The modernization of the Russian economy — a priority strategic task management of the country. The principal focus of this work is the development of the Russian military-industrial complex, the state of which, to put it mildly, leaves much to be desired. Accumulated over the past decade prepyadstviya ample funding not only to correct. Requires a systematic approach to the assessment of the situation and decision-making at all levels. Creator articles, removing of native Russian question "Who povinet?" Offers its own answer to "What should I do?" Is now a "defense".
Nearing the end of 2012, it is fundamental for modern Russian history. This is the first year of the possibilities elected president of the Russian Federation, the second year of implementation is not entirely new programs from State Armaments (GPV) and the Federal motivated the development of programs from the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation aimed at the re-equipment of the Armed Forces in 2011-2020 and after all, the year of the change team "reformers" in the leadership of the Ministry of Defence and the General Staff.
Now everyone is throwing a stone in the garden of retired Anatoly Serdyukov and Nikolai Makarov. Advance anticipating criticism of readers: "Where were you before, why silent" must see — the main objective of this article is not a criticism of the military-technical solutions nedavneshnih control, and an attempt to answer the question "What to do" more suitable for the implementation of programs from re- criteria.
As you know, in the course of the modernization of the Russian economy, a certain concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation until 2020, requests that its shift from expert-feed to social innovator aimed type of development. The strategic tasks impossible without modernization sverhtehnologichny branches of industry leading position in the middle of which is the military-industrial complex.
On the condition and level of development of the defense industry depends not only ensuring national security of the country and the tasks of modernization Russian Armed Forces and other troops (about which much has been said in the near future), and socio-political stability in almost all regions of the Russian Federation (as Talk less, but this discrepancy is more acute).
One has often heard that the defense industry complex issues are inseparable from the problems of the country and society, and their solutions are first in the economic sphere. Say, bureaucrats and industrialists from the defense only needs to consider a number of reasons and impartial criteria that have specific effects on the state of "defense".
I can not agree with this statement. Practice (especially in recent years) showed: in the formation of the municipal defense order (SDO), the introduction of technological and organizational procedures for the creation of specific weapons and military equipment (AME) in all steps — from specification to receive into service of finished products, the creation of the respective regulatory framework, promotion tools to international markets, training of qualified personnel, and much more — there was a lot of personal artificially superficial, from what is a sufficient political will to get rid of practically in the coming days are.
Priemuschestvenno this is due to a very "peculiar" behavior of the customer base towards implementing the SDO. Based on individual decisions, it can be concluded that the Defense Ministry has finished taking the defense industry as an equal partner in ensuring the military security of the country. Specific reasons for this are not far to find. But the complete and unquestioning acceptance of such positions without a differentiated approach to different economic actors is absolutely unacceptable.
Naturally, the Russian "defense" not far "white and fluffy", but the situation in respect of the principal subjects of military-technical policy — the fruit of the efforts of both sides of the procurement process. But this does not justify the desire to minimize the military, from time to time directly to absurd values, the price of government contracts and their unwillingness to fund research, development and engineering (R & D). Disturbing the orientation of the Ministry of Defence on the implementation of preferential procurement policy "off the shelf", in other words have already been made and received better service experience AME. All the more unacceptable is when the developers of technical specifications for a significant number of weapon systems are guided by ideological postulates developed abroad. Such a policy, of course, deprives the national long-term prospects for the industry.
Who in Russia does not know what the government plans to provide one hundred percent state armaments program in the amount of 20 trillion rubles plus izderzhat nearly three trillion on the development of defense? These huge numbers so often heard on television and appear in print, that could not help think, why it is done in an environment that is not very favorable to openness. I remember the old army saying did — then report, and did not hide — report back twice.
Proof of this was the recent problem of lack of funds for modernization of the defense industry companies in the amount of 440 billion rubles for 2013-2015, in connection with which the Ministry of Finance proposed to include these costs in the later period. As you know, the problem was solved by replacing these funds loans of state banks. Conclusion: in the budget is really small (remember, like the army tylovikov in the famous joke: Everything, but not enough at all.) Now the government has decided to fund the expenses on account of the funds that the budget will receive in the future, and now make up only interest rates on loans to state banks.
There is no optimism and quite another vserasprostranennaya policy the Ministry of Finance to finance the latest SAP, when the first five-year plan released less than a quarter of the declared on the program from funds, and the second five-year plan is the first in the newest program there with all the ensuing consequences. Its while also nobody has canceled. Yet if the government can at bolshennom amount of other social and economic responsibilities to find the designated amount, it will be money in the modern history of the Russian Federation just unheard of.
It is appropriate to recall one of the expressions of Russian President Vladimir Putin: "In order to really improve the defense capabilities of the country, we need the best and most modern in the world of technology, and undeveloped billion and trillions." How to achieve it, try to understand at certain dilemmas of modern military-technical policy.
All entities involved in the implementation of the SDO, have to work in a single financial and economic, regulatory and legal framework. With all this attention at its formation should be taken to ensure a tight fit of interaction between different actors involved in the implementation of the state defense order — from the customer to the artist.
According to professionals in the Federation Council, in the sphere of military-technical policy of the country there are 13 laws, decrees of the President of the Russian Federation 8 and 11 government regulations, only 32 of direct action. They encircle almost all aspects of defense companies as
market participants, the main limiting their rights without offering any benefits to all this or compensation measures.
What does this mean? Not that the other as a significant vertical spray of responsibility for the implementation of the SDO, the emergence of a huge number of personal development strategies and interests, dictated by the market, rather than systemic interests of the defense sector as a whole.
So Makar, now a branch of lives in several different systems of rules and verticals subordination. The government also regulates it in several very different principles.
Hence the proposal — legislative initiatives in the field of "defense" should be focused on that, so first change its system of municipal regulation. The enterprise will have to be torn between the competing demands of various departments, agencies and regulatory systems.
Pricing — one of the main instruments of economic regulation
Catchy, if the principles of pricing and contracting in the municipal order to produce a civilian purpose and are generally satisfied with all participants in the process, the system is quite similar to the state defense order after a series of transformations are not satisfied with virtually anyone.
It must be admitted, in recent years there have been the systematic destruction of the structures responsible for pricing in the country: abolished Municipal Committee at prices liquidated Research Institute as a pricing reference center of science on this dilemma, destroyed, scientific and educational base, provide scientific developments and personnel qualification this area economic governance.
Prices and pricing in the country were practically out of the municipal strategic management, devoid of any systemic economic base. And with reference to the CMO prices were an obstacle to its development as usual. In turn, in the advanced countries, usually formed by a system of legislative and legal framework that provides municipal politics prices.
Pricing mechanisms for defense products due to the nature of production and marketing criteria are regulated by the federal law "On the municipal defense order." There is an urgent need to update them. It is necessary to recognize the dramatic differences in the formation of prices of products general civil and military purpose.
First, he has to be changed the procedure for concluding contracts for defense contracts in which advisable to predict its exact specifications, timely advances, as appropriate penalties for both the customer and the artist.
In order to develop a balanced, prototype understood pricing system in defense contracts to the creation of the Interagency Working Group, consisting of scientific forces and the Ministry of Defense Industry to be prepared for approval by the management of the country's concept of pricing, as an ideology and a plan to develop mutually agreed regulations on pricing in the SDO. Substantial assistance in this work may have-independent framework for the organization of today's Interdepartmental conflict, which include, for example, Money Institute of the Government of Russian Federation, which owns the necessary scientific potential.
Municipal support CMO
In order to perfect defense did its part, was competitive, particularly the government should do the right conditions. Promising products require long investment. Because in addition to the existing methods of state modernization "defense" need additional legal acts on Innovative activity, which should be spelled out the precise mechanisms, allows companies to lure long-term financial resources for sparing criteria.
Arsenal not only state support, and other impact on the country's defense industry is very wide. For example, you can exclude from the tax base for income tax, the part that goes to the financing of R & D (such vkladyvatelnaya privilege, by the way, was provided for the regulatory documents in force until the adoption of the Tax Code in 2000). With all of this defense companies will have a significant portion of the profits goes to the financing major investments and Innovative developments.
The current Federal motivated programm (FTP) for the development of defense industry, unfortunately, does not solve the program from one hundred percent recovery of the destroyed in the 90's — early 2000's serial production. Practically, it has degenerated into a means of funding for the improvement of output only individual companies.
Thus, the rules require a federal program of mandatory co-financing of similar works. But a number of defense companies has a very a narrow specialization (such as the creation of ammunition), because of their defense contracts are often the only source of funding. In connection with this sample is taken the bread from similar companies based on a starvation diet to exacerbate their already difficult position. With all of this "sacred" principle of limitation of monopoly market overcomes common sense and the most important — obviously detrimental to the common cause, undermining the defense potential of the country.
It is also advisable to support the tasks of FTP defense focused on the development of new industries or profound modernization on the basis of existing technological processes, steps over a generation. The organization of such work should be entrusted with certain people with personal responsibility for the money and performance. Selection and nomination of persons — is a question that needs to be solved within the framework of the federal contracting system.
Talk of the town was inconsistency State applets Applets development of weapons and defense. Many times the problem was rising in the press, when the final stages of the creation of new types of weapons and military equipment, which required significant cost of funds, the customer often produces proofs goals and concludes not appropriate for weapons designed samples. In fact, this means that taxpayers' money has been spent in vain. Such situations occur in the criteria for reducing the effectiveness of the military-industrial policy and monitoring tools civilian society, underestimating the ability of expert experts, the lack of continuity in the basic requirements of the customer at the personnel changes in the manual.
Most important decision of similar problems hindered by a shortage of expertly prepared personnel in long-term forecasting and strategic planning as the middle of officials and defense companies in the manual.
Frames — a separate problem of
Only the highest capacity utilization and rhythmic orders can ensure social stability in the workforce, growing prosperity in the region. In turn, that fulfill the modernization program from the industry, the country needs engineers, designers, technologists, and not managers and graduates of schools of business administration. Also require skilled workers, which are now of days with fire will not find.
We are talking about the engineers and workers of the highest caliber. One can endlessly try to increase the prestige of the profession of engineering, science majors, but if the applicant is young and the ancestors of the young men will not see his career prospects in the line of traffic, the "defense" is unlikely to rely on the best applicants, and as a consequence — to the best professionals.
The main issue for at least some of the enterprise — profitability
Some experts believe that the Russian defense industry profitability should be at least 15-20 percent of total production costs, and in order to implement Innovative projects in some areas, it should not be lower than 30 percent. Quite obvious that without the intervention of the country such characteristics profitability "defense" without the help of others will not be able to reach.
For the subsystem defense R & D as a basis to determine the price is more a matter of principle. In determini
ng the expenditure side, it is imperative role of municipal customer, which should increase its responsibility as well as the performer. Earlier there was a measure of compensation in the form of government prices exploration of 5-10 per cent of research and development. I do not see the circumstances for refusing to restore a similar practice is also considered appropriate to depart from the rigid fixed-price research and development work, which usually does not reflect the actual costs associated with changes in tariffs of natural monopolies, the introduction of tax innovations, etc. etc.
Information Environment CMO
It should be noted that the problem of the creation of a single information space in the defense industry is far from being solved and leads to duplication of scientific research, invention, in some kinds of cases that is made in the adjacent design office.
In earlier years, as you know, the criteria provide greater regime claims there were different coordinating councils, published towards certain subjects and Annotation collections, burning tasks open a discussion at conferences and teaching duties for the exchange of experiences. At the current time closure was significantly greater, and this is understandable — your generation and the positive experience can be transformed into real contenders financial results.
Yet, through the creation of registries of data, development of common standards, the development of deep integration between the various defense companies, the unification of production facilities are urgent puzzles. Unusual severity and urgency of the problem takes on copyright and intellectual affiliation.
Another issue is that often the private investors, especially representing small and medium-sized businesses do not know what their abilities may be needed "defense" and where you can make your own power and capital. This puzzle advisable to entrust the network situation centers are used as in the bodies of state power, and in business.
One of the main problems of defense — in the imperfections of the control system
It is necessary to make a clear system of strategic planning, determining values, directions, and significantly improve the efficiency of spending budget funds that go to the modernization of the defense industry.
The extent and specificity of difficulties raise the question of the development of special organ of its management and coordination, responsible for the performance of this fundamental sector for the country. In connection with this, it seems timely to a significant expansion of the functions of the Military Industrial Commission (MIC) of the Government of Russia.
You need to give tribute: that of the outside activity and the effectiveness of military-industrial complex, as soon not have been a long time. Positive developments of the year associated with the creation of the system, by which the military engineers and production workers are trying to coordinate their actions and deal with emerging differences are indisputable reward its chairman, Dmitry Rogozin, which undertook to deal with the energy of Volunteering 20-ies of the last century .
But a number of issues remain unresolved. Moreover, the creator of these lines at one time I had to work in the defense industry, led by the Prime Minister. And at that time (early 2000s), the military-technical impact is not moving very fast. Do not rule out that there are some administrative obstacles to pass the required legislative commission opportunities. Because join those who are now offering to return to the question of recreating the Ministry of Defense Industry as an administrative body that can produce strategic forecasting and planning, managing the creation AME control system properties, government contracts and public procurement in the defense industrial sector. Well, perhaps 23 trillion rubles — missing for the Ministry of the budget?
Unfortunately, you have to write about that. Case in point — the experience of implementing the decision on the development of Russian analogue of the South American Agency Defense Advanced Research Projects (DARPA — Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). As you know, the first time the need for the creation of structures to finance innovative and risky development advocated ex-Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in September 2010. With all this gave the government two months to work through the latest status of the structure.
In a purely Russian tradition for the development and adoption of the Federal Law "About the Foundation promising research" (DRF) was useful for two years. Guess not without willpower. According to the plan in 2013 FPI has become a driving force of scientific developments dual purpose of Russian origin. Its budget, according to some sources, will be three billion. Since nothing out of nowhere just can not appear, these funds are likely to be taken from the budget of the Russian "defense."
Need the will, that FPI was not another bureaucratic superstructure — structure, bound hand and foot with weight management officials who will decide the extent of their own incompetence. It also does not have to be a "scarecrow" for Russian military-industrial complex.
By way of conclusion
Of course, describing the military-technical prepyadstviya, it was necessary to discuss (except where noted), and other issues. Among their state of the material and technical base defense, the need to return to the state that at different times and for different reasons, it was illegally withdrawn from his control (excavation sites, buildings, major facilities, and mental objects Supplies — techno documentation, software , the rights to patents and inventions), the system of tenders (municipal auction), the place and role of municipal companies in the general system of defense industry, setting up of the main positions of defense contracts with individual responsibility for software projects. As needed on these topics will be talk later.
On this day fundamentally important to learn: the perspective of "defense" — a synonym for the modernization of the Russian economy. And it needs to be aware at all levels of the Russian military-technical policy.