Begun in Warsaw on January 23 uprising gentry, who attempted to return the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and then spread to the area of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. In the analysis of the events under no circumstances be simplified as prerequisites that caused the rebellion, and the overall situation in the Russian Empire and the world at the time.
By the beginning of 1863 the situation in Warsaw and the Polish Kingdom as a whole is very reminiscent of the situation in the late times of the Polish People's Republic Jaruzelski and "Solidarity" and the situation in the Baltic republics before the collapse of the Soviet Union. The first is more about agility and control, and the second — to the center of the case and the Russian general.
Very bad role played by the defeat of in the Crimean War 1853-1855 period. Our homeland obviously did not have time — the world has moved forward leading European countries have begun a large-scale rearmament of the army and navy. To replace sailing ships were already armored, to replace the smooth-bore firearms — rifles. Dramatically accelerated the introduction of industry devices and machines. In Russia, with all of this had serious prepyadstviya, compounded by the empty treasury and the unresolved question of serfdom, which apparently inhibited the development of the country.
In Poland, after all this closely watched and felt that the weakening of, its objectives in its relations with Europe provides a historic opportunity to bring back the Poles Rzeczpospolita.
More problems brought farm reform in 1861, which overturned a fortress system. But the problem of the reform was that the landlords nobles, who played a major role in the Russian Imperial Court, have gained themselves money guarantees. Farmers, having received personal freedom, partly deprived of land that they farmed, being in the position of serfdom. In addition, the farmers had to pay the landlord for the land purchase. This redemption was very huge and served one purpose — to fill the landowner damage from the loss of foreign exchange income from rents or serfdom. The landowner could put money in the bank to buy and live on the interest, without losing anything. The same can not be said of a peasant. For example, at 10 rubles dues peasant had to make 167 rubles of redemption. In other words — almost 17 years to pay the same dues such, but also to work out more and panschinu or pay extra for the use of the land of the landlords (the one that went after the liberation of the peasants was not enough). Even taking into account the fact that the government is 80% credited these redemptions, payments to farmers were generally prohibitive. All of this will meet with great resistance of farmers — peasant uprisings began and throughout the fermentation Russian Empire.
The reform of 1861 was half-hearted and very controversial, because depriving farmers of funds for long years and to all other dilemmas and Class added, internal destabilization of.
These criteria Petersburg tried to solve the problem of Poland's exhortations and appeals in the style of the speeches and actions of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Baltic.
The results of a similar activity appeared quite rapidly. By January 1863, Warsaw was already seriously upravlyamoy — orders of the central authorities made poorly, the police did not control the situation, prayer services in churches often end with rallies and demonstrations. The apartments at times thrashed Russian inhabitants of glass, which took place on the streets of patrols were insulted in the Russian fighter and even the officers could just spit at the meeting. Police stations and the location of the troops threw rocks at times. Poles deliberately used everywhere only the Polish language, even in cases where the law had to be applied to the Russian. Have acquired enormous popularity of such forms of expression of dislike for and commitment to the Russian Speech Posopolitoy as special outfits and brooches with the ladies. Even students of different educational institutions often Courage, burning Russian and German books (part of Poland was controlled by Prussia). The Catholic clergy openly called for the restoration of the Commonwealth. Discussions began that the abolition of serfdom took place islyuchitelno horror of the Russian Federation to defeat her by England and France, and under their dictation. So much so, that even during a visit to Warsaw Alexander II to meet with the King of Prussia in October 1860, part of the Polish nobles defiantly chose to leave the town, if the governor to accept an invitation to visit his appointment. Those who went to the ceremony, poured oil, threw mucky and even beaten.
Russian officers and soldiers received about only the instructions in the style of "not to succumb to provocations" …
Became restless and Ukraine west of the Dnieper, Belarus and Lithuania — wherever Poles, accounting for only 5-10% of the population, yet represented 90% of the local nobility and virtually ruled this territory, together with the central government.
We can not say so in St. Petersburg did not understand what was happening, but, as in the times of the late USSR, no clear policy towards Poland was not. Part of influential officials believed that Poland vain generally incorporated into the Russian Federation, and it could be and to allocate a separate government. But it would inevitably lead to a conflict with Prussia and Austria, also controlled the Polish countryside. Because replaced in order to somehow react to what is happening, Alexander II and his administration initially preferred to have a conversation with the Polish nobility, expecting him to agree.
In 1861 in France, died Adam Czartoryski, who was a close relative of the last king of Poland, Stanislaw August Poniatowski. He led the Polish uprising of 1831, and in 1834 was proclaimed in exile "king of Poland." His place is taken formally son — Wladyslaw Czartoryski, which France led the Polish emigration. In 1862 in Italy, with the assistance of already prepared 400 Polish soldiers istruktorov. At this point it would be dubbed the fighter training camp. In addition, many Poles have had the experience of serious fighting, taking part in the campaign "thousands of Garibaldi" in 1860.
In May 1861 the second person in the Kingdom of Poland became the Earl A. Wielopolski — close to the aristocrat Alexander II, with the assistance of which the Russian government placed his hopes to restore the situation in Poland. Wielopolski from the outset conducted the case to the broad autonomy of Poland, hoping for a peaceful gradual restoration of the Kingdom of Poland.
If it is almost all organs of state administration began to change in the Russian Poles. Moreover — all 49 Russian teachers of the Polish Kingdom have lost their jobs. Teaching from now conducted only in Polish.
Petersburg look at it from a taciturn hope loyalty in exchange for concessions.
May 27 (June 9) 1862 governor of the Kingdom of Poland was appointed the brother of the ruler — the majestic Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich. He decided to trust in local affairs in the main A. Wielopolski not much that decided, taking faster, wait. The situation came to a head quickly.
Russian troops were stationed in Warsaw, but a clear plan of action, as in August 1991 in parts, introduced in Moscow putsch, was not.
In order to somehow defuse the situation, it was decided to conscription into the army on special lists of persons, in which, at first, were more active young opponents of the Russian presence in Poland. Was initially set to take place 13 (25) January but started 3 (15) of January. Specifically, in this day Poles planned to launch a large-scale performan
ce, and began conscription suddenly made some changes in what is happening.
Total planned to recruit more than 8,000 recruits. But the lists that have come to the police, consisting of Poles, rapidly became known, and Polish youth from the end of 1862 already leaving town, heading into the woods.
Local authorities received the letter from the Polish underground hazards and requirements are not set proivzodit and Russian support. In response to complaints from the receipt of such threats and letters Konstantin decided to just ignore it all. The people in the Kingdom of Poland put troops into winter quarters, dispersing them approximately 10 of the people in different areas. All it later played a fateful role.
Sam conscription in Warsaw took place relatively relaxed, but eventually was defeated — a gathering place brought 1,657 people to the army but was only 559, and in the reserve left 149 people — others just do not come for health and other reasons.
Pretty countless Jewish population feared that in case of rebellion gentry may suffer as they themselves and their property, and the Russian authorities have warned that the Poles are ready for action, but the authorities did not take it seriously.
The price paid for carelessness occurred on the night of 10 (22) 11 (23) January 1863 — in all areas of the Kingdom of Poland were attacked by Russian garrisons. Scattered sleeping soldier cut straight asleep in some kinds of cases simply burned together with the buildings from which they were shot. In addition to the garrisons were attacked and Orthodox monasteries, which were plundered and the monks — violence and izymatelstvam. On the whole area of the Kingdom of Poland was under martial law.
In parallel, in the middle of campaigning Russian fighter in order to impress upon them the idea that Russian fighter and a Pole to one thing — the will and the enemy at their one — the Russian government. By the way, is quite peculiar behaved and Russian liberals. In the summer of 1862 in London in the journal "The Bell" Herzen was located some anonymous letter Russian officers, in which, referring to Konstantin Nikolayevich, they beware of him from solving the problem by military means and frighten the fact that Russian troops here go over to the rebels and direct hostility against him.
In general, the Polish nobility initially overestimated their strength and abilities — one thing away with spit and throw pebbles into a fighter who suffer, so as "not instructed to answer" and quite another — face to face with armed protecting human life. If the liberal Russian society belonged to the Russian Federation itself to revolutionaries in Warsaw with compassion, the officers and men, full of honest report abuse and humiliation, were determined. Already the first skirmishes displayed complete an advantage in the Russian military training. The attackers were naughty soldiers and serious damage to Russian garrison did not cause. The first night had been killed and captured at least a hundred and fifty Russian officers and fighter. With all of this almost 250 insurgents themselves were captured. Polish farmers who were drawn into a rebellion against the will, to go home.
In all of the following days of the week and the active phase of the uprising Russian virtually everywhere victorious — impact as the best military training and bad weapons of Polish insurgents. Rebel troops led by civilian entities — Gentry, graduates of seminaries, commoners and even priests, which also did not contribute to the military successes. And Russian first made serious errors — for example, did not pursue the retreating, and they later restored their troops rapidly.
To somehow make up for the bad effects of their own defeat, the rebels rapidly spread rumors about convincing victories, capturing artillery and other successes, allegedly concealed royalties.
The insurgents fled to the strategy of guerrilla warfare, focusing on the communication of railways and telegraph lines, ambushes and surprise attacks. Authorities have made another serious mistake by pushing part of the Border Guard closer to the large garrisons, the baring the border and lost control of the situation on her part.
Gentry was counting on the support of the Polish farmers and come up with the idea to restore the borders of the Commonwealth in 1792, saying his claims to the lands of Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine, which they considered to be their, and where the leading role was played specifically Polish nobility.
It's not too far a unique case in practice since the terrain of — in the same in Finland despite the dominance of the Finnish population of dominant position by the Swedish nobility, in Latvia and Estonia — German.
Rzeczpospolita, as you know, was a state consisting of a 2-piece — in fact the Polish kingdom (or the Crown) also majestically Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian (Principality). With all of this Crown played a leading role, because the nobility ON, being the Lithuanians and Russian (Russian descendants of the Principality of Polotsk, the forefathers of modern Belarusian), has long been taken over by Polish language, manners, and even the Catholic faith and was a part of the Polish world unlike ordinary people. Specifically, from the Polish gentry and was formed in the terrain of the Western Region Lithuanian Provincial Committee (CRC), which led Kastus Kalinowski. Kalinowski is currently considered a national hero of Belarus. Meanwhile, he Kalinowski of Belarusians had the vaguest idea, and timber treatment to a population of sound followed by this: "Brothers! The kingdom rebelled. Our everywhere beating Muscovites. The blood that flows over the Niemen, calls us to arms. After all, the hour is approaching for us to fight against the invaders of our sacred rights, for our freedom! Will perform well together and in harmony, and God will help us! God save Poland! ".
Kalinowski was a supporter of the republic and the restriction of the rights of large landowners, but he also advocated the restoration of the Commonwealth, but as a federal Crown and ON. It's not much like Warsaw, because ON and Vilna were classic rivals of the Polish capital and the Crown inside the Commonwealth. The so-called underground Polish national government even remove Kalinowski rebels in control of ON and that, though not without displeasure, but was obliged to obey.
At this time in Warsaw and Vilna clearly marked division of rebels in the "white" and "red". And they both wanted to restore the Commonwealth, but the "white" represented the interests of large and medium Polish nobility, and "red" — small gentry and commoners. "White" were afraid of excessive radicalization of the peasant masses, fearing for his position and property, because more hoped for a diplomatic support from Britain and France, and "red" in the main tended to revolutionary action.
First of February in Vilna came 2nd Guards Infantry Division.
The inhabitants of the town immediately drew attention to the changes in the behavior of the Russian military — now when was always ready gunshot or a cool tool. Spit at the officers and fighter or insult them become downright dangerous.
Proclamations, sent by timber, as well as in Poland, in the medium farmers find weak response, despite the promise of land and freedom.
Then the insurgents in Warsaw and Vilna fled to a different strategy — of intimidation and terror. They forced otymali products from farmers, killed those who refuses to join the ranks of the insurgents. In the first step the effect of terror was such that the farmers were afraid to even speak with the authorities, fearing for it to deal with them. Here's what he wrote about the atrocities against the peasants, Konstantin Nikolayevich himself: "The atrocities committed by them, especially the peasants, — he reported to the emperor 2 (14),
— surpass all imagination! They hang out and cut them inhumanely, even their wives and children. Through this, farmers completely terrorized … from universal terrorism is also a general impunity. " According to the testimony of witnesses, in response to the Russian military support of Polish farmers and peasants were hung from time to time by 2 and 4 people together, tying in "brotherly" hug. There have been cases of killings with the children. It is clear that such conduct did not cause the Polish farmers nothing except hatred and terror.
Additional problem of representing a business and farmers and landowners in Belarus. The landlords were the main supporters of the Poles and the insurgents, and farmers — their opponents. The tsarist government is the first time even supported the Polish nobility of feelings of social class solidarity.
Meanwhile, Belarusian farmers have themselves started to climb to fight the Polish gentry. In April 1863 after the murder of Russian fighter Belarusian farmers in Vitebsk burned and destroyed about 20 estates of the Polish gentry and destroyed several rebel groups. In Slutsky County farmers to protect against the nobility gathered thousandth unit.
To the sadness of the Polish gentry similar situation was in the Ukraine, and the Baltic states, and even in Poland itself. Near Kiev farmers, armed only with axes and staves, killed a squad of armed Polish gentry. When the Poles rebelled under the command of Count L. Plater killed and captured Russian soldier transport, to move from strength to Dinaburgsky Driss, Old Believers, armed with sticks and clubs, attacked trying to get away with its prey insurgents. The first time the attack was repulsed, but in the second time the Old Believers were celebrating the victory and took the nobility captured, surrendered to the authorities. Belorussians and Latvians have followed the example of the Old Believers, and also began to hunt down the rebels rapidly in the nearby woods.
In Poland, most farmers do not actually joined the ranks of the insurgents. Here's what he wrote one and the insurgents own companion: "News from Poland are very sad. All that in the papers — perfect heresy. Guns do not have any insurgents, peasant men in the camp and they are not quite at the same time with the Russian government. " Thus, in the village of Kluth alongside a horsehide gathered to 3 thousand Polish farmers to deal with the gentry. Sometimes the authorities handed over even incited to rebellion priests.
The campaign against the rebellious nobles Polish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Latvian farmers took such proportions that have been similar to the festering anti-feudal war, which does not figure in the plans of the Royal Government.
The rebels hoped to help the UK and France. At times, even spreading rumors that France had already entered the war and landed troops. Previously the case, of course, did not come, but the situation was not easy — for Russia, as it happens in our time, a diplomatic pressure exerted serious. On the territory of Austria in Galicia were made whole camp for rest and preparation of Polish insurgents. In support of the Russian Federation spoke only of Prussia, who, fearing spread of the Polish uprising in their country, firmly closed the Prussian-Russian border. In the process of fighting Russian troops from time to time crossed the border of Prussia and Austria, and Prussia, and if there was a mutual understanding, it was more difficult to Austria.
The Vatican also took the side of the rebels and in 1863 canonized Uniate Bishop J. Kuntsevych killed vitebchanami in 1623 for mockery and izymatelstva over the Orthodox.
Sufficiently unattractive behaved and Herzen, who in the pages of "The Bells" vigorously supported the rebels and Russian troops defeat lusted exactly like the Bolsheviks, borrowing his rhetoric, will lust after the defeat of in the First World War. For this "bell" and Herzen seriously paid — if the 1862 edition of the magazine was from 2500 to 3000 instances are, starting from 1863, it decreased to 500 and never above is not rising, lasted just only another 5 years.
Britain and France began again to threaten the Russian Federation by the war, though in practice it also did not want to force Petersburg just hoping to make concessions. Allies in Europe from the Russian Federation did not exist — in the best case, one could count on the neutrality of Prussia and Austria. Yet, our home prepared for the possibility of intervention.
The latest threat of war, also known facts bullying captured Russian officers and soldiers, who are sometimes tortured to death, sneered at and tried to force the priest's communion with the Catholic ritual, caused outrage among a significant part of the Russian society. Poland claims to the lands of Belarus and Ukraine also were perceived as overt anger. In general, the Russian society in 1863 was prepared to defend their own country, even in the case of the latest great war. Sympathy even liberal circles of Petersburg and Moscow to the rebels quickly melted away.
Without outside support to insurgents were condemned without any support even in the midst of its own peasantry. The European powers were limited to sending a harsh diplomatically notes.
1 (13) May the head of the Vilna governor-general was appointed general MN Ants — a determined and strong-willed person, immediately declared the need to protect farmers from the tyranny of the Belarusian Polish landlords. The first thing he is freed from the bullpen Dinaburgsky those Believers who upekli there for the fight against insurgent … gentry.
Ants without being ruthless man, nevertheless, aware of the need for decisive and tough measures — so, May 24 (June 5) in 1863 in Vilna were shot priest and gentleman who read the manifesto with the intent to incite the population to revolt.
These and similar measures, in sharp contrast to the inaction of the authorities earlier time, rapidly led to the result — in Vilna became even quieter.
Then supporters of the insurgents began to outright terror. But Ants are not made concessions. Of General Government evicted 177 priests, seven priests were shot. MN Muraveva in modern Belarusian historians call the hangman, but with all this, do not they say that from May to September 1863 when it was executed 31 people. This number of people is often rebels killed in just one day. Total for Murav'ev were executed 128 people, 47 of them — for the killing of people, 11 — for acting as executioners. The majority of those executed hands were stained with blood. And it is not sonorous words. Hands of the insurgents officially established butchers or "gendarmes, hangmen" were executed about 600 people from among the civilians, officials and Orthodox priests, farmers and townspeople accused of compassion for Russia.
Prevent war in Europe contributed to the rapprochement between Russia and the United States — during the war of the North and the South, Our homeland openly supported the North in contrast to the UK by sending to the shores of San Francisco, a squadron. U.S. support for Russia in response to the Polish question.
By February 1864 the situation in Warsaw, Vilna, and all west of the Russian Empire came to a relative norm. Austria has closed all the camps on its territory and forbade any activities of insurgents in Galicia. Alexander II granted an amnesty to all participants of events than Gentry in the main and enjoyed in order to maintain the position and property. Yet many of the participants in the event had to bring compensation. In general, it was better than losing everything. Polish aristocrats moved away from povststancheskoy activities, trying to shift the blame on intellectuals and commoners.
The fate of K. Kalinowski has developed dramatically. In the summer of 1863 he was returned to the management of the uprising in Belarus and Lithuania, and in October of
the same year captured and hanged in Vilnius March 10, 1864. Kalinowski fought for the restoration of the Commonwealth and with great Duchy of Lithuania, because heroics to the Belarusian people actually has very little to do.
Lessons uprising in 1863 are valuable because in retrospect it possible to see many of those challenges that have not mastered the Soviet Union, and which, in my opinion, are prepyadstviya for today's Russia.
For those interested in the issue more thoroughly uprising can advise immense and profound historical monograph, associate professor of Moscow State University. MV University, candidate of historical sciences Oleg R. Ayrapetova "Kingdom of Poland in the politics of the Empire in the 1863-1864 ..", timed to coincide with the 150th anniversary of the Polish uprising of 1863. This monograph is available on the website of "Western Russia".