. Turning the fort into a major base Russian Army could keep under control all the right bank of the Volga ("mountain side") and the immediate approaches to Kazan. The basic material for the walls and towers, as accommodation and 2-temples of the future Russian stronghold procured in the winter 1550-1551, the Upper Volga to Uglich county paternal princes tub. Followed the works clerk Ivan Geeks, which is responsible not only for the creation of a fortress, and for its delivery to the mouth Sviyagi.
Go with this complex engineering operation was carried out a number of measures of a military character, which had to cover up the fortification work on the Round Mountain. Prince Peter received the Silver Spring in 1551 ordered to take the shelf and go, "Cast out to the Kazan townsmen." Immediately vyatka Men Bahteara Zyuzina and Volga Cossacks were to occupy the main transfers by major transportation arteries of the Kazan Khanate: Volga, Kama and Vyatka. To help the governor Zyuzin was sent from Meshchora 2.5 thousand infantry detachment of Cossacks headed by Ataman Severgoy and Elka. They were to "Wild Field" to pass to the Volga, do some fighting ships and Kazan places up the river. Acts Cossack detachment were successful. Other groups of Cossacks servicemen acted on the lower Volga. Their acts complained metropolitan sir Nuradinov Nogai Horde Ismail, who said that the Cossacks "We both banks of the Volga and took away the will was taken from us and our uluses fight."
Duke's Men Silver opened the campaign 16 May 1551 and is already the 18th was near the walls of Kazan. Russian soldiers attack was sudden for the Kazan Tatars. Fighters governor Silver broke into townsmen and using the Sudden Impact, inflicted great harm. Then Kazan managed to seize the initiative and push back the Russian soldiers to their ships. Silver's men retreated and camped on the river Sviyaga, waiting for arrival of the army under the Shah-Ali and delivery of major structures of the fortress. Big River caravan, which was organized for the delivery of materials strength, departed in April and arrived at the place at the end of May.
In April of Ryazan in "Field" was oriented army under the command of the governor of Misha Voronoi and Gregory Filippov-Naumov. Men had to break off communication between Kazan and Crimean Khanate. Most Russian troops overwhelmed the Kazan government and diverted attention from the construction of which began on May 24 Sviyazhskaya fortress. Stronghold built in four weeks, despite the error of designers who made a mistake in the length of the walls in almost half. Russian warriors corrected this defect. Ivangorod fortress called Sviazhsky.
Building a strong fortress in the center of the Kazan Khanate possessions revealed by Moscow and facilitated a shift to the side of a number of Russian Volga peoples — the Chuvash and Mari mountain. Complete blockade of aqua paths Russian troops complicate the political situation in the Kazan Khanate. In Kazan brewing discontent with the government, composed of the Crimean princes headed by lancer Koschakom, principal adviser princess Syuyumbike. Crimeans litsezrev that the case was a smell of fried, they decided to escape. They gathered their belongings looted, that can be ran out of town. But the Crimean squad, which numbered about 300 people, was unable to escape. We transport all stood strong Russian outpost. In search of non-threatening way Crimeans significantly deviated from the initial route and went to the river Vyatka. Here in the ambush was vyatskiy squad Bahteara Zyuzina and Cossacks chieftains Pavlov and Severgi. During the crossing Mongolian army was attacked and destroyed. Koschaka and 40 prisoners were taken to Moscow, where "the sovereign for their hardness of heart commanded to execute death."
The new government was headed by Kazan oglan Khudai-Kul and Prince Ali Nur-Shirin. They were obliged to negotiate with Moscow and agree to accept Khan pleasing Moscow Shah Ali ("King Shigaleya"). In August 1551 the Kazan ambassadors agreed to extradite to Moscow Utyamysh Giray Khan and his mother Queen Syuyumbike. Utyamysh baptized in the Miracle Monastery, he received the name Alexander and was left to be raised at the Metropolitan yard (died at twenty years of age). Syuyumbike after some time has been given to married Kasimovian ruler Shah Ali. In addition, the embassy has recognized the annexation of Kazan to the Russian state, "the Mountain" (western) side of the Volga, and agreed to prohibit slavery Christians. August 14, 1551 on the field at the mouth of the river Kazanki held kurultay where Mongolian nobility and Muslim clergy approved the agreement concluded with Moscow. August 16 new Khan triumphantly entered in Kazan. Together with him came and representatives of Moscow: the nobleman Ivan Khabarov clerk Ivan Geeks. The next day the Kazan government gave them 2,700 Russian prisoners.
But the board of the new Mongolian king was short-lived. Protect themselves and a few of their own adherents new Khan could only typing in the city flagship Russian garrison. But, looking at his precarious position, Shah Ali agreed to put in Kazan Tatars Kasimov only 300 and 200 archers. The government of Shah Ali was very unpopular. Issue of Russian prisoners, Moscow's refusal to comply with a request to return under the authority of the Khan of Kazan by the inhabitants of the Mountain is still a huge annoyance caused the Mongol nobility. Khan tried to suppress the opposition, but repression only made the situation worse (for Khan was not the strength to his fear).
In connection with the situation in the Kazan Khanate in Moscow, where he kept a close watch on developments, began to lean toward a constructive solution: remove the Shah-Ali of Kazan and the substitution of his Russian governor. This idea was promoted Kazan part of the nobility. Sudden acts Khan, who vyznat the decision of city government, the situation changed for the worse. He decided to leave the throne, do not wait the official decision, and left Kazan. March 6, 1552 Kazan Khan under the pretext of going on a fishing trip left the town and went to Sviyazhskaya fortress. With him as a hostage, he took a couple of 10-s princes and MPD. Soon in this field have focused Kazan Russian governors, but to enter into the city failed. March 9 under the princes of Islam, and the nobleman Kebek Alikeya Narykova uprising began in the town. Seized power in Kazan supporters to continue the war with the Russian government, headed by Prince Chapkunom Otuchevym. Many of Russia, who were in town were taken by surprise and captured. Approached the Russian squad could not change the situation, the Russian governor entered into negotiations and then have been obliged to withdraw. With all this fighting has taken place, not burned Posad, Russia's governors have pinned their hopes to resolve the matter peacefully.
Kazan new government invited the prince to the throne of the Astrakhan Yadygar Mohammed (Ediger), who accompanied the squad Nogai. Kazan Tatars renewed fighting act, trying to regain his authority under the mountain side. Moscow decided to start preparing a new attack and resumed the blockade of the waterways of Kazan.
Kazan campaign of June-October 1552. The capture of Kazan
Preparation of the campaign began early spring. At the end of March — beginning of April Sviyazhskaya fortress of Nizhny Novgorod flown siege artillery, ammunition and provisions. In April — May 1552 in Moscow and other Russian towns had forme
d an army of up to 150 thousand people, with 150 guns. By May, the shelves were concentrated in Murom — Ertoulny Regiment (Cavalry Regiment reconnaissance) in Kolomna — A large regiment, the regiment left hand and Advanced Regiment, Kashira — Right Hand Regiment. Part of the collected Kashira, Kolomna and other towns troops advanced to Thule, and repelled the attack of the Crimean troops Devlet Giray, who tried to thwart the plans of Moscow. Crimean Tatars only four managed to postpone the day or performance of the Russian army.
July 3, 1552 campaign began. The troops came with 2 columns. After Vladimir Moore Suru River to the mouth of the river Sura were Watchdog Regiment, Left Hand Regiment and Sovereign regiment led by Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich. After Ryazan and Meschera alatyr to move large regiment, Right Hand regiment and the regiment under the Advanced Misha Vorotynsky. We Boroncheeva Mounds of p. Sura columns merged. August 13, the army headed for Sviyazhska, the 16th began crossing of the Volga, which lasted a day or three. Aug. 23 large army came to the walls of Kazan.
The enemy had time to prepare for the great modern war and fortified the city. Kazan Kremlin had a double oak wall filled with gravel and clayey silt and 14 stone towers "strelnitsa." The approaches to the fortress covered the river bed. Kazanka — from the north and the river. Bulak — from the west. On the other side, especially from Arsky fields comfortable for siege works, housed the pit that reached 6-7 meters wide and 15 meters deep. More vulnerabilities were gates — they were 11, even though they defended towers. On city walls warriors defended the parapet and wood roofing. In the town was a stronghold, which was located in the north-western part of the city on the hill. "House of the king" from the rest of the town was protected by deep ravines and a stone wall. The city defended the 40-th. garrison, which consisted of not only all the warriors, and the entire male population of Kazan, including a 5 th. contingent mobilized eastern merchants. In addition, the Mongol commanders prepared the operational base for combat operations outside the walls of the town, in the rear of the besieging enemy army. Within 15 miles of the river. Kazanki was built jail, the approaches to which tightly covered Zaseki and swamps. He had to become a support for the 20 th. Cavalry Prince Yapanchi, Shunak Moors and Arsky (Udmurtia) Prince Evusha. This army was to do the unexpected attack on the flanks and rear of the Russian army.
But these measures have not helped Kazan. The Russian army was capable of great an advantage and implemented new methods of warfare are not familiar Tatars (construction of underground mine galleries).
Battle for the city began as Russian troops approached Kazan. Mongol warriors stormed Ertoulny Regiment. Moment to strike was elected very successful. Russia's only crossed the river and Bulak podymali the steep slope Arsky field. Other Russian troops were on the other side of the river and could not immediately take part in the battle. Left out of the fortress of the Nogai Tatars and Tsarevo doors knocked on the Russian shelf. Kazan army counted 10 thousand infantry and five thousand cavalry soldiers. The situation helped efforts Ertoulsky regiment Cossacks and archers. They were on the left flank and opened heavy fire on the enemy's cavalry Kazan mixed. At this time, reinforcements arrived and strengthened firepower Ertoulskogo Regiment. Mongolian cavalry very upset and took flight smashed the orders of their infantry. First clash ended with the victory of the Russian guns.
The siege. The city was surrounded by a longish ditches, trenches and tours in a number of places have built a stockade. August 27 began shelling Kazan. Artillery fire support archers, fighting off enemy attacks and preventing the enemy is on the walls. In the middle of "attire" were "great" guns had names: "The Ring," "The Nightingale," "The Flying Serpent" tub ", etc.
Initially, the siege of complicated acts Yapanchi troops, who made his mark with an attack on the fortress — raised a huge banner on one of the towers. First raid was carried out on August 28 for the next day and was accompanied by repeated attacks of Kazan sortie of the garrison. Acts units Yapanchi been a very serious threat to not pay attention to it. Was assembled a council of war, and it made the decision to bring troops against Yapanchi 45 thousand troops under the governor Hunchback of Alexander and Peter Silver. August 30 Russian governors feigned retreat lured Arskoe Mongolian cavalry on the field and was surrounded by the enemy. A large part of the enemy army was wiped out, the field was just littered with enemy corpses. Only the part of the enemy troops failed to break out of the encirclement and take refuge in his prison. Opponents chased to the river Kinderi. In the prisoner took from 140 to 1 thousand soldiers Yapanchi, they were executed in front of the walls of the town.
September 6th army Hunchback and Silver made a campaign to Kame received puzzle burn and ravage the land Kazan. The Russian army stormed the fort on the highest mountain, most of the defenders were massacred. According to historical records, in this battle all the Russian generals have gone stallions and took part in the battle. As a result, the main base of the enemy, who made an attack on the Russian rear, was destroyed. Later the Russian troops were more than 150 miles, destroying local villages and reaching the river Kama, they turned and headed back to the victory of Kazan. Understand the fate of the Khanate of Kazan Russian lands when they ravaged the Mongolian troops. The enemy suffered a heavy blow, to secure Russian army against possible attack from the rear. Within 10 days of trekking Russian fighters destroyed 30 jails, took 2-5 thousand prisoners and a large number of cattle.
After the defeat of the troops Yapanchi siege works to prevent nobody could. Russian batteries all approaching closer to the walls of the town, their fire became ruinous. On the contrary Tsarev gate was prepared large 13-meter siege tower, which was higher than the enemy's walls. It found 10 large and 50 small guns (arquebuses) that from the height of this building could bombard the streets of Kazan, causing great damage to patrons. In addition, on August 31, is on the state service "Nemchin" Rozmysel and his Russian students trained siege business, began to lead dig under the wall to lay mines. First charge laid under the Kazan undercover source in aqua Daurova tower fortress. September 4, the underground gallery has laid 11 barrels of gunpowder. The explosion not only destroyed the undercover move to the water, and very damaged fortifications. Then an underground explosion destroyed the gate Nur-Ali ("Muravleva gate"). Mongol garrison barely managed to fight off the Russian attack and begun to build the latest line of defense.
The effectiveness of an underground war was yavna. Russian military command has decided to continue to destroy the enemy's capacity and shelling of the town by abstaining from the early assault, which could lead to huge losses. At the end of September were prepared fresh saps, explosions in what were to be the signal for a general assault of Kazan. Tours were moved to virtually all of the gates of the fortress, the fortress wall between them and there was only the moat. In those areas where the acts were going to lead the assault trenches were covered with earth and wood. Also, over the moat built a lot of bridges.
Sturm. Recently the decisive assault on the Russian command sent to the city Murza Kamaya (in the Russian army was a significant contingent of Mongolian) with an offer of surrender. It was clearly rejected: "Do not beat my forehead! On the walls and towers of Russia, we will put a different wall, but shall all be dead or had served. &
quot; Of early in the morning on October 2, began preparations for the attack. Around 6:00 am on the shelves were arranged in advance certain places. The rears are protected by mounted large forces: the Tatars Kasimov Arskoe sent to the field, others stood on the Galician shelf and Nogai roads against Cheremisses (Mari) and Nogai, small forces that operated in the districts of Kazan. At 7 bombings in 2-digging in their laid the 48 barrels of gunpowder. Were blown up portions of the wall between the gate and the Atalykovymi Nameless Tower and between Tsarevo and Arsk gate.
The fortress walls of the Arsky fields were almost completely destroyed in the breaks broke the Russian fighters. The first attack was on the strip 45 thousand archers, Cossacks, and "knights of children." Attackers simply leaked into the city, but on narrow streets of Kazan, a fierce battle. Hatred piled up over decades, and the citizens know that their will not be spared, because fought to the last. A strong pockets of resistance were the main mosque of the town on Tezitskom ravine and "imperial palace." First, all attempts to break into the inner stronghold, separated from the town ravine failed. Russian command had to enter the fray freshest reserves, which are completely crushed the enemy. Russian fighters made their way through the mosque, all of its defenders, led by the supreme Seid Number Sharif (Kul-Sharif) had fallen in battle. The last fight came in the square in front of the khan's palace, where the defense held six thousand Mongol warriors. Yadygar Khan Mohammed was captured (he was baptized with the name of Simeon and to possess Zvenigorod). All other Mongol warriors fallen in battle, took no prisoners. Little boys were saved, those who managed to escape from the walls, under fire fled Kazanka and made our way into the woods. In addition, was sent a powerful rush that trapping and killing much of the last defenders of the town.
After the suppression of resistance in the city became ruler Ivan the Terrible. He looked around Kazan, gave the order to extinguish fires. For himself, he "took" a prisoner of Kazan "king", flags, guns and supplies available in the town of gunpowder, the rest of the property was given to ordinary warriors. At the gates of the Royal assent by King Misha Vorotyinskiy hoisted the Orthodox cross. The rest of the population of the town was moved over the walls, on the shores of Lake Kaban.
October 12th ruler leave Kazan, its governor was appointed Prince Humpback, under his left governor Vasily Silver, Alex Plescheev, Thomas Golovin, Ivan Chebotov and clerk Ivan Bessonov.
— The Russian have been included large areas of the Middle Volga and the number of people (Tatars, Mari, Chuvash, Udmurt, Bashkirs). Our homeland has received the principal economic center — Kazan, control of trade artery — Volga (its installation is completed after the fall of Astrakhan).
— In the Middle Volga region was completely destroyed by the Ottoman-Crimean aggressive factor. On the eastern borders of the constant threat of invasion is removed and the disposal of the population into slavery.
— Russian opened the way for the forthcoming promotion to the south and east: the lower reaches of the Volga (Astrakhan), the Urals.