If the economy determines the policy, it is unrealistic to realize the cause of the ultra-right movement in Russia, without understanding the socio-economic situation in the early 1990s. The period after the collapse of the Union of Russian, characterized by a transition to a market economy has led to a sharp socio-economic differentiation.
As a result of economic reforms of the 1990s (first, as a result of privatization of state property) above 26 million Russians were below the poverty line. The staff of the Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences was held all-encompassing study of social inequality. According to the results it was found that more than a third of Russia's population lives at risk of poverty, and 7% are in the last poverty, and 17% — in the midst of a constant risk of being poor [4, 178-179].
According to the views of the researcher G. Anisimova, a consequence of the privatization of the Russian Federation was split into two parts, which differ from each other not only the level of real security, and value systems, values and stereotypes of public behavior. Formed as a result of socio-economic differentiation in society, the country is "rich" does not want to know how to live "poor country" [1, 24]
Kvazilekarstvom from the public was split declarative nationalism, expressed in the myth of the unity of civilization, its aims and objectives, the historic appointment and election. On the basis of similar myths in Russia began to form ultra-right movement, one of the purposes of which was the suppression of the "Left" tendencies in society. The popularity of nationalism as a political ideology capable of great fight with leftist movements, leveling the class struggle, and sought to explain the widespread introduction of far-right activists populist socialist slogans.
As a result, the merger of the nationalist and socialist discourse, rhetoric appeared, based on populism and demagoguery, and has nothing in common with any real statistics, nor to science in general. Specifically, this fact is explained by the fact that fascism was not built an exact theory, in what could be scientifically talk about the economy and the driving forces of human society. Yet, the National Socialist ideology successfully cope with their own problems: a method of high-quality manipulation, which include a wide range of ways of outright heresy to half-truths, it has diverted people from fighting for their economic and political rights.
Recently, namely reflected in the fact that the far-right was transferred wave of public discontent with the oligarchs guilty of social split society on illegal migrant workers who have been demonized in public consciousness, presented to the people as the source of countless ills.
More details on the dilemma of stopping migrants and the horrors associated with them, it is worth noting that the ultra-right movement in Russia intensively uses the topic, not far from the case by its total range problems. The activities of Russian businessmen, who in the pursuit of lucre frisky steel to recruit disenfranchised, from the standpoint of the law, the people, has meant that the trade and construction began to grow, and sometimes even dominate, the number of illegal immigrants.
Russians began to lose their own jobs, but illegal immigrants who have replaced them, were quite powerless. Deprived of passports they often live in mud huts and dilapidated barracks. Candidate of Legal Sciences, SE Metelev, describing the situation of irregular migrants in Russia, says: "The delay salary actually converted back to normal, as well as different forms of labor exploitation — from being forced to work in harsh criteria and deceptions in the calculations, to restrictions on freedom of movement and corporal punishment. Migrant workers are practically defenseless not only to the arbitrariness of employers, and workers to the abuse of administrative structures and law enforcement agencies "[5, 61].
If society treats immigrants (both legal and illegal) as equal to themselves, barbaric treatment business owner to his subordinates would have been impossible. In the case of Russian society, understanding the unity of interests of all working people, boundless exploitation of one part of workers, coupled with unemployment another part would be impossible. But the need for additional social spending could cause a severe blow to the well-being of Russian businessmen. In this connection, the myth of the far-right Workers hostility towards Russian was could not be more helpful. Moreover, frightening society workers, also popularized the ultra their activities and whitewash themselves in the eyes of the public. Positioning of migrants as enemies of Russian society, the nationalists claim to be intercessors Russians and assure the population in need right movement.
Doctor of Historical Sciences, SF Vititnev, describing the formation of ultra-right movement in the West, says that it is formed from the lower strata of the middle class when the dominating influence over obscurantist layers of big bourgeoisie [3, 15]. But in the modern Russian Federation, the process took a somewhat different scenario.
As a result of economic reforms in the country there were oligarchs who were afraid of losing their position, but how much-or significant middle class and has not appeared. In general, the Russian media say more. Commenting on the information to the media about the presence of RF middle class doctor of historical sciences Galkin notes: "With the Russian time stuck in the public mind the notion that in society there must be a mass social group constituting the support of existing political regime. At one time it was considered the working class. We now have a new regime should show its social support — the middle class. If not, then it should be done, and if it is not — that, in the latter case invent "[8, 119].
A fascinating study conducted PhD DI Petrosian, who notes that in the sociology of well designed aspects through which you can refer people to the middle class. On these issues is that to meet the middle-class Russians must have income of 1 person family for a month, more than 150 thousand rubles. According to the most optimistic estimates, the share of Russians is less than 20% [6, 21]. But the level of income for the properties of the middle class as a political force, fighting for power in the state, is not enough. Average class must have the proper parties representing their interests in parliament. But the political organizations that claim about themselves as protectors of the middle class society in Russia are substantially absent. They are, or are not required to overcome the consulate in the parliament election threshold, or do not receive the registration. Therefore, even if the average class and exists in the contemporary RF, read about his
political weight in advance.
In view of all the foregoing, the ultra-right movement in the Russian Federation had a different social base than in the West. His base was the proletariat and the petty number of the middle class.
In the 1990s, the nationalist movement largely worked with the "street", which involved his own left-wing political activities of the organization, with strong support of the impoverished population. During this period, more well-known far-right organization was the "Russian National Unity" (RNE). The main focus of its own supporters RNE elected massacre foreigners also promote their own activities with graffiti and flyers. But, with the advent of the 2000s, the situation changed. In the period 2001-2004, there was a significant decrease in the number of close RNE skinheads and began prosecuting favorites "street" far right. PhD in Political Sciences SV Belikov binds occurred configuration with a reinforced focus on RNE TV and press [2, 28].
Sunset RNE could help other incidents. For the time being a part of the Russian oligarchy obscurantist was satisfied fragmented far-right groups throughout the Russian Federation, but the political situation in the country required a more active involvement of right-wing movements in public policy. But in the form in which the ultra-existed in the 1990s, it was impossible to do.
Ultra-right movement was forced to reform. Harassment skinheads law enforcement agencies, on the one hand, influenced the decrease in the number of far-right youth, and on the other hand, contributed to the increase in their literacy and self-organization. Corresponding feature ultra-right movement is the disappearance of aggressive, brutal, and organizations like the National Unity parish associations in their place more adapted to the liberal-democratic political system.
Favorites of the ultra-right organizations are becoming more intelligent and economically successful people. One of the more recognizable organizations ultra modern wave in Russia has become "Movement Against Illegal Immigration "(Movement Against Illegal Immigration), which called the main direction of its activities" advocacy ".
Taking into account the event that the ultra-right movement acts as the opposite of left-wing forces, it can be argued that its development is not yet complete. The more aggravated by socio-economic and political inequality in the Russian Federation, the greater the financial elite of the country would be interested in the far-right movement. One can even imagine that, in this case the representatives of the Russian business will not meet the prevailing liberal-parliamentary political system, far right can speak openly with the requirement to establish a dictatorship in the country a strong hand as did the Nazis in a period of acute social and political crisis of capitalism. In an effort to give soc and the political response to the needs of the development of productive forces, Fascism, on the views of researchers, is specific preventive counter-revolution, masked by the revolution. [9, 352]
Right-wing movements in the modern Russian Federation emerged as a result of socio-economic reforms of the early 1990s period. Most of the hope that is fueled society, listening to Democratic politicians, and realized it was not fate that led to widespread disillusionment and served as a breeding ground for the spread thoughts of nationalism and extremism. Together with the fact retouching nationalists on public social stratification, the announcement of migrant workers the main enemies of indigenous Russians impartially and do play into the hands of the monetary interests of the Russian oligarchy, which is interested in preserving ultrapravovgo movement in the country, once defeated fascism.
1. Anisimov, GV The tasks of socio-economic differentiation in the Russian society. Economic and statistical analysis. Moscow: Publishing house «LIBRIKOM", 2009.
2. Sergey Belikov Skinheads. All about skinheads. Exclusive materials. 4th edition, revised and enlarged (Series Ultra Culture). — Moscow: World of Books, 2011.
3. Vititnev SF Belozertcev EI Neo-fascist movement in Germany. — M.: Prometheus, 1990.
4. MK Gorshkov, Tikhonov NE Social inequality and social policy in the modern Russian Federation — Moscow 2008.
5. Metelev SE International labor migration and illegal migration in Russia: monograph — Moscow: UNITY-DANA: Law and the Law, 2006
6. D. Petrosyan, lead IV "What is middle class in modern Russian Federation?" / / Problems of formation of the middle class in modern Russia: Materials of international scientific-practical conference ". — Vladimir, 2009.
7. The program Movement Against Illegal Immigration. — URL: http://www.dpni.org/articles/dokumenti/13255/ (date of proclamation 26.06.11)
8. Simonian AD "Without anger or bias. The economic reforms of the 1990s and their implications for Russia "Moscow: Economics, 2010. — P. 253
9. M. Filatov, Alexander Ryabov Fascism 80s. — Alma-Ata Kazakhstan, 1983. — P. 351