Great Sphinx of Giza in the valley — an ancient Egyptian sphinx. This statue with the head of a man and a lion's body always looks to the East along the 30th parallel, it is as if waiting for something, her eyes are always directed to a single point on the horizon, where, during the equinox the sun should rise. Sphinx is carved out of the limestone monolith, the bedrock of the Giza Plateau, the height of 20 meters and a length of almost 72 meters.
According to one legend, the head of the Sphinx — very similar to the Pharaoh Khafre (Chephren), according to another legend, the Sphinx represents the god Horus, son of Ra, watching the sunrise on the horizon.
Sphinx — Arabic Abu El Hol, meaning "father of terror." In mythical tales of ancient Greek Sphinx, the monster generated Ehidnoy and Typhon, face and chest as a woman, body of a lion and the wings of a bird. Anyone who wants to enter in Thebes, he asked a riddle: "What walks on four legs in the morning, two in the afternoon and evening on three?". All who answered incorrectly, the Sphinx killed. Oedipus solved the riddle, he said that he is a man in his early childhood, adulthood and old age. Then Sphinx rushed down the cliff.
Egyptologist Selim Hassan proposed an alternative etymology. During 1930-1940, the major excavations, which he led to the Giza plateau, he found evidence that in Lower Egypt beginning of the II millennium BC lived a colony of aliens, the Zealot.
According to one version, the Sphinx originally portrayed simply a lion, and a human face, it was given during the reign of the pharaoh Khafre (opposite the pyramid, which he is).
They came out of the holy city Harrama that the south of modern Turkey at the Syrian border and were strangers. They left after the memorial steles and articles prove that they lived near the Sphinx and considered him a god named Hvl.
"BV" in ancient Egyptian language means "place." Therefore Hassan suggests that Abu al-Hol may just bc Hvl distorted, or "place Hvla" and no means "father of terror."
There is another version of the Sphinx in ancient times compared with Garmahisom (Gore, in the eternal kingdom of the world living on the edge of the world), a type of god sokologolovogo guardian. Many thought that the statue has its own soul, like the souls of the pharaohs. It was believed that the statue is endowed with reason and never closes his eyes. His wake was key to maintaining the constancy of the universe and the immutability of the ways of the Moon and the Sun.
Sphinx guarding the approaches to the pyramids of Chephren (Khafre), Menkaure (Menkaure) and Cheops (Khufu). For centuries, the body of the Sphinx was repeatedly covered with sand, on the surface there was only his head (up to five meters), but from time to time once benevolent ruler gave the order to clear the statue from the sand. The most famous was made clearing Pharaoh Thutmose IV. Legend has it that one day, while still a candidate for the throne, Thutmose was hunting near the pyramids. Tired, he fell asleep in the shadow of the monolith. During sleep, God appeared to him Garmahis who represented the Sphinx, and asked to dig up his body, crushed tons of sand. And in return, he promised him a double crown of Egypt to Pharaoh, and his master of Upper and Lower Egypt.
They say that the future of the pharaoh had doubts about the throne, and so he vowed to fulfill the will of God, to get the crown for sure. When he became pharaoh, Thutmose IV kept his vow, and the statue of the Sphinx has been excavated. At the same time found the head and fell Sphinx they lay in the sand between his front paws. Likely to facilitate the restoration work, the entire head Sphinx sawed into several massive blocks and then installed in parts into place. We can assume that at the same time and other details of the head (best clothes, head of the snake, the royal crown and the divine beard) were also restored. Sphinx's body covered with sand, the last time it was excavated in 1905, and he appeared to his contemporaries in all its beauty and grandeur.
Traces of destruction on the face of the Sphinx, are not only the natural erosion caused by the influence of water and air. Partly disfigured his gun Mamluks, who honed skill target shooting, gun part of Napoleon's army used the Sphinx as a target. The British simply break off his beard, and sent it to the British Museum. But there are still traces of more ancient vandalism. The early Islamic desert swallowed the Sphinx to the neck. Al-Maqrizi wrote (in XIV century) that a person named Saim al-Dahr, from fanatical and religious motives (forbidden in Islam to depict the human face), disfigured head Sphinx. According to another version, the Egyptian government in 1380 ordered the person to break Abu El Hool just because a Muslim can be no other God except Allah.
Today penetrates into the pores of the monolith, acrid smoke of numerous plants lime in Cairo. Erodes rock and emissions of automobile engines. Now the Sphinx is clearly ill.
In 1990, a council of experts from France, Egypt, Germany and the U.S. decided what to do next after the last century Sphinx was damaged more than 4,000 years. Their conclusion was that in order to save from destruction the Great Sphinx need millions of dollars, and now for the first time to close the monument cap made of plastic and completely prohibit approach him all the tourist buses.
Modern Egyptologists claim that the Sphinx was set in the era IV dynasty. Why do they think? One of the reasons — it's syllable, knocked on a granite stele, which just stands between his front paws. Scientists give this as evidence that the monument erected Khafre. But the stele can not be contemporary with the Sphinx. It only perpetuates the Tuthmosis IV and his heroic effort (1401 — 1391 BC), who dug the Sphinx out of the sand and describes the monument as the embodiment of "the eternal magic power, which was in place from the beginning of all time."
After the liberation of Egypt from another conqueror (XII century BC. E.) Sculpture unearthed again. From that moment, an epoch in the development of the art of ancient Egypt, with mass production of tens of thousands of miniature lions with human heads. From various talismans (worn on the body) to the size of the natural African lion. Giant statues did not. Near the temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the Egyptians built the whole alley granite sphinxes. Later, these avenues were built in all subsequent burial temples of the pharaohs.
Sphinx conceals secrets as much as the Pyramid of Cheops, and the study of the monument often resemble adventure than academic experiments.
Japanese scientists in 1988 under the direction of Professor Sakudzhi Ioshimura using sonar showed that the treated surface of the Sphinx is much older than the pyramids of power! A second result was an even more sensational: electronics found under the left paw of the narrow tunnel, directed towards the pyramid of Khafre. It begins at a depth of two meters and goes down the pan. Trace it on while it was impossible, but Ioshimura promised to create a new device, especially for the study of the underground passage.
American geophysicist Thomas Do-Betsky, in the early 90's, around the statue had its seismographic research. Very complex instruments, which he brought with him, found numerous anomalies and cavity between the paws of the Sphinx and all its sides. Thomas Do-Betsky describes one of these cavities as follows. This cavity is quite large, it has a size of 9×12 meters at a depth of a little less than 5 meters. The rectangular shape of the right, which is unlikely for cavities of natural origin. Because there is every reason to assume that this is the work of man.
Sphinx — Pyramids silent guardian keeper of secrets of ancient civilizations. If there are many versions of its origin and role in the history of either one, alas, is still not convincing.
Category: Mystery stories