Swastika — Introduction
Any anti-national occupation government always tends to crop, distort or deny the story of the people, which it had occupied. Jewish communists, unlawfully and by force took power in Russia in 1917, did whatever of Russian history as we could. Banned and distorted her shamelessly. Today's so-called democrats burr nationality doing the same abuse of history, memory, conscience and honor Russian family.
At present, the Jewish mafia and their lackeys started a massive campaign to ban a number of indigenous, centuries-old Russian national character and especially the Swastika.
All this dirty and unprincipled campaign is "sauce" in the struggle against fascism. And with the Russian fascism. Why a Russian, not a Jewish fascism? Let's deal with the Jewish fascism, who divorced in Russia, Jewish mafia, modestly called Russian mafia, although it includes some Jews. We have two hands "for" the struggle of the Jewish Mafia and Jewish fascism.
May 26, 1999 Moscow City Duma adopted the law "On administrative responsibility for the manufacture, distribution and display of Nazi symbols on the territory of Moscow. July 14, 1999 law banning Nazi symbols adopted the Moscow Regional Duma. March 29, 2000 St.Petersburg Legislative Assembly adopted a law of the same name. War against Russian history perfectly camouflaged. As the screen is used to falsify the history of the Second World War. These laws are in Moscow and St. Petersburg allegedly derived from the Federal Law "On preserving the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945."
This federal law in Article 6 states: The Minister must not be used in any form of Nazi symbols like the multinational people insulting the memory of incurred in World War II victims. The words "in any form" to put it mildly ridiculous. In all Soviet films about the period of the Great Patriotic War, Nazi symbols of all kinds there is at least in the form of Hitler's war. Therefore, it is necessary to prohibit all war films? These prohibitions and an insult to the memory of the real history of the Great Patriotic War.
Nazi symbols is not something that you can prevent or allow. It is part of the past history is closely intertwined with our history. Here history can deny, falsify and distort, and this involved the enemies of the Russian people, in whatever guise they were: whether in the form or the Nazi occupiers in beautiful jackets psevdonarodnyh MPs today occupying power.
As for the swastikas, the situation is even more absurd. The Federal Law of the words "Swastika" is not. The Moscow law the word "swastika" appeared. This whole war is a rat to the cries of Hitler, which is used as a bogey.
To justify this prohibition brings a lot of cheap arguments. But the main argument is the same: Hitler used the swastika symbol and under this cut and strangled "poor and unfortunate" Jews. The argument of course smehopodobnaya.
And in fact this is the case? But in reality the situation is as follows.
Swastika — a very ancient symbol, which is a common symbol for different countries. Swastika certainly not invented by Hitler. Hitler's swastika over many hundreds of thousands of years.
Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, A Look at Russian bank notes in 1917 to the Communist takeover, and 1918, when the Communists were in power. And on those and other Russian money (before the Soviet authorities and after) printed Swastika, one to one, like Hitler. Once Hitler was at this time no one and nothing. A swastika was in Russia. And it was not painted on the fence, and neither more nor less in state bank notes. A 250-ruble banknote one swastika in the center. By 1000 (see photo at left), 5,000 and 10,000-ruble bills — three swastikas. One in the center and two on the sides.
The presence of the Swastika on banknotes talks about one fundamental fact: the swastika was a symbol of the state of Russia! This is the actual situation of our Russian history, which should be respected or at least know whether to like this fact or not.
Of course, most of these so-called people's deputies of that fact does not. And they do not know much and understand. They are used as puppets, pulling the strings of their foolish emotions with cheap labels (fighting Hitler, fascism, extremism, etc.), and they dutifully stretch their little arms in the vote. And some of the voting and the money can be received.
Look at the Hermitage of St. Petersburg, where swastikas painted mosaic floor (see photo below) is very much in the floor (detail below left), on the marble floor (detail right), and in the drawings on vases, bas-relief paintings. And all this swastika was embodied in one of the best Russian museums for several hundred years before Hitler. Can be "popular" members of Petrograd, Moscow and the Moscow region with saws and crowbars will break Hermitage under the banner of struggle against Hitler and the "Russian" fascism? It is in the spirit of crazy laws passed by these anti-Russian deputies.
Swastikas facts presence in Russia in different forms and shapes a huge amount. In the Holy Trinity Monastery in Ryazan Swastika imprinted in the icon of the Kazan Mother of God 19th century. Swastika present in a number of Russian churches and monasteries. In old Russian clothes, utensils, art, etc.
What does Hitler and World War II? All this outdoor camouflage for idiots, behind which evil plans for the humiliation and degradation Russian family and its history.
Hitler used our Swastika. Well, what of it? Do not we have him, and he with us.
Hitler used the arithmetic and destroying the "poor" and "accidents" of the Jews, led by the arithmetic calculations and Arabic numerals. By the logic of Moscow and St. Petersburg people's deputies should be banned arithmetic and Arabic numerals? So what?
The swastika is not only old native Russian national character. Swastika many thousands of years, there adorns life in India and in Tibet, and in Iran, and in China and in many other countries, and even strangely in Israel. In one of the oldest synagogues Israeli Ain Jedi present swastika.
Would try our prohibitive to travel to Israel and the synagogue Ain Jedi peep to ban the swastika. All day they did not come from there. Pelted them with stones would.
Swastika — not just a sign, it is the divine religious symbol. Prohibit such divine signs can only Satanists. To ban the Swastika is similar to that ban the Christian cross. The swastika is actually a cross, only rotating.
Of ancient religions known to give people a Swastika Gods and brought to Earth from the heavens. Ancient religions describe it as "a cluster of signs welfare", which has ten thousand beneficial properties. In the most common sense of the Swastika — it is a religious symbol of the sun, a sign of light and generosity.
The earliest extant description of the swastika is given in Sanskrit. "Swasti Asta" in Sanskrit — "May it be good for all." The sun shines for everyone. Adoration of the swastika in the first place meant worshiping the Sun — the source of all life on earth. In Russia, a swastika was called "Kolovrat" (Solstice), the Sun is also moving in a clockwise direction to the right or "Posolon" (spreading, seeding fields is throwing his hands right). Swastika — a very nice, beautiful and powerful symbol of energy.
RIGHT swastika — the symbol of life and creation.
Left-sided swastika — the symbol of harvest (from right to left swing of the sickle).
In general, any crosses — a symbol of the sun, and all stars — the symbols of the moon.
Those who struggle with a swastika — fighting not against Hitler, and with God. Manages these "fighters" Satan.
Let them be cursed enemies Swastika! Yes chastise these Satanists Russian Gods!
Unlike Swastika Communist Masonic pentagonal star has a deep history in Russia. This star to Russia in 1918, introduced a notorious scoundrel, Satanist, a very high degree Freemason, a homosexual and communist leader Leon Trotsky. The fact that he was a Jew, Terry, I hope everyone knows.
For some reason, today's Russian lawmakers banned Communist Masonic pentagonal star, under which Russia zhidokommunistichesky criminal regime gave a monstrous genocide and destroyed more than 60 million people.
Now look at the whole situation legal eyes.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations, Article 19 is written, "Every person has the right to freedom of opinion and expression: this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of of frontiers. " Almost the same thing written to the Russian Constitution in Article 29.
Any symbols and signs — is information. In accordance with international and Russian law, we have the right to distribute the Swastika by any means. And those who try to deny us this should be regarded as criminals cover up their criminal activities parliamentary mandate. Solutions Moscow and St. Petersburg deputies grossly violating human rights, are contrary to international law, is illegal and should be abolished.
Why is our silent zealous defenders of human rights? Because most of the Defenders of Human Rights — is controlled puppets that raise howl only when they are the puppeteers pull the strings and tell them when to shout and when to keep quiet.
Once again, the swastika is a native Russian national symbol. Do not know this can only ignorant. People's Deputy of the ignorant and fools abound. But do not think that all the fools out there and it's all done foolish. It is not. Set the tone not fools, and outspoken enemies of the Russian people.
Actually prohibitive swastikas have clear political and ideological goals. Their main goal — to destroy the Russian history, Russian ban religion and Russian identity, national pride humiliate Russian family. It is they (all Proshechkin) incite ethnic and religious hatred. Their actions are completely covered by their favorite article 282 of the Criminal Code.
The only star in the canonical Orthodox Christianity is the eight-pointed star Lada Virgin, or St. Andrew, first brought Christianity to Russia. And in the main church of Christ the Savior on each cross each dome today zhidokratiya hung for 12-Point Star of David — the official symbols of the state of Israel. This insolent Jewish outburst represents the transformation of Russia into a colony of Israel. This outstanding Russian humiliation of national dignity. This is a slap in the face of Russian family. And it made the second-Jewish Alexis (real name Riediger) and his entourage Popovski traitors Russia.
How can we tolerate such rusichi abuse of our tribal dignity? We not only have to defend their national symbols. We must bring to justice those who want us to humiliate, insult and spit in our face. Immediately initiate the Article 282 criminal cases against all kinds Proshechkin against Alexy II. Let them answer for the filthy insults that they do Russian family.
We demand the immediate repeal of the anti-people laws Duma Moscow and St. Petersburg! We demand the punishment of those who are under the false screens fight Hitler, the Nazis engaged in abuse and humiliation of the Russian people!
Swastika — Background …
The origin of all cultural phenomena, especially if their age more than one millennium, we look beyond the borders of the "era", because it is hidden in the ancient times, many invisible threads of cause and effect. The issue before us is not a case of the exception, and in search of the origins of mental forward to Hyperborea — the ancestral home of the legendary northern Aryan race, to the land which "for the north wind" (and this is verbatim and translated the name "Hyperborea"). Now, the area covered by the waters of the Arctic Ocean. Presumably the capital of Hyperborea was located directly in the geographical North Pole of the Earth. There are reports that this city was called Paul ("Peace"). Is this not send the word "policy" ("City") and the pole — as the top of the Earth? Paul was not a city in the modern sense of the word. He was a single system of about twenty-four structures, castles along the inland sea — the Great Lakes Spinning. Axis — The World Tree (or Tree of the Worlds) — was a kind of sacred symbol of the Hyperboreans (inhabitants of the then "extreme" Circumpolar). Know his mark: the circle described about the focus of girders. It refers to the planetary axis — the mystical center of the planet. Already in this symbol can easily find the features of the swastika — a characteristic fourfold, symmetry and closure. And curiously, the mark of the sign of the predetermined shape of the continent of Hyperborea. Save Map G.Merkatora 1595, the most famous cartographer of all time, based on the ancient geographical representations. It Hyperborea displayed enough — as an archipelago of four large islands separated by deep rivers. Not surprisingly, the symbol of the spiritual traditions Arctis (one of the names of Hyperborea) are closed Cross. The main temple floors located directly over the poles, as the focal point of spiritual power. Legend has it that the stone building is not standing on the ground and hung in the air due to the magic art of architects, casting a shadow on the giant whirlpool beneath them. This looked like a shadow of the cross, the form of which has reached us. Perhaps at that time it meant Rotary Lake and Temple Crest on it. That's what sometimes meaningless at first glance legends of different nations after many centuries reveal their secrets. Then, as a result of climate change, people were forced to leave the promised land. New shelter was found in areas already well-known continents and continents — Eurasia, America, Africa and Australia. But in their minds, living memory of the homeland and its symbols. That is why today archaeologists around the world recorded a huge number of spiral patterns. Only a few see them as symbols of identity of the local population as immigrants from Hyperborea. It is this fact, and integrates the various peoples of the world. These same general explanation applies image of the sun moving in the sky. Indeed we do, and the ancients saw in the sky the same — the solar disk. And this is perhaps the only place where the converging views of people from different eras.
Swastika — the origin
Naturally, such a multi-faceted cultural phenomenon as the swastika eliminates any possibility of a single interpretation. The same applies to the origin of the character. It is very difficult to come to a common point of view on the question of the roots and causes of the swastika. However, the authors in this paper attempts to examine the most common and probable opinion, because other than mentioned in the "Background" link swastika on the northern ancestral humanity, Hyperborea, there are many other concepts of origin of this phenomenon.
First of all, we should mention the point made by Thomas Wilson in his serious work about the swastika, which was published in 1894. In this book, he refers to the Schliemann, researcher Troy, which tells about the cult of birds in the belief system of Trojans. Bird footprints on the ground and the silhouettes of birds in flight resemble a swastika symbol. Such signs were widely known not only Trojans (Figure: 1-6 — Troy, 7 — Azerbaijan, the 2nd millennium BC, 8 — Azerbaijan, the Middle Ages, 9 — Greece, the 2nd millennium BC, 10 — Sarmatians, II c. BC, 11 — Ukraine, 2nd millennium BC, 12 — Ancient Iran, 13 — a sign of Yuri Dolgoruky, 14 — Russia's south, about 1000 BC ., 15 — China, the 2nd millennium BC, 16 — Volga, Bronze Age, 17 — Ingushetia, 18 — Archaic Greece, 19 — Italy, Bronze Age).
A range of views on the appearance of the swastika is associated with ancient India. First, the swastika is a symbolic designation sticks for making fire, which indicates its connection with the fire deity Agni. Secondly, the swastika is seen associated with Garuda, the bird of the cosmos, the personification of the comet, flying toward the Earth. Third, there is a rather unusual theory that the ancient Indian sages have to know the structure of the carbon atom. Random motion of electrons leads to the formation of the so-called "Electron cloud", which is located in an atom of carbon in the form of a tetrahedron. Although the electrons are moving randomly, recent studies show that in the electron clouds there are areas in which the electrons are more frequent. These zones have the form of a spiral around each of the clouds of droplet shape. Symbols that ancient Hindu sages refer to these spirals called Aumkara and swastika, the latter being a two-dimensional projection Aumkary. Interestingly, the different angle of view, these figures resemble Greek letters "alpha" and "omega", which in turn are the sacred symbols of Western faith, Christianity, which makes me think of the unity of all religious systems, which differ only in the "points of view" ie, they are different aspects of the knowledge of the truth.
It is also interesting and astronomical aspects of appearance svastichnoy symbolism. A possible explanation for mentally fast forward to the turn of the fifth — the fourth millennium BC. Tribes Tripoli culture at various times lived in the area from the Danube to the Dnieper. Being highly carriers at the time of culture, Trypillians had a coherent system of religious and philosophical ideas. Later, their view of the world was the basis philosophy of the world's oldest civilizations. Among the achievements of Tripoli culture can mention the expense, the initial astronomical knowledge and supposedly writing. Trypillian views embodied in the magnificent multi-colored paintings of religious and domestic ceramics. As for household utensils, its sanctification explained simply. At all times, the food for the people was a gift from above. Most clearly expressed this belief in an ancient society. In procuring food plays a significant role gods helper, that their characters have appeared on the container for the gifts. But back to the topic of the chapter. During an appearance swastika north celestial pole was about one degree from the star alpha constellation Draco. A few hundred years, during the construction of the Great Pyramids, the north pole aligns with this star. In a few thousand years, it will be named Thuban, which in Arabic means Dragon. Around the celestial pole is made as a daily rotation of the heavens, and annual. Daily rotation for a person unnoticed as stars are not visible during the day. And here's with the enough patience and the ability to do the simplest designs can be seen well. Tripolye priests chose the night sky any constellation and sketched his position at one and the same time of day four times a year: fall, winter, spring and summer. At that time, the northern celestial pole, as already noted, was near the star Thuban. The direction of the pole is given by the line drawn through the stars of "gamma" and "this" of the constellation Ursa Minor. If the provisions of this sketch of the constellation in 22.00, one day in October, January, April and July, and the lines connect center and the stars of the small bucket and the handle, you get a swastika, the initial value of which, according to this version — cyclic changes of the seasons (scheme) . In addition, the Chinese image of comets on silk, which age is approximately 2,300 years old, you can see all the same swastika, which also speaks of it as a form of which is often donned astronomical ideas of the ancients. So, we have quite a logical explanation for the use of the swastika as a symbol denoting the cycle of life.
As for the solar concept linking the swastika and the sun, according to this theory, the swastika is seen as an evolution of the original solar symbol — a circle with a cross in the further dynamics by giving it the image to rotate it in order to transfer the movement of the sun across the sky. Solar disk was the first that I saw old man raised his head. The sun gave light, heat and crop — it is no wonder that for centuries It is associated in the human mind with the concepts of good, good, good luck, light and heat, both physical and spiritual. On the other hand, people long ago realized the cycles of life, the cycle of birth, death, winter and summer, and so on. Since time immemorial, people have tried to project the universal laws to objects around them in life. Transfer of the positive value of the sun and trying to call his life-giving power has always been the sun (aka solar) symbols. Any characters or less connected with the circle Rotational somehow fall into this category. Rolling across the sky solar disk is embodied in the swastika, and in this paper we will proceed from the solar swastika. It is difficult to find a common, but at the same time, this is ambiguously perceived cultural symbol. Naturally, the versions mentioned above does not exhaust the full range of views on the origin of the character. However, the goal of this work is different — unfortunately, this ancient symbol for the majority of people have very negative connotation and is now in their understanding of a fetish German National Socialists. The age of the character — at least 6 — 7 thousand years, and the number of people, gave the swastika religious and other value is incalculable.
Terimn "Swastika" and its synonyms
The word "swastika" traditionally refers to an equilateral cross with bent to one side ends. It can also be interpreted as the four corners, connected by a single point. Sometimes the corners were rounded, sometimes straight, sharp and even stupid. The name itself comes from a combination of Sanskrit words "su" (good) and "Pattern" (to be). The same goes to the root Russian "light." Slavs the swastika was also known as Kolovrat, the Germans — Fylfot (Fylfog) (staroangl.) or Fyrfos (staronem.). Moreover, there are many Slavs svastichnyh characters with different shades of meaning, and the Scandinavians worshiped Odin's Cross — a combination of four different directions swastikas, gathered around the cross. Many European nations known triradial swastika — triskel, whose image is varied, but always remained the same value — in the North (1), in the British Isles (2), Wales (3) — Eye of the Dragon. Also known option called "Zonnenrad" — "sun wheel" used later as a symbol of the German Order of the Occult "Tula". Buddhists call the swastika "manju" Christians — "gammadion", the ancient Greeks simple swastika called "tetraskele", and with the rays in the form of spirals — "meander." The Chinese call the left swastika "wan", and the right — "Wan-tzu."
Roots of the Swastika
According to one of the concepts of the origin of the swastika, an ancient image of the symbol was found in the north-western Black Sea. A swastika was painted on the lid of a conical vessel, the purpose of which is likely to be a ritual. Naturally, because at the time dependence of people on nature has been very high, and it is in people saw their gods. Therefore, the ritual accessories just had to inscribe the sacred symbols, the symbols of the elements, including the principal, of course, was the Sun. This pottery, which is determined by the age of scientists in the years 5450-5600, belonged to the famous Tripoli culture, the precursor to the oldest civilizations in the world that has developed between the rivers Bug, Dniester and Dnieper. Some scientists estimate its age at 1,000 years older — 5th millennium BC.
According to another version, the swastika was found at the entrance to the cave Paleolithic times, which makes her age to be 10 thousand years. Whatever it was, before the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and the emergence of tablets Sumerian inscriptions were still millennium. At the beginning of the 3rd millennium Trypillian, ancestors of Indo-Europeans, began to press representatives who came from the East Yamskoy culture. Part Trypillian went to the north and the Balkan Peninsula in the south-western region of Asia Minor. Here they launched the Cretan-Mycenaean culture and later laid the foundation for a rival Ancient Egypt — State Hittites. The fact that the symbolism of the ancient Trypillian Crete was still alive and understandable to the people even in the fifth century BC, shows Cretan coins with the Minotaur and the labyrinth inherent to him in the form of a swastika. Greeks Greeks in this period used the swastika as an ornament, but, having lost the meaning of this symbol, soon completely abandoned its use. Swastika came from the Greeks to the peninsula to the Etruscans. In the 2nd millennium Scythian and Sarmatian tribes who invaded the northern Black Sea to the Iranian plateau in the East Caspian steppe, took extensive territory of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the Carpathians to the Altai. It was they who had copied their idea of Slav world order. Scythian swastika was presented in the form of jewelry ceramics, harnesses, and an amulet, and even attended a musical instrument. In XIII-VII centuries BC ornaments bridles were stylized horse heads, forming a swastika in the IX century AD swastika formed by the heads of birds migrated to the amulets. The Russian plain swastika also appears on the amulets and jewelery Bulgars in XI-XIV centuries AD, previously repressed by the Scythian land Ante hordes of Huns. Part Scythian Bulgars from the east coast of the Black Sea to the west moved closer to the Balkans, another — climbed the Volga to the Kama, which formed a small state of the Volga Bulgars. Later with another branch of Indo-European tribes that have survived through Mesopotamia and Central Asia to the Indus Valley, the swastika came to the culture of the Eastern nations, including Semitic — the ancient Egyptians and Chaldeans. With the same wave of Indo-Europeans in the mid-2nd millennium BC Swastika has penetrated the culture of North India. There she successfully survived to our time, and like many other phenomena in the culture of the East she was betrayed by a mystical meaning.
Later swastika penetrate into Tibet, then to Central Asia and China. Even a century later, it comes to Japan, and Southeast Asia along with Buddhism, which made it one of its main characters. This is due to the fact that the Buddha was included in the pantheon of deities preachers in order not to cause discontent among the majority of the population professed "dobuddistskie 'beliefs. As a result of this innovation, the new characters did not have to invent.
There are also other points of view on the home of the character. For example, some scholars believe the ancient swastika from Asia Minor 6th millennium BC In addition, some of its variants belong to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic (Figure 1 — Central Europe, 2 — Asia Minor, 3-7,10 — Iran, 8 — Eastern Europe, 9 — Western Europe, 11 — Transcaucasia, 12 — Troy , 13 — Prehistoric India). There is evidence of appropriate symbols and culture of Transcaucasia, as evidenced by patterns, dating back several thousand years.
Swastika in different cultures
American Indians, Tibetans, Indians, Chinese, Scythians, Semites, Persians, Basque, Greek, Japanese, Celtic, Irish, Slavs, Germans: these are just a partial list of people whose history svastichnoy talks about using symbols. Ashanti peoples (Africa), Tlingit (Alaska), Kuna (Panama), Navajo (America) and the inhabitants of. Bali also are familiar with the swastika. This symbol found on pottery vessels from Samarra (modern Iraq) that date back to the 5th millennium BC. Swastika found in the culture of Mohenjo-daro (Indus Basin), and ancient China about 2000 BC In the north-eastern Africa, archaeologists found the burial stele Merosi kingdom that existed at the II-III centuries AD. Fresco on the stele depicts women entering the afterlife, the clothes of the deceased as a swastika. Rotating cross adorns the gold weights for scales belonging Ghanaians, and clay utensils ancient Indians, Persians and carpets. A swastika was almost all Obereg the Slavs, Pomorie, skalvov, Cours, Sarmatians, Mordovians, Udmurt, Bashkirs, Chuvash and many other nations. In many religions, the swastika is still an important cult symbol. In ancient Persia, she graced the sacred buildings, such as the Mausoleum of Shah Wali Namatolly (XV century). In the ancient Indian philosophy and Buddhism, the swastika — the symbol of the eternal cycle of the universe, a symbol of the Buddha, which is subject to all things. In India, Jains and Hindus depict swastikas everywhere: at the gates of temples, each residential building in the tissues, which wrapped the sacred texts, in funeral cover. Neither sacred ceremony takes place without swastikas. Many people of the former Soviet Union used svastichnye patterns in ancient times and continue to use them now. This is the Buryats, Ossetians, and Dagestan (carved stone, about XVIII century., Feminine wedding decoration). The swastika is also widespread in the Caucasus (Figure, 1 — Chechens, 2 — Abkhazians, 3 — Armenians, 4 — Azerbaijanis, 5.6 — Georgians).
In the highly developed culture of the Celts occupied an important place is svastichnye patterns (Figure). Ornate triskel also think the image of "the spiral of life." It was discovered in the ancient sanctuary of the Bronze Age. Curiously, he drew in a single line, without taking your hands (1). Another version of this symbol stands for the three elements of the material world reflected in all bodies — Earth, Water and Sky (2) — each element flowing outward and always returning to the starting point. Triskel also symbolized the Triple female deity druids (Fotla-Eyru-Banba) or in the tradition of Wicca (3). But this symbol (4) — for four-part Celtic swastika depicted in golden shield ritual purpose. You also need to mention the beautiful figure of the Godhead with the image crosses one, apparently, borrowed by the Celts from the Scandinavians.
Occupies an important place in the symbolism svastichnaya known for its wealth of ancient Greek culture. For example, a curious triskel, three-beam swastika was depicted on the shield, which is a tray winner Olympic Games in Athens. Apollo, the sun god, often depicted with a shield decorated with a swastika and the chariot. In addition, the shield of the goddess of wisdom Athena decorated stylized swastika in the form of heads of horses, and the goddess is often depicted in the garb decorated with swastikas. The ancient Greeks often used svastichny ornament, describing her beautiful vases. Residents of the island of Cyprus ornaments depicting a swastika on his pottery. Even during the Renaissance painters, depicting scenes from the life of ancient Greece, as the ornament often used the swastika, (fragment of a fresco by Raphael "Ancient School"). Moreover, the religious buildings in northern Cyprus murals downright rife with swastikas. During a trip to the island this chat was photographed one such mural on the floor, showing a lot of sacred symbols, including solar.
Was given a significant place in the culture symbolism svastichnoy Vikings. One of the most common symbols of the sacred cross was Odin (Odinskret), which are grouped around four swastika sun wheel crosses one relationship is the personification of the seasons, the milestones of life, different forms of consciousness, etc. Also revered as a symbol of the swastika that combines dynamic and static. For many people the swastika was protected and a lucky symbol, it is this due to its widespread use as decorations on a weapon — the holy sun, playing on the blade, brought victory in battle. So, on the Norse spearheads along with other patterns we see right swastika sun sign of good luck (right and left triskel swastika, right swastika). Swastika often decorated scabbard swords. Also swastika depicted on magical amulets ancient Germans — so-called bracteates, which also contains runic inscriptions. The interesting decoration chess pieces from the collection of 93 pieces, found on the west coast of the Isle of Lewis in 1851. Chess made of ivory in the days when the land was part of the Norwegian kingdom. On the shield of an ancient warrior, which became a battlefield chess board, we see svastichny ornament. It is also worth noting the spectacular decorations of the ancient Scandinavians. Being impeccable with jewelry terms, they had a deep mystical meaning. In this regard it is also interesting bronze brooch, decorated with stylized three-and a four swastikas. Curious relationship swastika with runic inscriptions — such as inscription made silver a bronze sword. In addition to weapons and jewelry, Scandinavian swastika decorated household objects (a fragment of harness, crest).
However, this does not limit the spread of the swastika in Europe. In ancient times, a lot stronger than it is now, felt the connection between the generations and ages. Confirmation of this can be found in almost any field zhiznedeyatlnosti of the people. Let us consider the most telling examples, namely the use of symbolism as svastichnoy decorating ceramics, which has always been a feature of European pottery from ancient times (eg, pottery Bosporus Kingdom), and until relatively recently (bowl, found on about. Rügen now Germany, with sea and celestial symbols, pottery mark of Gdansk, X century, the Western European pattern, XIII century). It is impossible to cover the whole range of cultures used the swastika. Many people remain outside of the work, but that does not mean that on the issue of them have nothing to say. The authors have been mentioned many cultures that have influenced the formation of European civilization. However, lack of space and material led to the fact that "behind the scenes" were many nationalities, who contributed to the development of Europe. This does not in any way mean that the character, who became the subject of this work was typical of a separate nation. Constant interpenetration of one culture to another, not only within regions and states, and even continents caused widespread swastikas all over the planet. Leaving the question of the likelihood of a common ancestral home of all people to discuss in another place at another time, the authors have focused only on the facts that unite many nationalities from all over the world, namely the use of the swastika is such a fact, which are the link between prehistoric times and the middle ages , between East and West, North and South. Within Europe, found many items that adorned the swastika, which belonged to different spheres of human activity. Here we must also mention the ancient altar, found in France, and a carved stone from Ireland, and a vase Tribe Gauls, and the Anglo-Saxon brooches, and more that is not included in this work. However, the authors express the hope that the material used is sufficient to illustrate the breadth of dissemination of the swastika.
American Indian culture did not ignore the swastika. It should be noted svastichnye patterns in the culture of the Mississippi Valley and Mexico. Navajo swastika represented with anthropomorphic motifs — the bent ends of the rays is a human figure, depicting a man and a woman. Very curious Indians weaving pattern — it is a lot like Slavic, discussed in the next chapter — "The swastika in Russia." The swastika is also present on the shield of an Indian warrior Pima, pierced arrow enemy. Obviously, not only the Vikings believed in military success brought by a swastika. Indians sometimes combined with a swastika totemic images.
All of this suggests that the swastika is not no way a symbol of belonging to any one nation, but on the contrary, relates many lands and peoples, which gives some grounds for seeking common ancestral humanity.
Swastika in Russia
One of the main motives of Russian craft has always been solar symbolism, one option which, as we know, is the swastika. Using the sun as a highly artistic image characterizes the pre-Christian culture of the Slavs. This is due to the generic knowledge — Vedaniem, which recently took the whole "dynasty" Solntsebogov. Currently quite common view that the baptism of Rus in its history entered a new stage, a perecherknuvshy everything that preceded it. However, in fact Christianity is not only not cut the so-called "pagan", but pretty much adapted to it, a remake of the gods in the holy name, and replacing traditional festivals, months and so on. Motives pre-Christian culture visible in virtually every Orthodox shrine (see "Solar symbolism and Christianity"). According to archaeological research, Russia is the richest area for use of swastika as a religious and cultural and community character — neither Europe nor India can not be compared with Russia in abundance swastikas covering Russian arms, flags, national costumes, jewelry (Temple rings in silver, Culture Vyatichi, XII century.; pommel pins Novgorod, XII century, the ring, buckle, Novgorod, XIII c.), houses, household items, and temples, and the swastika is used as a decoration from a purely aesthetic function, and as oberegovoy symbolism. Consider, for example, a silver ring temporal vyatichey. Along with runic symbols and their derivatives, we can see the swastika, located in the far petals. Apparently, this ring has great magical significance. The excavation of ancient burial mounds and settlements speak for themselves — many ancient Slavic settlement took the form of a swastika, is oriented to the four cardinal points. For many millennia the Slavs used the swastika symbol. Everyone knows that Oleg the Wise nailed his shield at the gates of Constantinople (Constantinople), but few people know that there has been depicted. Yet his description of the symbolism of the shield and armor can be found in historical records.
If almost all the languages different shapes with curved cross solar rays are called in one word — "Swastika", in the Russian language for different swastika existed and exists today, more than 140 titles and many more versions of the image, which also shows the "Russian-ness" that character. For example: Kolovrat, Posolon, holy gift, Solntsevrat, Agni, Solar Cross, Solard, Svetolet, fern flower, Perun Color Bogovnik, Svarozhich, Svyatoch, Yarovrat, overcoming-grass, Rodimich, Charovrat etc. In simple peasants had their names swastika. In the villages of the province of Ryazan it was called "feather" — the embodiment of wind on the Pechora — "hare", is seen as a graphic piece of sunshine, ray, sunbeam, in some places the cross was called "horse", "horse head", because even long ago the horse was considered a symbol of the sun and wind, called a swastika and "Ognivtsev", again in honor of the sun. In rural areas, to this day the ancient celebrations women dress elegant tunics and shirts, and men — shirts, embroidered with swastikas different shapes, bake loaves lush and sweet cookies decorated Kolovrat. Even Russian Dance "dance" has a deeper meaning same as the graphic tracing of the swastika. Sometimes it is called — Kolovrat.
As already mentioned, prior to the second half of the twentieth century the main pattern as used in the Slavic embroidery, was a swastika. The use of the swastika in the patterns in Russia just innumerable. Academician BA Rybakov Kolovrat called "the link between the Paleolithic, where it first appeared, and contemporary ethnography, giving countless examples svastichnyh patterns in fabrics, embroidery and weaving." True tradition lived in Russia for a long time. A swastika was not alien to the Russian Imperial House. Under Peter I the walls of his suburban residence were decorated with swastikas. The ceiling of the throne room in the Hermitage is also covered by this sacred symbol. Her appearance in St. Petersburg at the beginning of the century associated with the name of the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, was deeply interested in Tibetan Lamaism. She never missed an opportunity to protect his family and his friends loved the occult symbol — the swastika, which was present in many of her writings, and gift books that often hit members of the diplomatic corps accredited in St. Petersburg. Bewilderment continues today, but only among those who do not know that the swastika was revered ancestors Alexandra of Hesse on the line in its two branches: Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt. It is no coincidence in the Ipatiev house, where the royal family was shot, Pierre Shilyar, a Swiss, a former tutor of the Prince, found "in the embrasure of one of the windows in the room, the king and queen's favorite symbol of the Empress, in pencil, and under it the date: 17 (30 ) in April 1918. " The same sign — the swastika — but the wallpaper was painted next to a large bed. The swastika was the most common sign oberegovym in Russia of the 1900s, Western and Eastern Europe — was influenced by "The Secret Doctrine" EP Blavatsky (the emblem of her Theosophical Society), the teachings of Guido von List, and so on.
In Soviet Russia, shoulder patches of the Red Army in South-Eastern Front in 1918 was decorated with a swastika inside abbreviated RSFSR After the overthrow of the autocracy swastika appears on the new banknotes of the Provisional Government, and after October 1917 — on the bank notes Bolsheviks. Now very few people know that the template for printing banknotes with a swastika on the background of the double-headed eagle was made by special order and sketches of the last Tsar of the Russian Empire — Nicholas II. In 1917, the Provisional Government issued introducing new banknotes in 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rubles, which displayed a swastika instead of one, but three, two smaller ones in the side vyazyah and large swastika in the middle. Money swastika was in use until 1922, and only after the formation of the Soviet Union were withdrawn from circulation.
Today, philosophers, dowsers and psychics offer to build the city's neighborhoods as swastikas — such configurations need to generate positive energy, by the way, these findings have been confirmed by modern science. More it will be addressed in the chapter "Different interpretations of the swastika." Unfortunately, in the minds of most people in our time, the swastika is associated with German National Socialism, which brought untold suffering to our land. We hope that over time the swastika take inherent in it a place among the great symbols of mankind. Not the last area of solar symbols are magical practice. After all, one of the interpretations of the swastika is subrunicheskim (ie related to the runes, ancient magical writings) symbol composed of two runes in the Norse tradition of wearing name Sowilo — S — Sun. These characters are known to all Indo-European space, and that information about rune magic in all its varieties let's talk about the wide use of the swastika in conjunction with different types of magic. In this aspect seems to project the value of the swastika as a symbol of the sun on the ability of this sign have an impact on areas such as the gift of strength and success, fertility and healing. In one method of Kolovrat can act as an embodiment of strength of the individual as opposed to the outside world. These forces are believed to be able to provide significant support to those who seek to transform their lives and the outer world. In essence, the following prayer, known as "Gayatri" (Gayatri — in the mythology of ancient name of the wife of Brahma, the mother of the Vedas) best reflects the deep sense of the swastika as a magical element:
You that the source of all power,
Whose rays illuminate the whole world,
Lighten up and my heart, too,
And that it could do your job.
This prayer is especially interesting in light of the deep connection between the faith of our ancestors from the Indian Vedic tradition. Come down to us a very small amount of information, but it gives the primary idea of the magic of our ancestors. Some historians of the Vologda region claim that there lived followers magic druidic tradition of ritual self-immolation in the XII century. Ring was found one of the druids. The symbolism of the ring is very mysterious, but it is possible that it also has a direct relationship to the sun and has magical powers. So far, Vologda lace kept the swastika as one of the main patterns.
All of the above suggests that the swastika and the solar symbolism in general are not something alien to the Slavs, on the contrary, take one of the major sites in a number of major cultural events. Even at the beginning of this century could be found svastichnye ornaments, such as stained glass staircases some homes in St. Petersburg. This shows the relevance of solar symbolism, even when, apparently, her memory had been erased from folk art.
The swastika as part of Belarusian culture
By and large, the use of solar symbolism Belarusians only slightly distracting from the Slavic context, but there are some features that are sure to be considered. First, solar symbolism as an element of weaving art, clothing and jewelry is used much more widely. This is clearly expressed, for example, in the ornamentation of Smolensk region — the ethnic territory of Belarus. The symbolism of the Belarusian crafts also includes a much larger proportion of red color in the embroidery than all the others. Decorative ornaments clothes suggest keeping the original outlook of the peasants, but with a certain degree of proximity include the use of such marks unconscious rather than conscious — who represents the sun, feel the negative rather lack of it, than the benefit brought by the presence of light. Shown in Figure fragments are characteristic not only of the Smolensk region, but also for Belarus as a whole, although in general the weaving tradition of modern Belarus represented symbols that reflect the full cycle of national agrarian calendar retained the almost intact all the features of the ancient world view (Figure — pattern weaving Mogilev, II floor. XIX c.). Thus, one of the earliest images of the swastika can be seen on the pot of burial near the village of Nacha, dated 3rd millennium BC Folk art implies a connection swastika with fire, and use it as a symbolic designation agricultural calendar, which again is a variation on the theme of the annual cycle. There are also other items bearing the sign of the sun, which were found on the territory of Belarus. Expressive example of the spearhead, found near Brest — the so-called "Kovel tip." It is made of steel and encrusted with silver. Approximate date of manufacture — III century AD. As for the later stages of development of Belarusian culture, for example, svastichnye elements were well represented in the arts and crafts (drawing), as well as in medieval heraldry and sphragistics.
Swastika or its variants are found on seals burghers, shopkeepers and bureaucrats. Gentry arms also did not escape their attention — some kind of arms of Radziwill, and on the arms of Simeon War and Anthony Michael Earl Paz present a slightly modified swastika with three rays. Moreover, even in the famous cross Euphrosyne of Polotsk present stylized swastika (figure). All this testifies to the preservation of almost constant solar symbolism Belarus has adjusted to the national peculiarities of ornament, and the values of modernity swastikas and other signs in the Belarusian culture.
Belarus may be very aptly described by the word "between." This fully applies to the issue of this paper. All that has been said above can be attributed to the so-called "Slavic" point of view. But we should take into account also the effect of the substrate on the Balt cultural development of these lands. From the point of such an approach to the Baltic Belarus is a historical and cultural district. In this regard, there is a proliferation of symbols svastichnyh in areas adjacent to the modern Lithuania and Latvia. Traced graphics community tradition in the region. These conclusions are based on excavations Balt graves in the territory of Belarus. Of interest are a variety of artifacts, such as a head adornment XII-XIII centuries. with a swastika (D. Doll, Grodno.) mark on the Donets, found near the village of Sloboda Patsova (XI-XII centuries., Mogilev.) and on Gloss (XIV-XVI centuries., Minsk.). It is also necessary to note the discrepancy with the majority of the "solar" concepts. In this case it is a "fiery" hypostasis swastika and its connection with the cult of the hearth. It is important to note that both views have their place. And the same pattern emerged in the Belarussian situation interpenetration of different cultures, which determined his identity.
Swastika and Christianity
Solar symbolism — is a manifestation of an ancient world view, typical of any and all cultures, without exception, have experienced a change in the social order, property, and religion. It is believed that the adoption of Christianity at the same time was the renunciation of old views on the structure of the world and religious views. However, this is not the case. As for the present symbolism, it almost passed without change from one era to another. Wheels with six or eight spokes, swastikas, crosses, has practically all round and symmetrical characters were directly borrowed a new faith, even the early Christian cross was depicted equilateral. Naturally, all of these characters have moved from woven patterns, pottery, weapons, dwellings on the icon, the cover of religious books, clothing, clergy and painting the walls. Swastika prominently in Orthodoxy and Catholicism. For the Western tradition the most striking example is likely to be a fragment of the cover design Evanegliya Lindsfarne, England, attributable to the end of VII century BC, which is now kept in the British Library in London. It is clearly visible four swastika (in the above snippet — one right and one left) along with floral patterns and woven made in the Celtic spirit. Also telling is the example page design of the Gospel of the Municipal Library in Dijon, France. The book refers to the middle of the XII century. Illustration depicts St. Daniel among the lions, along with the traditional elements of the plant design is decorated with bright enough svastichnym ornament. This fragment is very similar to a page from the Orthodox Psalter XII century.
The use of solar motifs in the temple construction can be considered as an example of the Orthodox tradition. On the fragment pattern F.Klagesa "Interior of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour" (oil on canvas, 1883), we see two kinds of typical symbol of the Sun — vosmispitsevoe wheel and equilateral cross. In the Church of St. Luke in modern Greece Solar jewelry more expressive — the picture painted noticeable arch aisle — the swastika in virtually intact. To episcopal rank in St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, the oldest Christian church in Russia, dating back Yaroslav the Wise, depicted swastikas zone of alternating and direct crosses. In Chernihiv is the Church of the Holy Friday, built in XI century, wall decoration which combines the cross and the swastika (fragment).
It should be noted that the importance attached to this symbolism, as amended. In the Christian tradition, the swastika symbolizes the first right of the Son of God, Jesus Christ, for the salvation of men, direct cross — his earthly journey, finally left the swastika — the resurrection of Jesus Christ and his second coming in power and glory. In addition, the swastika symbolized as the elements of fire and wind — the elements that embody the Holy Spirit. This symbol is represented not only in the icons: how the character associated with Christ, the swastika was present in the early church catacomb type. In more recent times solar symbolism was not as widespread as before, but, nevertheless, you may find slightly altered svastichnye ornaments that come close in appearance to the floral pattern. Consider, for example, XV century engraving depicting a monk scribe. Clearly visible on the left modified swastika. Interesting, too, represented the Church of St. Andrew in the village Naroch Babol, Belarus. It is worth paying attention to the decoration of the church in the Hutsul region, Carpathians, as well as examples of painting Easter eggs in Ukraine. This suggests that despite the Christianization of the elements of the ancient ornaments not only not disappeared, but stayed and got a new interpretation — a new faith was not able to erase the memory of the people of the original genetic archetypes. Orthodox canon of art also turned his attention to the symbol, of course, in its new interpretation. Thus, in the image of Christ — the Almighty left and right swastika placed on the chest as a symbol of beginning and end of all things, and the icon of "Our Lady Sovereign" to the head piece depicts a golden swastika.
Swastika in Nazi Germany
As for Hitler's Germany, the swastika was chosen as symbols of the Third Reich is not accidental. "The effect was like a bombshell from" — Hitler wrote about selecting symbols for their party. Sometimes you can hear the full version of the absurd that the swastika — a combination of four letters "G" of the names of Hitler, Himmler, Goering and Goebbels and Hess. In fact, in 1908, the Austrian mystic Guido von List svastichnye motifs found in the magical ornaments of the ancient Germans. This fact has given him a reason to oppose the Christian cross and the swastika to declare in 1910 about the swastika as a symbol of anti-Semitic organizations in connection with the assumption of its lack of Semitic peoples, but later, in the late 20's, have been published of the British and Danish archaeologists , who found a swastika not only in areas inhabited by Semitic peoples (in Mesopotamia and Palestine), but also at the Hebrew sarcophagi. Occult Society "Tula", engage in research of German religious-mystical heritage, placed a swastika into his arms.
For the first time as a political symbol swastika was used on 10-13 March 1920 at the helms militants so-called "Erhard Brigade" formed the core of "Freikorps" — monarchist paramilitary organization led by Generals Ludendorff Lyuttsova sect and have implemented the Kapp Putsch — counterrevolutionary coup planted a "Premier" in Berlin landlord B. Kapp. Although the Social Democratic government Bauer shamefully fled, Kapp Putsch was eliminated in five days established under the leadership of the Communist Party of Germany one hundred thousandth of the Red Army in Germany. The authority of military circles was then severely undermined, and the sign of the swastika was a symbol of that time meant right-wing extremism. Since 1923, the eve of the "Beer Hall Putsch" of Hitler in Munich swastika became the official emblem of the Nazi party NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party), and in September 1935 — the main state emblem of Nazi Germany, included in its coat of arms and flag, as well as in the Wehrmacht emblem — an eagle holding a wreath and claws with a swastika.
Hitler probably met several times with her child in a Benedictine monastery in Lambahe, Upper Austria, where he grew up: in the years 1897-98 Adolph sang in the children's choir of the monastery, and the buildings were decorated in a few places a swastika. In addition, a gold swastika emblem adorned prior. This may also affect the choice of symbols for the NSDAP. By the way, most of the characters Germans borrowed it from a mystical order "Thule", which, in turn, almost no change took traditional Nordic-Germanic symbols. Adolf Hitler never called swastika symbol of the Nazi Party, but instead he used the word «Hakenkreuz», which literally means "hook-shaped cross." This symbolism is most often in Germany combined with the eagle, the traditional symbol of the Reich (fragment of a typical Agitplakat). Left swastika, used by Hitler, one of the interpretations of the symbol of the "night sun" dark forces.
What does the swastika
So, the swastika as a graphical image can be found in any of the ancient cults around the world — in the UK, Ireland, the vast modern Russia, Mycenae, Gascony, the Etruscans, the Hindus, the Celts and Germans, in Central Asia and pre-Columbian America. It was associated with Christ, the Russian-Vedic (Perun, Svarog, Semargl) and the Hindu gods (Agni, Shiva, Vishnu), the Greek gods (Zeus, Helios, Athena), with the Nordic gods — the god of thunder Thor's hammer is sometimes depicted as a swastika. Symbol of solar energy in Babylon and Egypt — as a swastika. It is impossible to grasp all the interpretation of the sign. Focus only on the most revealing.
In the most common interpretation of the swastika represents the cycle of life, the annual cycle of the eternal movement of the galaxy that even resembles the shape of the symbol. This value may undergo some changes, making the swastika symbol of the solar and indicating movement of the sun across the sky. With this value closely related derivatives, due to the orientation of ancient religions solntsepoklonnicheskoy — life, fertility, good luck. In Hinduism svastichny character is the embodiment of eternal life, the turnover of rebirth, "the cycle of samsara," as well as movement from the microcosm to the macrocosm. Buddhists also believe swastika embodiment of the Buddha, which is subject to all things. Moreover, the left and right respectively swastika embody the goddess Kali Maya (Moon, Buddha's mother) and the god Ganesha (the Sun, the father of the Buddha). There is also the sacred feet of the Buddha figure, which, except for the image track left by the Buddha, as the card is used for massage — swastikas represent singular points, which are working on, the master of impacts on human health. In addition, the swastika is often present at the sacred images of Buddha (China-Far iconography). The swastika can also be considered the equivalent of the symbol "Yin and Yang." Thus, the sacred symbol of the "Falun Dafa" can see the four Buddhist swastika and the four characters "Yin and Yang" of Tao. When this symbol is rotated clockwise, it absorbs the universal energy — against isolates. On the Christian interpretation has already been mentioned, although we believe it is secondary to the original.
Common sense about the swastika, scientists can not come to a consensus. Offers such interpretations, as a spinning sun beaming round the midday sun, the solar chariot pole and rotation of stars around it, the four directions, the four phases of the moon, the four winds, the four seasons, the movement of the vortex motion, the turning world, the center, the creative force in the action generated by the cycles, the spinning wheel of samsara, the cross as the four corners of the square on which moves around the sun, turning them into a circle (ie, rounded square and making a square circle), the cross as a combination of vertical and horizontal lines, means spirit and matter, and the four stages of life.
It is also assumed that the swastika represents the conventional representation of the man with two arms and two legs, or a mix of male and female, dynamic and static, mobile and immobile, harmony and balance, two complementary phases of motion, centrifugal and centripetal, breathe in and out, avoiding the center and return to it, the beginning and the end. Also, assume that it represents a maze, water in motion, or, perhaps, the image branched lightning, being a combination of two 2-shaped symbol of lightning, or two torches and circular motion, or two curved sticks that is Vedic Queen Arani for making fire, or cabalistic Aleph, symbol of primitive movement of the Great Breath, spinning chaos in the center of creation, or double the Scandinavian Serpent Sun. Others believe that the swastika was formed by the intersection meander, or alternatively cross Tau. It also assumes that it is a symbol of obedience and humility, as well as hands, folded in submission to his chest. Swastikas appear like gods, and goddesses.
The combination of the swastika with female symbols has led to speculation that it symbolizes the four phases of the moon, but, basically, it is associated with sun and fertile symbols, such as a lion, sheep, deer, horses, birds, lotus. It can be found on the altars, statues, vestments, urns, vases, utensils, ceramics, weapons, shields, dresses, coins, as well as spindles, where it is considered, it should mean a rotation. In any case, it is a symbol of good luck, good omen, good wishes, blessings, longevity, fertility, health and life. There are two forms of the swastika: forward and backward, which is believed to represent the male and female, sun and moon beginning to move and counter-clockwise ("deosil" and "osolon," as they say in Russia), but also, Apparently, the two hemispheres, the heavenly and chthonic power, the rising spring and the setting autumn sun. Evidence that the reverse swastika is a symbol of the feminine, can be found in the images of Artemis and Astarte, where it is shown in the triangle of the vulva. Gnostic sects of late antiquity used the kind of swastika, composed of the legs bent at the knees as a secret character, comparable to the three axis cross. Jains believe swastika symbolic representation of the four possible places of rebirth, reincarnation: the animal world, the earth, hell, the realm of the spirits. In Buddhism, the swastika is also called "manju" and is considered a symbol of perfection. The vertical line indicates the relationship of heaven and earth, the horizontal — the age-old struggle of opposites, Yin and Yang. Cross strokes, looking left, represent gentleness, compassion, kindness, right — firmness, consistency, intelligence and strength. Manzo is the emblem of the Shaolin Monastery, as well as other centers of martial arts. Many followers of martial arts are in their kimonos is levoluchevuyu Manzo, symbolizing the purity of their intentions, including its primary. Among other interpretations may be mentioned swastika connection with agriculture and the characteristic orientation of the compass. The basis of this is the time of the quaternary, more precisely, "the configuration of motion, dissected into 4 parts." Swastika designated human energy centers — chakras. In the Masonic tradition swastika averted disaster and evil. In occultism reincarnation called "rotation" and depicted as a swastika. Thus, in one of the mystical order of the century ("Brotherhood Initiatives Asia") during ritual ceremonies 29 initiatives become a big chess board, forming a living swastika, leaving the central cell free. This ritual still exists among groups of magical Britain.
In China, the swastika used to represent the forces of Yin and Yang, "accumulation of lucky symbols Ten Thousand Forces." This early form of the character "fan", meaning four limits of space and land. Being used as a frame, means "wan-tzu," the ten thousand things, or sequences, which has no beginning or end of the sequence, the infinite renewal of life and eternity. It also symbolizes perfection, movement, Law, longevity, blessing, good omen, good wishes. It also — Thunder Spiral. Blue swastika means limitless perfection of Heaven, red — infinite goodness of the heart virtues of the Buddha, yellow — an endless prosperity, green — the infinite perfection contained in agriculture. Oriented clockwise swastika — the power of Yang, counterclockwise — the power of Yin. In addition to the inherent energy of rotation of the swastika was used, and other graphical symbols of this sign: the bent ends form a square around a static center.
In the symbolism of Native American swastika was associated with the sacred number four, four gods of wind, four seasons, and in China — the four cardinal directions, as well as a symbol of the number 10 000.
Raises a number of legitimate questions: Why did the swastika was so widespread that goes far beyond the territory occupied by the Indo-European peoples, why do people just portrayed it as it can be explained? Try used to explain modern science. There is a very interesting theory of torsion fields, developed by Gennady Shipov, according to which any material object has a field with the energy-forming nature and the mental image of the subject in the mind. These fields can have a positive or negative direction, affecting in any way to the perceiver. Experimentally, the presence of torsion fields proved the ability of some blind from birth people to read books written by ordinary, non-Braille. What does this have to the swastika? The most direct. Since ancient times, observed that the shape of the object having a tremendous impact on people. The following table shows the values of torsional contrast that characterizes the magnitude and sign of the torsion field of a symbol and the background in the form of a clean sheet of paper. As can be seen from the table, of strongest torsion field has a circle — the sun in its pure form, the ancient protection of the mark, known to all peoples without exception — this halo over the head of the Christian saints, and a Buddhist mandala, and the popular belief of the circle as a wall against evil and rounded the oldest settlements … Left swastika is second on the positive power of place, and no wonder, because it is also associated with the sun and fertility. There is also another interpretation inherent in the deep meaning of the swastika. German psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich in his book, published in 1933, explained the swastika attractive effect on the masses: "It works on the subconscious emotions observer. Swastika — nothing like the image obvivshihsya around each other people, schematic, but at the same time it is quite recognizable. One line is the sexual act in the horizontal, the other — in a vertical position. One can assume that this character excites hidden from ourselves strings in the body, though the more the less satisfied people, the more he is lustful. If we attribute to this idea further sign of loyalty and honor, then he will be able to meet and moral scruples and will be the more readily accepted. " You can find a picture to illustrate the same ideas in the past.
The swastika as part of arms and flags
It is quite natural that this sign is still widely used in the official symbols and used more widely in it before — great value swastika could not go unnoticed by developers of coats of arms and flags. Our land will be the most dramatic example of the family coat of arms Boreyko. This name, according to legend, was granted one boyar head of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Gediminas for the victory over the Tartar warrior, who decided the fate of the principality. The coat of arms of this kind is white swastika on a red field. In this figure we see the head of the family and his entourage. Is not it, they look more than impressive and intimidating? As for the relatively recently, it is interesting in this respect, the Lviv National Museum emblem, adopted in 1909. Communication with swastikas heavenly bodies it emphasized symbolic images on the sides, which can have both solar and lunarnoe origin.
At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries was proclaimed the Republic of Panama, on the flag which had a swastika, an ancient symbol of the population. Because of the association with Hitler's regime in 1942, the swastika was modified red nose ring, national jewelry Panamanian Indians. The swastika in one form or another is still emblazoned on the arms of the Isle of Man and South Ossetia, as well as on the flag of Indian Jains.
In Finland, the swastika is a presidential standard, that is, in fact, the banner of the Republic, and is included in the military and naval flags of the country and, in addition, is used as the sign on the chain of the Order of the Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose (top Finnish order, which can be awarded to the high foreign government officials) in the Order of the "Cross of Freedom" nine degrees. Saving swastika among its state symbols Finland motivated by the fact that it is not related to the swastika fascism, since it was introduced in this country in 1919, that is, until it appears in Germany.
Swastika and modernity
Naturally, over time, the brightness of any character in the human memory fades. However, in the first half of XX century it was possible to observe an intense expansion of the use of the swastika. In particular, in this regard, particularly distinguished the United States and Canada. The swastika is often portrayed as a symbol of good luck and prosperity in the cards. In addition, in the early 20's American Scout organization was adopted badge, awarded to everyone to do good for the scout. Support of this icon was a friend to all scouts and could always count on their help. Curiously, the Baden-Powell, the head of the Scout movement, was a connoisseur of good stories swastikas and even mentioned about it in relation to the lost Atlantis. The swastika was a while drawing a U.S. Army insignia. It still adorns the square in front of the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Interestingly enough, even more fun the following examples. In 1920 the company «Coca-Cola» released keychain with advertising its drinks in bottles. The form of this product is quite unconventional for the food industry, is not it?. In Edmonton in 1916, there was a women's hockey team, the uniforms which can not fail to bring a smile. In addition, in this country there were at least three hockey teams called … «The Swastikas» — «Swastika!" Canada generally normal country … There's even a chance of coming to the Swastika. Not surprisingly, since the title of one of the smaller towns. The program includes the famous American circus Barnum could see a group of clowns called «The Pinheads» («pinheads" or "Fools"). It would seem unremarkable, but on their stage costumes we see … a swastika. Allegedly shot is the thirties of this century.
The famous writer Rudyard Kipling right swastika painted on their books as an emblem, and publishing "Ignis" in Warsaw placed left swastika in its logo. The photo shows Jackie Bouvier, the future Jackie Kennedy, in a festive costume associated with the culture of the American Indians.
All of this indicates that the symbol was not only forgotten, but in the first half-century modern-value coupled with a very, very unusual use cases. Next to the time line for a period of swastikas denigration and loss initially deeply positive values. More svastichnaya symbols of the Third Reich is discussed in the chapter "The swastika in Nazi Germany." At the end of the century the swastika is hardly used. Conventionally this small stream, the remainder of the memory of the great river can be divided into two areas: political, historical, and cultural (we are not unconscious swastika to significant events, though partially covered in this chapter.) Unfortunately, some political organizations that have not always prosperous reputation in the community, as their symbols svastichnye choose options that subconsciously makes people negative associations. Among these organizations, you can mention Russian National Unity, the Irish Republican Army, the African Resistance Movement and the Nationalist Workers Party of Argentina (NRPA). Remember, however, that the perception of any organization only on the basis that its logo is somehow connected with the swastika is wrong. This symbol has undeniably great potential that can be used in different ways. We call upon the judge of those who would swastika on posters, logos, pictures, anywhere, on the basis of their actions, principles, beliefs, words, political programs, and not on the basis of the fact that the visual aspect of their work includes the use svastichnoy symbolism.
Ancient tradition lives on today, and sometimes in the most disparate its guises. Naturally, after the undeserved discredit the swastika in the middle of the XX century, the range of its use was reduced to negligible proportions. But this does not mean that the symbol of the sun forgotten. In our time, say, in Russia there are many communities, reviving faith of their ancestors, promotes archaic cult, and it is quite natural that the character of many of them was Father Sun, the symbol of the Heavenly Fire Many clubs reconstructing clothing, life and medieval weapons, also use the swastika in one form or another as part of reviving their culture. There are also quite paradoxical and amusing examples. Some of them concern the logos of some companies. For example, svastikopodobny picture you can see how to brand the U.S. firm Columbia, engaged in the production of winter clothing (1), and in posters Belarusian travel agencies, such as Optitec-tour (2), Belfer (3) and some others. In addition, there is also something similar in the logo JSC "Belstrahinvest." Naturally, these logos are not intended for awareness and understanding of images, but it is a good example of how genetic memory tenacious man.
Indeed, XX century — the time of curiosities. That pretty much applies to the swastika. Consider, for example, the picture of the forest near Berlin. Trees planted in such a way that in the fall and spring of view, rolling on top of the trees, runs into something painfully familiar. Such planting forests — the work of a fanatical supporter of Hitler in the 1930s. However, these trees have been cut down … The situation is similar in the summer of 1998 on the field under New Jersey. There was found a swastika formed mowed plants. It is unlikely that it has to do with politics, but the motive remained a mystery unknown creators. Maybe she had a sacred value associated with the last solstice. For a number of such examples can be fun to add the picture sidewalk on a street in Minsk …
This may seem strange, but the swastika and solar symbols in general are much more relevant to the history of culture than it seems at first glance. The fact is that even the most ancient philosophical treatises, such as the Indian Vedas, viewed history not as a linear system, which is its traditional, biblical understanding (the path from the Creation to the Last Judgement — a straight line), but as a spiral, circular image, because development of the world understood as a spiral, circular, in which each new stage of human history includes a portion of the previous and introduces something new, hitherto absent element. The spiral and swastika seen as symbols of the ancient cycles, the cycle. The swastika can be seen as a further development of the spiral symbols. The figure shows svastichno-spiral symbols, collected from all over the world — Dagestan (1), Chechnya (2) America (3), Spain (4).
A huge number of clans, tribes, nations, religions, parties, and even states and individuals gave the swastika all possible values, symbolized by it a number of principles of the universe, called her by the favor of fate to protect themselves from the evil forces of the swastika, their tribute to the departed ancestors — and all with the same sign. Its potential is amazing. This symbol — the little, what else lives the spirit of the most distant generations, their outlook and philosophy. This amazing character binds a stone age and the present, is paving the invisible bridge between all continents and cultures, united by the great cultures of the Earth. This suggests that the value of the considered symbolism goes deeper than generally accepted, and the perception of the swastika and similar symbols as "fascist" is illogical and contrary to the specific facts of history — how can disconnect that is common? Can a symbol of good fortune to bear the violence, and the symbol of the eternal cycle — death? Tracing the path of formation and development of only one element in the culture, we made an excursion through time and space, covered in a work whole continents and peoples. This work can be considered as an attempt to justify an ancient symbol, attempt to clear unfairly tarnished reputation as a great cultural phenomenon, the embodiment of the sun, life, luck and prosperity to man again and accompanied him throughout his history. Unfortunately, for a Russian situation is such that the swastika is a completely unambiguous association. Still, there is hope that one day in the minds of Kolovrat again become the personification of happiness and prosperity, a sign of inner and outer harmony. One generation after another, and the collapse of the state are born, but those who keep the traditions of their ancestors, do not forget their roots, keeps the old culture — he is immortal.
Finally I would like to call on the legal profession. Zde A fragment of a document written by Victor Ilyukhin, chairman of the Committee for Public Associations and Religious Organizations of the Russian State Duma. The document entitled "Comments and suggestions to the draft federal law" On prohibition of Nazi symbols and literature '":
Iconic symbolism derives from ancient beliefs and accompanies the formation of society and culture at various stages. And therefore, the prohibition of any symbolism — an element of cultural genocide society or individual groups. Articles 1 and 2 of the proposed bill is just aim to ban symbols that accompanied the culture of many peoples of Eurasia and that to date there is in Russian art. Reference to the fact that these attributes present in Nazi Germany — a cause for destruction of cultural space in Russia. Runes for a few thousand years older than Adolf Hitler. Symbolism in no way related to the actions of various parties. For example, under the banner of Christ committed murderous "crusade", and later under the same banner almost completely destroyed the indigenous population of America, but no one does not occur to prevent the image of Christ, or the sign of the cross. This is understandable, because the named characters — cultural examples of medieval European culture. Another example. Under the banner of the tricolor movement "Democratic Russia" rob citizens of their country, expelled the country's elite — scientists from research institutes in the markets has brought down the state industry, the collapse of its safety. However, no matter what the fate of this movement in the future, under any circumstances can not be denied and will not be allowed trikolorny flag of Russia. Since 1698 he is forever in the registry flags of Russia. Even more absurd are calls to ban some types of symbols. If you remove the individual lines of the contours Crosses Russian Empire there appear so disturbing development bill swastika. It can pomereschitsya and other cultural patterns of socio-cultural space in Russia.
From the newspaper "Soviet Russia"