In modern Russian army military 60 percent consider themselves believers, 80 percent of them — Orthodox. Immediately in the Armed Forces are serving 13 percent of Muslims, Buddhists, three per cent. Four percent of the military personnel adhere to other religious beliefs. Taking into account this multi-religious composition, it is useful to turn to the pre-revolutionary experience of relations of the country, the Russian Orthodox Church, the military and spiritual department with representatives of other faiths and non-Orthodox denominations in the Russian army.
Gentiles — in pre-revolutionary Russian Federation adopted the official name of persons who are not followers of Orthodoxy. They first treated the followers of Islam, Lamaism, Judaism and paganism. "Non-Orthodox Confession" — the legislative term in the pre-revolutionary Russian Federation adopted to refer to non-Orthodox Christian denominations: Roman Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Armenian Gregorian, Evangelical-Augsburg, Evangelical Lutheran, Baptist and mennonistskogo.
As for the eighteenth — early XX century the issues of formation of religious policy, taking into account the presence of the army and navy of the Gentiles and non-Orthodox were pretty exciting ones. The history of the creation of a standing army in Russia closely intertwined with the practice of inviting foreign professionals, and together with them, and believers of other faiths.
Vera foreign spetsa
In the manifesto of Peter I on April 16, 1702 was declared "the call of foreigners in Russia, promising them freedom of religion." Data on the acquisition of the Russian fleet at first the eighteenth century show that the free self-employed in the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and Venice taken to the Russian service in 1703, about 200 people in 1714-1715-m — 150-200, and in the 1717th — 1500. As a result, 1717 year of 166 naval officers, 125 were foreigners. According to estimates researcher S. Boyko, during the reign of Peter I of 7 full generals foreigners were three of seven lieutenant-generals — 5, of the 23 major-generals — 719.
In the middle of the nineteenth century in the middle of the officers of other faiths as a percentage of all personnel there were in the infantry — 21.98 percent, in the cavalry — 27.43, in the artillery — 22.44, in the Royal Engineers — 29.68.
More exciting situation with the religious composition of the middle of the generals and officers of the early twentieth century. How should a number of sources, on 15 April 1914 of 169 full generals Germans were 48 (28.4%) of 371 Lieutenant-General — 73 (19.7%) of the 1034 major-generals — 196 (19%) etc.
It is possible that an increasing number of German military perceived orthodoxy. But a significant portion remained with their own faith. As a result, about 15 percent of the generals and officers at the time were non-Orthodox.
In the middle of the lower ranks of the army and the navy early twentieth century Orthodox was 75 percent. The remaining 25 percent were 9 percent — Catholics, 2 — Muslims, 1,5 — and 2,5 Lutherans — representatives of other faiths.
So makarom in during the eighteenth — early XX century in the Russian army was dominated by fighters of the Orthodox faith. Coupled with those in its ranks, served as a sufficient number of members of other faiths, making the issue of interfaith relations in the Armed Forces of the actual. How to manage to reach an agreement between the representatives of different faiths in the Russian army before the revolution?
Coercion of conscience is not vospriemlem
In the framework of relations with people of other religions and other faiths in the country, including those in the armed forces, is the principle of religious tolerance. In the manifesto of April 16, 1702 we read: "In our capital free Urinating faith of all … Enforcement of conscience for himself not vospriemlem." By a decree dated February 7, 1719 order of the Spiritual diocesan bishops with the copy of credentials of Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremiah instructed "not to cross the Lutherans and Calvinists, priemlyushchikh Orthodox faith." In the same year, on July 31, the Senate issued a decree "On the non-baptized Tatars and other infidels against their will." A decree of the Synod in 1721 the first non-Orthodox promised that "they, their kids, the descendants of his own faith in the natural abide own picks and pastors can contain all the privileges are obtained, which we have come for other foreigners either continue to complain."
In the upcoming these bases toleration, first liberty in worship, have been embodied in Articles 44, 45 Chief of the laws of the Russian Empire.
To realize these rights in practice statutes of Religious Affairs issued foreign religions, placed in Part 1 of that XI of the Laws of the Russian Empire.
The legal basis of the relationship to the soldiers of other faiths in the Army and served in the Navy military regulations, orders of the Minister of War, circulars, reviews of the Head of Staff. They anticipate the order of service non-Orthodox clergy, pastoral care company of soldiers of the Gentiles, the schedule time & attendance and festive days in which the infidels and foreigners were released from classes and orders, etc.
It is clear that in the second half of the nineteenth century in the states of the War Department appeared clerics heterodox religions. According to military bands they were in charge of the Head of Staff. According to the spiritual — in the Department of Religious Affairs of the Ministry of foreign religions of the Interior through the proper consistory.
Apart from the mullahs and rabbis in Warsaw environment at the headquarters of each army corps located there were Roman Catholic chaplains, divisional and Lutheran Evangelical Augsburg preachers. In the Crimean and Dagestan mounted shelves, consisting of warriors, followers of Islam, the mullahs have been in the states of each of the regiments. However, where statewide cleric was not foreseen, the domestic service of individuals and heterodox heterodox religions were placed on the local clergy to those territories where the military unit stationed. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran preacher, who was in Irkutsk, was fixed for the troops stationed in Irkutsk, the Yenisei province and in the Trans-Baikal and Yakutia regions, the allocation of funds for its maintenance, etc. In this Makar, or the presence of other non-Orthodox cleric religion depended on the religious composition of the lower ranks of the military unit.
Overall, in 1885, according to the staff of military land in the Russian army authorities provided 40 positions of the Roman Catholic, 38 — Evangelical Lutheran denominations. In addition, the State of Mohammedan Akhun mullahs and muezzins, consisting in the army, he divined nine units. The following states have designated representatives confessions unaltered.
Facilitate the implementation of religious obligations
Analysis of orders to the military authorities shows that the non-Orthodox clergy take advantage of all kinds of allowances that existed in the army and navy. Namely, the distinguished military-lifting equipment at check-in part, carried recurring premiums in salary for the service. Granted and the right to health by healing plants, and in the case of business trips — running, eating, daily, small general funds. It was believed and pensions. Housing allo
wance, it provides a breech servants flush with orthodox military and spiritual authority. True, there was also a feature. For example, the salary and lump sum benefits to families unorthodox clergy according to the order determined by the Secretary of War, and the purpose of pensions and benefits was performed by order of the Department of Religious Affairs of foreign religions. It almost everything explained the emergence of non-Orthodox clergy control of religion in the military.
After the military reform 1862-1874 years in the army and navy began to call representatives and other faiths. Particularly the question of the manner and methods to ensure the religious needs, in the armed forces of the Karaites, the Old Believers and the "other sects", stood after the publication of the provisions of the Committee of Ministers of 17 April 1905 on "Strengthening started tolerance" and the gift of freedom of conscience.
Documents of the military department also regulate the procedure for the spiritual care of persons unorthodox religion, from taking the oath and ending with regulation compliance own faith in their daily activities.
For example, the order of taking the oath for Muslims foresaw use of swear one of the accepted languages dokagataysko Tatar dialect, Turkish, Persian dialect aderbidzhano-Turkic dialect. The receiver had to repeat the words of the oath, which he read out a spiritual person, "the Mohammedan faith." If it is missing, then this obligation is imposed on any of the literate Muslims competent to swear allegiance seemed able to read the text of the oath itself. For lack of a literate and Muslim according to the annotation for "ignorance driven sworn face elegant to drive him to the thereof, should read him the words of the oath written in Russian letters."
Oath of Jewish recruits was carried out by a rabbi eyewitnesses from the authorities and from the Jewish community in the synagogue or school in which cast off the Jewish worship of the Sacred Books of the Sephira Toroyu. With all of this was stipulated that the oath should not be performed on the Sabbath and other Jewish prazdnichkom.
The practice of excluding interests of different religions in the time of their military service in military law evolved evenly. This, for example, shows such a fact. Since 1905, in Vilna, Warsaw, Kazan, Irkutsk and other area commanders appeared orders that provided the right commanders dismissal of the lower ranks of the Roman Catholic and Evangelical Lutheran confessions from ordinary activities for the hearing official worship in certain solemn days are. With the indication of the name and prazdnichka day or on which it comes in a calendar year. For example, it is for Catholics — All Saints, the immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary (December 8), Corpus Christi (the 11th day after the Holy Trinity). For Lutherans — a day of universal repentance and prayer (Wednesday 2nd week stateliness of the post), the Nativity of John the Baptist (June 24) and the day of the Reformation (celebrated at the end of October).
The Charter of the Internal Service 1910 recruiting temper these events have already been built into the law of military life in the form of the schedule time & attendance and festive days. Apart from the name-giving confessions, the schedule provided for 13 Mohammedan, 11 Lama, 7 Karaite, 13 Jewish festive days. In these days of lower ranks of these confessions obtained exemption from service activities for hearing services, perpetrated by the rituals of their faith.
Tired of 1914 in the article "worship on the ship 'instructed' Gentiles Christian denominations make public prayer by the rules their own faith, with the permission of the commander, at the appointed place … During long voyages they retire, according to ability, to his church to pray and to Lenten Retreat. " The same statute allowed the ship being on Muslims and Jews recite prayers by the rules of their own faith: Muslims — on Fridays, Jews — on Saturdays. In the main prazdnichkom Gentiles are usually exempt from service, and fired on the saved.
Legal acts not only provide military ranks right of freedom of worship in relation to the administration of their own faith, and oblige officials to "assist their subordinates, not excluding seconded, in the performance of religious obligations imposed on their religion."
Cultivate respect confessions
Did not stand aside from the issue of interfaith relations in the army and navy and the Russian Orthodox Church. Given the difficulty of this prepyadstviya the database activity in military criteria it laid the principles of monotheism, respect other faiths and religious rights of their representatives, religious tolerance and missionary work.
The manuals of military chaplains placed in the "Bulletin of the chaplains' (1892 year), Explained: "All of us, Christians, Moslems, Jews, immediately pray together to God, so God Almighty, the Creator of heaven and earth and all that is on earth, is for all of us one true God."
The inadmissibility of the troops of religious conflicts, any infringement of the rights and advantages of other faiths supporters sent more than once attention of chaplains in the military chaplain's own circulars and sea clergy. Greatness Orthodox priests encouraged to support the war "is not a word denunciation of other faiths, as a matter of selfless Christian service to both Orthodox and non-Orthodox, remembering that last shed blood for the Faith, Tsar and Fatherland and that we have with them is one Christ, one gospel and one baptism. "
What's all the same for the state-wide approach to the dilemma, even a small excursion into the history of the religious policy of the army and the navy can say that the main condition merits interfaith peace was that the interests of members of different faiths who were in its ranks. This was done by means of the creation of the legal framework to regulate the affairs of the warriors, the infidels, the institution of non-orthodox and heterodox clergy in the army and navy, the introduction of the regulation of the spiritual care of the lower ranks of the non-Orthodox religion.
And now no one longs to build an army arena of interfaith disputes. At the same time, inertia, self-restraint, which shows the military command in the development of cooperation with other (except for the Russian Orthodox Church), Christian associations, also with Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish organizations in expanding the work of military clergy, serve as an obstacle to the solution of urgent moral problems in the Armed Forces.
Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism and other religions are an integral part of the historical heritage of the peoples of Russia. Do not consider this impossible. But the presence of the barracks representatives of different faiths poses the problem of religious tolerance in the day or agenda, and it should be addressed now, including the use of certain structural elements of the historical experience of the Russian army of pre-revolutionary period. According to the deepest conviction of the creator, the creation of the preconditions for sustainable social development the government should strive to cultivate not only in society, and in the army and navy among religious tolerance and tolerance, respect for the principle of freedom of religion, ravnouvazhitelnoe treatment of all legitimate religious organizations operating in the country.