Statistics show that in the world every year the number of natural disasters. What factors influence this process, and how mankind can protect yourself from the elements binge?
Earthquake in China that killed more than 2,000 lives … The largest flood in decades in Pakistan, which affected millions of people … Violent summer rains in Europe, turned the streets of most cities in the Old World to the river and the mud bog … The eruption of the Icelandic volcano with the poetic name "Island of mountain glaciers," which led some countries to close the airport due to volcanic ash … This is not a complete list of natural disasters in 2010. Scientists are trying to understand what causes it and most importantly, how to fight it.
The most terrible phenomena of nature are considered earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Many of them have left an indelible mark in the memory of mankind and made history. The most legendary was, for example, an earthquake in China in 1556, which killed 800,000 people.
And for fifteen hundred years BC underwater volcano of Santorini has generated a huge tsunami that engulfed all of the Aegean islands and destroyed the Cretan-Mycenaean culture. Since this event is often associated Flood described in the Bible, says geologist, academician Viktor Osipov.
"At a later time, — said Academician Osipov — in 1883 in the islands of Java and Sumatra in Southeast Asia was a volcanic eruption of Krakatoa, which is considered the most powerful in the historical point of time. Most importantly, this area of the globe descended on the long time in the polar winter, that is completely been closed sunlight on Earth established darkness, came the cold. So really came Arctic winter in this part of the globe. "
Represent a danger to humanity as floods, hurricanes, droughts, fires, landslides, mudflows. These disasters have repeatedly threatened the inhabitants of the planet. However, statistics show — in the world is increasing catastrophic natural phenomena. Over the last century the number had increased significantly. Even faster is the growth of material damage associated with catastrophic events, emphasizes Victor Osipov:
"Calculations show that if the growth of the damage will continue at this rate, by the middle of this century, the volume in the world will reach three hundred billion dollars per year. This means that it will be almost half of the growth in global gross domestic product."
One reason for the increase in the number of disasters scientist considers the impact that the human population has on the environment. Nature taking revenge for earthlings thoughtless attitude. Another important risk factor is global warming. The most dangerous consequence of this process is the melting of glaciers, and as a consequence — rising sea levels, said Victor Osipov:
"This threat is extremely serious consequences. Explanation for this is that many countries have extensive coastal reduced territory, many major cities located in the coastal zone, which could be flooded as a result of even a meter rise of the ocean."
Man is not helpless in the face of disaster, experts believe. There are two ways, scientists believe, cataclysmic confrontation. The first — to minimize the dangerous process, manage, through the use of technology. For example, the spray into the atmosphere special substances that cause rain and helps to mitigate its negative effects in comparison with the natural development of the situation.
The second — to reduce the vulnerability of areas of residence and economic activities. For example, mapping of seismic hazards, strengthen the construction of buildings, build dams and drainage systems to reduce the level of groundwater.
The most important factor is the proactive and timely message to the people of the impending disaster. All of these measures in combination can significantly reduce the impact of natural disasters.
Since 1994, adopted in Yokohama (Japan) International strategy to combat natural disasters. Its main point is their warning: "It is better to prevent a disaster, — the document — than to eliminate its consequences."
Elena Kovacic, Andrei Smirnov