Marshal of the Victory was so terrible to the top of the Communist Party bureaucracy, which in October 1957 was dismissed from all his posts
October 26, 1957 signed a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the release of Marshal Zhukov, Russian Union ZHoru Roerich from the obligations of the Minister of Defense of the USSR." What is not pleased Marshal Victory then head of the country's political system Nikita Khrushchev? This is what we are talking with Dr. Humanitarian Institute, a medical historical sciences Colonel Yuri Rubtsov.
— Until now, the circumstances surrounding the sudden removal ZHoru Zhukov from all party and municipal posts are disputes even among historians, Professor, for he has been a reliable ally of Khrushchev, shortly before Nikita Sergeyevich was rescued from the opposition in the face of Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich and Shepilova, has promoted its defeat at the June Plenum of the Central Committee. Why so much ingratitude?
— Broad array of views. More than a simple explanation of what happened: the envy of the first secretary of the Central Committee to the ever-increasing in the party and the country's credibility and influence Marshal Victory feared that against Zhukov will be particularly visible defective hand it to his personality. I think such behavior Khrushchev's motives were present. And yet the main reason, in my opinion, in conflict with the political system Zhukov. After the June Plenum of the party elite particularly keenly felt that with such a person at the head of the Defense Ministry, as Zhukov — a war hero, a noble military officer, independent person, not prone to compromise and politicking — use the army as a tool for capturing and (or) holding power is unreal. If the CC considered the army as a weapon in the struggle for power, as the "organ of suppression" all acts of aggressive political regime, then Zhukov — as a tool for defending the homeland from external threats. Encountered such Makar, the interests of the country, championed by Zhukov and the interests of party elites, who defended the Bureau of the Central Committee.
— Officially elimination Zhukov was motivated by the underestimation of him to the party-political work in the army and navy. But it is hard to refute?
— I am sure that such a charge represented Zahav smoke that hid the political flogging with one of the most prominent people in the country, although it was partially true. Requires only true accents: Zhukov did not oppose the political work in the armed forces, he objected to the omnipotence of the party committees, political workers ignorant intervention in the duties of commanders. And again — against attempts to use the army as an instrument of political struggle.
— A Zhukov himself did not try to use it to stay in power?
— If I have desired and then did not have time to. As a senior member of the party organ, Zhukova can not be removed from his post behind the scenes, everyday decision of the Presidium of the Central Committee. His fate could be solved only by the plenum, a feverish preparation is conducted in the absence of Marshal aimed at overseas trip to Yugoslavia and Albania. To advance to support tough measures against Zhukov, the party elite went to large-scale fraud. 22-day or during which the marshal was absent from the home, the Presidium of the Central Committee headed by Khrushchev absolutely embodied the plan behind the scenes collusion. Under the pretext of military exercises first secretary of the Central Committee gathered in Kiev Defense and management of all military commanders surroundings. They Khrushchev personally hammered the idea that Zhukov is not safe for the country and the party, as the bears Bonapartist ambitions, and that the situation can be saved only by the immediate removal of his party and the administration of the country. As shown by the actions of Khrushchev hope that senior generals usvoyut his "right" one hundred percent true. Among them, there was not the 1st, who raised the voice against the false accusations on comrade.
Then, a series of meetings of party assets in the center and in the vicinity of the military, which as speakers were members and candidate members of the Presidium of the Central Committee, Communist incorrect information is reported on the actions and plans of Marshal.
Party activists of the central offices of the Ministry of Defense, military Metropolitan Area and Metropolitan Area Air Defense October 22-23, was designed as a dress rehearsal for the October plenum. With a great speech it made Khrushchev. For the first time since the beginning of the campaign he antizhukovskoy so precisely defined political charges in the address of Defense, alleging Zhukov attempts to tear the army from the party, put himself between the military and the Central Committee. He also gave the audience realize that the conclusion of the Minister of Defense of the Presidium of the Central Committee decided.
— But this is a violation of the party rules — open a discussion communist in his absence?
— The leading peak of the CPSU deliberately chose to violate all norms of party life. The activities of communist, much less a member of the senior management policies without open a discussion of its role and without even informing him of the fact of the discussion. Only in this way — sealing the mouth of accused Marshal, hiding under the guise of military and state Undercover happening tribunal from the broad masses of party and manipulating obedient asset could achieve elimination of Zhukov. Though what the public hearing and not a stone was left to the charges of anti-state activities Marshal.
— When Zhukov zabugornoy returned from a business trip, he was not able to do anything?
— October 26, Defense Minister arrived in Moscow. Straight from the airport, he was brought to the meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee, where Zhukov first heard about the charges adresok own. Marshall tried to refute them. Judging by the minutes greedy, he strongly opposed the "wild," he said, concluding his quest to isolate the Armed Forces of the party and refused to acknowledge that played down the importance of party-political work. Together with the fact he expressed his willingness to accept criticism and to correct the error and asked in conclusion to assign a competent commission to investigate allegations of own the address. But the final case had been decided in advance. The members of the top party Areopagus feared Zhukov. It they did not need correcting errors, and overthrown. Especially zealous Bulganin, Suslov, Brezhnev, Ignatov. The result — the removal of Zhukov as minister of defense. The text of the decree had been prepared in advance.
— But such is the level of official even if the administrative system of the CPSU in camera shoot was unreal. After all required approval of the plenum of the Central Committee?
— It was held October 28, 1957. With all of this at once with the possibilities of Defense Minister Zhukov denied access to official documents, which is permitted to respond to the arguments put forward by the prosecution. The system fell upon all the power of Zhukov. In addition to 262 members of the Central Committee, alternate members and members of the Central Auditing Commission, and several 10-s regional Party secretaries, department heads and senior officials of the Central Committee of the CPSU, to the October plenum were attracted 60 top military commanders. As the grave, from the standpoint of the Presidium of the Central Committee, the evidence atrocities Zhukov at the plenum was named institution them special forces — commandos in two schools with excessive thousands of listeners
. As an impact, "fist" in the personal possession of Defense, which can be applied to the conspiratorial view ("Saboteurs. God only knows what kind of saboteurs which diversion will do") — regarded as made Zhukov special forces in his own speech, Khrushchev.
In explaining Marshal specifically asked to draw attention to his lack of any criminal intent was that just might have installed the appropriate party committee, the development of which the marshal requested immediately. The school was created out of the available 17 in the vicinity of the mouth of war, riot police were preparing to make the level of training (learning foreign languages, maintaining military HIDDEN) suitable for the requirements which apply to this kind of educational institutions.
Admitting that he had made a mistake by not spending the decision to develop such schools across the Presidium of the Central Committee, Zhukov strongly torn accusation, as if he had acted secretly in general. He referred to the fact that on two occasions verbally reported this to Khrushchev, and typical that the first secretary, so willingly, according to a transcript of the plenum, to engage in polemics with the speakers, do not dare to refute these words to the participants of the plenum.
The reason for the fundamentally different charges of the address Zhukov were the words uttered by them in June 1957 at a time when the members of the Presidium of the Central Committee who opposed Khrushchev tried to find out if it will not bring the army forces to resolve in its favor the political crisis. "Without my order is not a single tank will begin to move from the place," — said the Minister of Defence. Then Khrushchev praised the position taken by the marshal as a "party" — well, what other assessment he could give, if it is a powerful statement Zhukov provided him the post of managing the preservation of the CPSU.
Now, four months later, the first secretary of the Central Committee chose to "forget" about it, entrusting his entourage distortion of the real picture of what happened. "It turns out — said the Mikoyan — the tanks will not when the Central Committee of the utter, utter and when the Secretary of Defense." And, essentially throwing in the address Zhukov accusation of anti-Soviet and anti-party activities, he saw that this makarom arrive in countries where the Communist Party underground, where "all kinds of junta-Munt," and "we have the political climate is not suitable for such things." Zhukov's words about his willingness to go directly to the army and the people, if the opposition led by Molotov will insist on the removal of Khrushchev, Mikoyan on the views, directly pointed to the "Bonapartist" aspirations marshal. "Is it not clear that this position — and the only non-partisan terrible?" — Asks Suslov.
Pharisaical nature of these allegations was obvious to all who knew the accident crisis in the party summit in June 1957. After all, in essence specifically tough position sober-minded, strong-willed and patriotic marshal then saved the country from chaos. And, if we bring the idea of Suslov's "Bonapartism" Zhukov to its logical end, it imposes the question that kept the defense minister is the moment to take power into their own hands if he sought it?
— Neuzh that the plenum, there was not the 1st person who can wonder that, in general, a simple question?
— No. It was the members of the Party, ready, do not hesitate to punch solutions "from above".
— For you do not think this situation is topical now?
— Even as it seems! Our advantage over those who lived and ruled half a century back, is that we can learn from their work. Another thing is whether we want it to do? More precisely, if they wish to segodnyaschy full power of the party — "United We homeland?" Big country, much less going through a radical break-up, should be managed. It is naturally wrong. But there was no notable manager, no apparatus of power will not change the widest role of people in their destiny, as no substitutes in a beautiful package, such as "sovereign democracy" does not replace the people. Certainly, at least some question addressed narrow range easier. But it better, truer? Where this practice usually starts? In this case, in October 1957, paving the way for approval of a dishonest full autocratic Khrushchev, in the end, turned political collapse not only for himself, and for the liberal reformist course, which is usually associated with his name and the naming of "thaw." October 14, 1964 is another October Plenum of the Central Committee, organized in the absence of Khrushchev (on the scheme devised by them), who was on vacation, freed him from the party and municipal offices for "health reasons".
From the file:
Resolution of the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU
On the improvement of the party-political work in the Russian Army and Navy (spelling and style of the original)
Jora Zhukov during the parade on the Red Square in Moscow on June 24, 1945.
Armed Forces of the Russian Union, won a world-historic victory into a sublime Russian war, were at the height of their own problems and honorably acquitted the love and trust of the peoples of the USSR.
After the war, thanks to the care of the Communist Party and the Russian Government, on the basis of the total of the national economy of our country, the big success in the development of heavy industry, science and technology, the Armed Forces of the USSR up to the latest in a higher level of their development, they are equipped with all kinds of modern combat equipment and weapons, including atomic and thermonuclear weapon and missile technology. The political and moral state of the troops is at the highest level. Command and political cadres Army and Navy are devoted to their own people, the motherland and the Russian Communist Party …
The main source of power of our Army and Navy is that their organizer, manager and educator, is the Communist Party — the leading and guiding force of Russian society. It should always be remembered by Lenin that "the policy of the military establishment, as well as all other departments and agencies, is based on a clear general guidelines given by the party in the person of its Central Committee and under the specific control."
Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU notes that shortly past that Defense Minister GK Zhukov broke Lenin, party principles of the Armed Forces, and pursued a policy of curtailing the work of party organizations, political bodies and the military council to eliminate the management and control of the Army and Navy the Navy on the part of the party, its Central Committee and the government.
Plenum of the Central Committee found that personal involvement that GK Zhukov in Russian Army was implanted cult of his personality. With the assistance of his flatterers and sycophants began to extol in lectures and reports, articles, films, brochures, immensely magnify his person and his role in the stateliness Russian war. Those in favor of GK Zhukov so distorted the true story of the war is a travesty of the actual state of affairs, to belittle the great efforts of the Russian people, the heroism of our armed forces, the role of commanders and political workers, the art of war commanders of fronts, armies, fleets, leading and inspiring role Communist Party of the Russian Union …
So makarom that GK Zhukov did not justify confidence placed in him by the Party. He was politically untenable figure, prone to adventurism as in recognizing the important tasks of the Union of Russian foreign policy, and in the leadership of the Ministry of Defence.
In connection with the foregoing,
the Plenum of the Central Committee decided: to bring that GK Zhukov from the members of the Bureau and members of the Central Committee and the Central Committee instructed the Secretariat to provide T.Zhukov another job.
Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party is confident that the Party organizations, carrying out decisions of the XX Congress of the CPSU will continue its efforts to strengthen the defense of our impending socialist country.
(Adopted unanimously by all the members of the Central Committee, alternate member of the Central Committee, member of the Central Auditing Commission, and approved by all present at the plenary session of the Central Committee of the military personnel and the responsible party and Russian workers).