70 years ago, the fascist cruiser "Komet" made unprecedented raid in the Pacific Ocean, dropping to the bottom of a 10-ka British military transports
In the middle of November 1940 in the Pacific Ocean suddenly appeared fascist auxiliary cruiser "Komet". The results of his raid on ocean communications have caused a shock in the Admiralty of England: a half months over the 10-ka British transports ammunition, food, medical supplies were sent to the bottom. As a raider slipped unnoticed to the Pacific theater of war? British intelligence agencies have not been able to answer this question. The mystery kept secret, which is almost 70 years old kept archives of the NKVD-KGB-FSB, was sudden: secretly infiltrate the Nazi cruiser Pacific assist Russian icebreakers, "Joseph Stalin", "Lenin" and "Kaganovich", having its northern sea by. What is behind this story — bungling specialists from the NKVD or planned action against the Kremlin England?
"The ship unloaded"
In February 1940, the closing of the Soviet-German talks about wiring the North Sea to the east by the west about 30 German courts, allegedly loaded with soybeans. When the negotiations are approaching completion, the German side suddenly included in the list of two "ship without cargo" — for posting on the contrary, from west to east.
Glavmorput allocated for posting icebreakers, "Joseph Stalin", "Lenin" and "Kaganovich." The main transport authority (GTU) NKVD introduced to the staff of the expedition's own operatives "to counter the German intelligence and security information center on the voyage."
In July 1940, the caravan moved to the east. One of the German ships immediately aroused suspicion Russian sailors. According to initial the documents he had the title of "Comet", but soon in agreement with the Russian party was renamed "Fyrol." In one of the first reports of the NKVD operatives in GTU reported: "Many members of our crew icebreaker expressed the view that the German transport is a warship disguised as commercial. Expressing a belief that especially the highest board of transport are heightened, so that at the right time, they would be omitted. "
But it seems that "authorities" were well aware of the "Fyrole" — "Comet" and without those reports. In the declassified material has such a reference GTU NKVD: "The German steamer" Comet "- at the watch magazine — an auxiliary cruiser, a team of 200 people, the pipe reworked, double side, the bridge of the armor. Driven: artillery shells, torpedoes … armed, but gun hidden in the hold. " And this despite the agreement on the wiring without cargo ships!
Later his report operatives reported: "Command" Fyrola "does not hide that the team is composed of sailors. On it every day to conduct military ceremonies, all control — the officers."
Strannovataya position NKVD
It goes a little weird is the lack of reaction by the NKVD on these reports. It creates the impression that center specially arranged by the Germans did not notice a simple masquerade. Maybe the Kremlin believed that the more painful blows get England from the Nazis, so it will be more amenable to negotiations with the Soviet Union to develop a European system of collective security?
Indirect evidence that the Kremlin was looking through his fingers on the wiring of the fascist camouflaged cruiser is a complete disregard for municipal belated attempts to head the Northern Sea Route famous polar explorer Ivan Papanina to stop the operation. August 25, 1940, he radioed the leader of the expedition: "In view of the military disposition of German steamer return it back to the west one of the icebreakers at your convenience. Twice a day molniruyte his position. Performing radiruyte."
But at the headquarters of the wiring decided, apparently, to gain time. Papanin received such a response: "Your 25 is not realized. Whom to return to the West: steamer or Krepshta (representative of the German Embassy to" Fyrole. "- Ed.). Explain."
As long as the quizzes in the "fool", the caravan approached nezapyatannoy water, and the need for icebreakers cruiser virtually disappeared. "When asked, — stated in the certificate of GTU NKVD — according to the order of Comrade. Papanina return back cruiser commander said that he is subject only to their own government, is the sovereign owner of the ship, and how would find it necessary, will do so. If you do not take off from my own pilots he said, I'll drop them in the saving value in Billings or other comfortable place. And go as intended. "
Soon the Germans did so. Sergius and Melekhova pilots landed on the store, and the headquarters of ironic postings sent a telegram: "We are grateful for the successful sponsorship of our trek across the Arctic."
It may be that our intelligence agencies and the Foreign Ministry made a criminal mistake, for what at the time some people could earn and the "tower". But the practical conclusions are not followed. Only Papanin "menacing" goof informed the headquarters of the expedition: "September 13 evening called personally, Comrade Molotov, and made the remark in accented tone (sic radiograms. — Ed.). Expressed dissatisfaction that the Northern Sea Route is not able to follow the progress of the German steamer from Pevek and next. " This weird rebuke (what does "track" when it — in the wiring of a warship in the guise of a commercial?) All the "repression" and over.
Maybe in the Kremlin did not know about what kind of pig planted the British Northern Sea Route? You do not. In December 1940, the main party newspaper "Pravda" said a German raider, "operates in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and sank a huge number of British ships." It was about the cruiser "Komet".
The victorious raid
His first campaign for this potential victim — the South American ship "Elwood Town" — Commander "Comet"Let go, because the United States has remained neutral and military cargo on board the vessel was not. The subsequent goal, the New Zealand ship "Holmwood", sunk by artillery, before taking off for the team. After a day or two were killed British passenger and refrigerated vessel "Rengitin." It refused the brakes, broadcasting a warning and for that shelled until sinking. Australian ship with a cargo of phosphate "Treyona" obeyed the requirements of "Comet" because his crew was shot just before the ship sunk by a torpedo. Then the "Komet" shot the Norwegian transport "Winnie," New Zealand "Tristar" Australian "Komachi" and "Tryuaydek" whose crews were at the time of removal. December 8 "Comet" moved to the island and landed there Emirali prisoners.
Then the commanding officer Captain First Rank Robert EISSEN developed an operation to destroy the industrial and port facilities on the Australian peninsula Nauru. Approaching the island, he is 27 December 1940 dispatched its own representatives to alert the authorities in order to avoid the possibility of victims, and once the danger of physical damage likely an attempt to stop local radio operators to go on air. The administration of Nauru accepted these conditions.
"Comet" for an hour of all th
e guns fired peninsula warehouses, fuel storage facilities, industrial facilities for the production of phosphates. The shelling caused enormous destruction and fires. Deliveries of phosphates in a few months are over.
Attack on Nauru has caused a great international response, including in the Land of the Rising Sun — it is also very dependent on this valuable raw material, which is forever lost because of this action. The Government of the Land of the Rising Sun has stated that these were the German raider question the service of the German courts in the Japanese bases. As a consequence, EISSEN was reprimanded by management Kriegsmarine, which bore, in general, the formal nature. Soon he was promoted to the rank of rear admiral.
In 1941, the "Comet" made a raid in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Antarctica, sinking several British ships. Having made a trip around the world
"Comet" has spent 516 days at sea and left astern in the general difficulty about 87,000 miles in four oceans. November 28, 1941 with a massive outposts he passed the English Channel and on November 30 arrived in Hamburg. The crew was organized
celebratory meeting in Berlin in the presence of the Nazi administration was honoring sailors.
Revenge in English
After repairing the fall of 1942, "Comets" went to another raid. But in the English Channel were waiting for him thirsting for revenge English explorers. Despite the heavy cordon, cruiser was attacked by British torpedo boats off Cape Hoag on
abeam of Cherbourg. Two torpedo boat MTB 236 released, got into the vehicle, then detonated ammunition; cruiser was split in two and went to the bottom. 251 people died, was not saved.
July 4, 2006 the remains of the raider "Komet" were found researcher Innes McCartney in the English Channel to a depth of 70 meters. It was found that as a result of the explosion broke the ship in half and rolled over.
Comments on the doctor of historical sciences, Alexander Sas:
— The fact of naval cooperation between the USSR and Nazi Germany, on the first glance, it looks dignified. But it is necessary to take into account the incident ever since. USSR has exhausted all ability to stimulate the creation of Britain in Europe a system of collective security. British Prime Minister Churchill artificially prolonged the negotiations, as he later admitted, in an effort to push their heads against the USSR and Germany. In order to delay the beginning of the war and have time to prepare at least once, the management of the country has gone to Germany to conclude a non-aggression pact. This machine has discovered a variety of projects and programs from cooperation including in the development of the Northern Sea Route.
Completely possible that one of the motives by which Stalin closed his eyes for a passage to the Pacific Ocean fascist cruiser was so desire makarom again show Churchill as the most harmful to the UK his maneuvering and tightening in the negotiation process. But I think there is another motive.
Back in 1936, Germany signed a contract with Japan's anti-Soviet, which later joined by Italy. In 1940, it was clear that Hitler would try to do everything to draw Japan into a war with the Soviet Union and put us in terms of opposition on two fronts. To prevent this, the Russian side tried to use any ability to complicate the operational situation in the region. Reid cruiser "Komet" — one of the little episodes such work. He was not only a purely military, and intelligence value. Hitler was led to it. After the raid revealed that the British in this region quite careless, are not ready to protect communications. In the Pacific and Indian oceans rushed (in a different way — around Africa) "pack of wolves" — Nazi submarines and raiders armed with powerful artillery. Accordingly, in the territorial waters of New Zealand and Australia, martial law was declared, began patrolling the sea lanes. Here were deployed massive British and then the South American naval and expeditionary forces. This was an additional factor to bind the hands of people of the country of the rising sun against going to war with the USSR. What should be given the opportunity to throw a GHQ Far East Division under the freshest Moscow.