Russian language has never been alien to Ukraine. It is not recorded in our Palestine shod in sandals bearded Finno-Finns. Russian language — in the original, which was called for another 600 years ago Russ, and then down to the first Soviet Ukrainization Stone.
History of Ukrainian bilingual
Language in Russia at the time of Yaroslav the Wise and Alexander Nevsky was one. And he was called the Russian, not old Ukrainian. This language is, of course, included several dialects. It would be strange if they were not on such a wide area, are part of Kievan Rus. Now a resident of the village of Don not confuse with the Urals.
Here is an excerpt on the original source, "The Tale of Bygone Years … where have gone the Russian land, who start the first in Kiev knyazhiti and where there was the Russian land" written to "slovenskom language," "a slovensky language and Rusko is one":
'In the summer 6370. izgnasha Varyag overseas. Dasha and im tribute. and pochasha themselves in sobe aladeti. and whi Bb nih pravdy. ivsta rod to rod. and things were made strife Bb nih. and voevati themselves on Xia pochasha. and decide for yourself a prince poischem sobe others like us and would vladel ryadil a number and rightly so. and idosha overseas Kl Kl varyagom Rus … "
And this rather "verb" parent present Russian style, and not the modern Ukrainian, for a Russian man with little difficulty understand the text, and Galician, not burdened by the knowledge of the "Russian Language", hardly comprehend what saith the chronicler Nestor. Although he believed in the doctrine of Ukrainian fundamentalists that the monk scratching pen on old Ukrainian, from which even in antediluvian times branched out all mere languages.
Serious lexical differences speech inhabitants of Moscow and southern Russia (Dnepr) began to appear in the late XIV century, because of the historical disasters.
From the middle of XII century clearly delineated decline Southern Russia with its center in Kiev. As if anticipating a fatal disaster in the East, a gradual exodus of Russian princes and the people in sparsely forested northeastern Russia. Kievan Rus gradually flowed into Russia Vladimir. At the end of the XII century, Metropolitan of Kiev and moved his residence to Vladimir.
"… The area around Kiev emptied in 12-13 centuries. Too often ruining the nomads, and were largely populated by Turkic military colonists …" — wrote Hrushevsky in "Essays on the history of the Ukrainian people."
"And the Dnieper, while not completely emptied, although the common people here remained lost all cultural life: it is barely warm, finding a defense only in some monasteries. The population did not rise up to take advantage of everyday concerns, there was no one to order books, icons, vestments and expensive jewelry, "- developed his idea of the catastrophic decline of Kievan Rus Hrushevsky in the" Illustrated History of Ukraine. "
Mongol invasion was finalized with the expansion of Kiev in all aspects: cultural, economic and political. Original territory of Russia was empty so that from approximately 1275 Golden Horde khans had given up on these areas by hand and stopped issuing labels to reign in Kiev, as a tribute to collect was not with anyone. And no man's wasteland in 1362 without major disasters went to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which, in essence, was the Russian state. Kievan Rus became a legend "olden". But she managed to pass the baton of Vladimir historical Russia.
At the end of XIV century the political rapprochement between Poland and Lithuania. Before the conclusion of 1569 the Union of Lublin, ushering in the creation of the state of the Commonwealth, among them established alliances based Krevsk Union, which existed intermittently from 1385. Since the Kiev land gradually took possession of the Polish magnates. And if the Russian dialect of Northern Russia was influenced quite small Finno-Ugric tribes, in southern Russia in trouble.
"Flooded mass of the petty gentry as Panskih administrators, rulers estates tenants" — wrote D. Doroshenko in "Essays on the history of Ukraine."
Remaining in the Dnieper Russian peasants fell under the power of the Polish gentry. Since that time and began the formation of the Russian-Polish dialect, which later will be called Ukrainian movoy.
"When there is no written language, change the language of the people rather than when it is" — says the truism Harvard professor Ukrainian Omelyan Pritsak.
To communicate with a large pans servants, illiterate Russian commoner had to break the language, so to understand what he is required hosts. It is ridiculous to think that an educated Polish nobility, snobby and arrogant to the mayhem, could condescend to study local customs and Slavic-Russian. So there were slaves in the language in a variety of Polish words: Chuprin (hair), shaggy (Shaggy) Shkirya (skin), Tsibulya (onion), Roslin (plant), Nasinnya (seeds), corn (rye), Kaushik (basket) minds (the contract), podatok (tax), hvoroba (illness), tavern (tavern), keruvat (lead), panuvaty (rule), zoshit (Book) …
The two hundred Turkisms (chicken, Gorgol, Kavun, kosh, kilim, bull, Maidan, cauldron, Kobza, Cossack, fence, Bayrak, mogorich, Koch …) and a nickname for Turkish fashion (end-chuk,-yk-to — s) have added about 1,000 Polish words, revealing a world language vigorous mix which Ukrainians call "folk movoy." Onaya formed the basis of the Ukrainian literary language, rapidly invent the mid XIX century, a handful of provincials, denied the Russian name. Another would be a hundred years of Polish colonization — and hamlets of Little Russian Slavic-Russian language as well as the faith of their ancestors would have remained only a vague memory.
In another case in the cities, large towns and monasteries. They and grass-roots population was largely literate and lived in monasteries all people exceedingly scientist. After all, the Orthodox clergy had not only kropat record, rewrite religious literature, but also to productive debates with Catholic clergy. So efficient that Patriarch Nikon as planned reform of church rites, called in the Orthodox Pervopristolnuyu rhetoricians of Little Russia.
In the urban population literacy Little at the time, perhaps, surpassed the Great townspeople planted. Suffice to say that they have learned to "grammar" "sinner Mnichov" Meletius Smotritsky, written in 1618-1619 gg. His finger on it and Mikhail Lomonosov. Not a great chance Pomor called "grammar" Smotritsky along with "Psalm rifmotvornoy" Simeon of Polotsk and "Arithmetic" Magnitsky "gates of his learning." It was only in 1755 to replace the "grammar" Smotritsky came "Russian Grammar" University.
"The people are educated tight behind its original, persist in their customs and ancestral memory" (Nikolai Kostomarov, "Two Russian People"), because the city does not happen Polonization the extent to which this has occurred in the villages. Enough to read the sources of the time. For example, Peresopnytsia Gospel (1555-1561 gg.), Which vowed velikoukr Yushchenko. It is written in Russian, with a very small patches of Polish words.
"In the beginning was the Word. And the word was from God, and God was the Word. That was on the cob with God and all the speeches were over it Xia. And without it being Nisht could, if … And there was The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not obyymet … "- that there should be translated for the modern Russian readers? But for the modern Ukrainian ce already "foreign mova".
Philip Orlik notorious Constitution (which Ukrainians called them on her own way Pylyp) also written tall Russian calm. Photocopy of the document can be viewed here.
The first page is easy to read: "Treaties and Regulations of the rights and liberties of the noble army balks Yasna His grace Pan Philip Orlik elect troops Zaporozhskago Hetman and between persons of the General, Colonel, and Tym same Zaporozhian full s … will please both sides."
There is only one word is somewhat unusual — "gladden", meaning "joy, joy." But it sounded at the time, not only in Little Russia, but also in Great Russia. In particular, it is widely used in Zaonezhje and neighboring areas of the North (http://www.prosv.ru/ebooks/lib/60_Kluev/Slovar '. Rtf).
Manuscript Orlik «Word» barely said a red line. This means that even for the modern spelling of the Russian language text does not look too illiterate.
By the way, the "contract" between the Cossack leaders and the Swedish King Charles XII may be considered "Constitution Square Cossack power '" (perhaps the first constitution in the world), people clearly inadequate or have not read his article. In principle, there can be "independent" power to recognize the King of Sweden "permanent protectors" (Article 2).
But do not let the bad myths
In the cities of Little Russia largely remained Russian. Return in 1654, South Russia into the fold of the Russian world thwarted further Polonization language and culture in general. However, on farms where the Polish nobility (especially on the right bank) is still owned considerable land holdings, the reverse process has been weakened.
For example, in Ukraine arose bilingualism: the Russian language in the cultural and crafts center and the Russian-Polish surzhik in villages.
Even powerful Ukrainization, which began immediately after coming to power, the Bolsheviks stubborn, has met strong resistance in the cities of Ukraine. Already in the 30's of the city was left in peace. Local national anxious frames switched tactics creeping Ukrainization. But it is up to 1991 had little success. "Seluk" migrating to the cities, so as not to fall out of the holder, immediately go to the Russian language, because all the cultural, scientific and technical life naturally defines a "great and powerful."
Difficulties in Ukraine mighty industrial and scientific centers cemented Russian. He now is the language of science and technology, and culture. Employees Yuzhmash, Kiev Aviant or Kharkov aircraft factory — well, the life of me, do not make the move to the MOV. Is that the end to defeat them and build on the ruins of a pig farm.
All that is more or less significant created in literature and cinema, has the seal of Russian culture. Has anyone seen Ukrainian films in which the characters would talk to the sovereign move? A Ukrainian literature at the Centre and in the South East are reading diagonally only by family and close friends "pismennykiv." And this after the unprecedented collision with Russian culture.
Syndrome "signaller Cat"
About 20 years ago, the Nobel Prize for Literature poet Brodsky, did not, Orthodox, listening at a party in New York inflamed speeches of the representatives of the Ukrainian Diaspora, reminded them of the birthright:
"Only when you come and die, Bug,
Will you wheeze, scraping the edge of the mattress,
Lines from Alexander, not bullshit Taras. "
Knew what he was talking about. When a person becomes a very bad (or very good), then with his tongue against his will fly out words in their native language — "syndrome signaller Kate."
A similar thing happened to megaperesichnym Ukrainian Pan Yushchenko. From the interrogation doctor-masseur Yushchenko Yuri Desyatskogo, massive "myazy" future national president (at one time he pulled the strap suspect in the "poisoning"):
'If mene spent in the apartment, VA Yushchenko Meni rosіyskoyu movoyu saying: "Yuri, I'm bad."
If you read the transcripts of telephone conversations of our mozhnovladtsev, abundant walking on the Web, we do not hear Language Society. Only Russian or light surzhik. In the crucial moments of life and long-winded Tymoshenko and Ukrainian prolific writer Kuchma and fearless Chervonenko, and other "interior" Ukrainians prefer "great and mighty."
Filmets looked about eccentric mayor of Kiev. At a party in the "family estate" Chernivtsi birthday his wife was going to the color of Ukrainian politics. Well, even if someone offers something blurted out to the sovereign. No, just "moskalskaya" with fricative southern Russian "g". Wide company "rozbudarey" Ukraine was warm and comfortable, because it was pouring herself a Russian speech. Birthright, however, has an effect.
Even Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian Literature appointed genius, poured in a diary their innermost thoughts exclusively Russian style. Is the language in which the thought is a foreign language? And its simple verse has little to do with the modern "movoyazom."
Taking into Polish
Now the Ukrainian language are developing rapidly in the direction of the increasing polonisation. I am familiar with the editor has presented "Polish-Russian dictionary" with the words: "Learn Ukrainian." Indeed, upon hearing an unfamiliar word on TV, I immediately turn to the Polish interpreter for help, and he rarely fails me. So, I found out that the "native" Ukrainian word "rozbudova" obvious borrowing from Polish (rozbudova — deployment of construction).
Do not be lazy, I took some shots in a few days in the dictionary 600 words taken from the Poles donated for Ukrainian domestic use. And there, where the Poles word sounds like Russian, usually hastily forged ZHAKO logo. Often such "forged" directly breaking humorists in the repertoire. Maybe we, rejecting false shame, start learning in schools «jezyk polski» as the only true in Ukraine? If the gentry gave us the name of the country, a hand with a hymn, what break?
Not renounce loving
Coming census, scheduled for year 2012. It is important to convey to people that the Russian language in Ukraine is not an alien, but on the contrary — there are indigenous. For the majority of countries, it is the language in which they think. Therefore it is necessary to clarify the terms "mother tongue" and "nationality" without blurring their pseudo-scientific and ideological nonsense. Take, for example, the classic Russian film Vladimir Bortko in an interview to "Rossiyskaya Gazeta" defines the ethnic identity of the person: "I think so, I was born and raised in Kiev, I know Ukrainian, in the literal sense, for me the mother tongue. But I think I said in Russian. Language, culture defines national identity ".
I know a lot of people do not speak the Ukrainian either at work or with your family, reading his children a dream-tales of Pushkin and Chukovsky, but I believe that if they live in Ukraine, you have to define themselves and Ukrainians and movu considered native speech. Absurd! People are confused by the anti-Russian propaganda. Maybe in the census questionnaire should be made to the column "language in which you communicate with loved ones."
But while the president suffers, suffers Prime grumbling traffic cops, and the farmers, obsevshie central authority, like a crow, not without effort to communicate in a language that is becoming increasingly similar to one of the Polish dialects.