History clock started long time ago. Since ancient times, people measure time. And first officer was the sun. Sundial divided into two types: fixed and portable. Portable sundial is used by the ancient Egyptians. This kind of watch lasted millennia. Fixed solar clock continues to design and the modern world. Inquisitive human mind invented, and some other kinds of watches: water, moon and candle, which was used until the 18th century, then the hourglass, and from 16 to 18 century oil watch. However, only the wheeled clock came into wide use.
In the archival documents indicate that in the late 13th century, there were iron wheel clock. They contributed to the heavy wheel traffic drawn by weight. In the first half of the 14th century, a watch with weights, the clock rang, it was necessary to periodically raise the weight. Soon, the clock has been improved with a heavy roller brake.
Clock with weights, usually placed in a box with dials and had two bell to toll and a quarter. In some clock was just three dials — for hours, minutes and seconds. Some astronomical clock (large size) with the weights were moving figures.
In the 15th century there were first interior clock with weights and a clock spring swing.
Road watch or travel clock for the first time brought together Jean Libura in 1451. They were placed in a copper housing by Jean Molyneux had a dial and a bell at the top.
Masters of late Gothic, Renaissance and especially made miniature lapel watch. A gold watch and a richly decorated, made of various shapes: oval, yablokoobraznye, star-shaped or tulip, cross or skull. Hours were inserted into the ring and desk sets, knobs in swords. Popular octagonal clock include a sundial and compass. The cover of this watch was made of rock crystal.
Barabanoobraznye hours, likely to come from France. This is a specific type of clock with a horizontal dial, the surface of which was decorated with engraving: hunting scenes, images of animals. By the end of the 16th century it was replaced by a clock desktop clock. In addition to simple clock in vogue parade of gilded bronze clock. After 1550, the perfection reached rectangular and hexagonal table clock.
In the 15th century a stationary clock spring course, the fashion which spread to the 16th century. Very highly regarded rectangular clock that had eight or ten distributed on all sides of the dials. They show the hours, quarters, moon phases, the movement of the sun and perpetual calendar.
In the mid-16th century, were popular clock machines. E. Baldveyn designed clock with figures that appear to fight hours. Were popular and a small clock with a figure of a man pointing to the rotating ball-dial. Watch-machines produced during the 17th century.
In addition to hours of automatic mid-16th century was marked by the appearance of hours mirrors. Round the clock support mirror Hercules. Such watches basically showed the hours and minutes, and in the front drive — movement of the celestial sphere.
In Italy, in the second quarter of the 16th century, a watch-monstrance, with intricately decorated and jeweled case. This watch in a case reminiscent of the time monstrance.
Since the second half of the 17th century, mainly in Germany were common clock or clock-Crucifixion Calvary.
In 1676, Burley collected the first striking clock that counts down the time. A Huygens perfected an invention short and long pendulum. Huygens also discovered a coil spring, and it was possible to convert a clock in the chest pocket. Pocket watches also combined with a sundial and compass. First of all, these watches were made in Switzerland, reached in the 17th century heyday of watchmaking. Jewelers do not hold back his inexhaustible imagination — expensive housing of turtles, silver, Meissen porcelain, gilt or silver hammered copper decorated with precious stones and pearls. Rarity of the period in hours, which is driven by its own weight. Eg Renault (Paris) designed a wall clock, which, when confined to their course, had to be turned over.
18th century — the golden age of watchmaking, especially in terms of finishing the watch. Superiority of watch belonged France. A. Bull built desktop clock showing the hours, minutes and having an alarm clock. He decorated them with bright inlays of brass, tin, and turtles, plates gilded acanthus, gilded figures and flat figural compositions. This watch entire 18th century
was an example of role models, not only in France but also in Munich. Great demand in the 18th century used the astronomical clock showing hours and minutes than the days of the month, the seasons, the movement of the sun, etc. They were made in Paris, Prague, Vienna, Heidelberg, Nuremberg, Augsburg.
|Soviet watches that Geller gave a second life
Hours and humor
Category: Mystery stories