It is well known that the pharaohs were the Egyptians. And how could it be otherwise? However, in fairness it should be noted that Ptolemy I — associate of Alexander the Great, conquered Egypt in 332 BC. e., then proclaimed himself Pharaoh — the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, was a Greek, not Egyptian. Similarly, the Egyptians were not black pharaohs who ruled Egypt from 751 to 667 BC. e. Who were they and where did in Egypt?
What led a long confusion
Several years ago, local newspapers and magazines, there were small notes, tells about the sensational discovery in Sudan "black statues of pharaohs." Here's what to write in one of these notes: "The team of French and Swiss archaeologists working in northern Sudan, found in the Nile Valley several monuments and statues depicting the Nubian kings, known as the black pharaohs, reports BBC News.
Found sculpture carved from granite, back and feet cut the name of the ruler. According to the head of a group of scientists from Switzerland, Charles Bonnet, found the statues are masterpieces and are of great value not only as objects of Sudan's history, but also as monuments of world art. Age finds at least 2.5 thousand years.
Black pharaohs possessed vast territories along the Nile about 2500 years ago. They state, also known as the Kingdom of Kush, was later conquered northern neighbors — the Egyptians.
They, the scientists, and dug a pit-storage, which were stacked monumental images of black pharaohs. Many of the statues were damaged — they repulsed the feet and head. "
Oh, those persistent prejudices!
The first part of the message as a whole is true. The expedition took place, unique sculptures were found, and their age, according to scientists, is at least 2500 years. They really represent black pharaohs who ruled Egypt just over a hundred years. But beyond an apparent amateur journalists, managed to turn the story on its head. This happened probably because until recently subject of black pharaohs was unfamiliar to the general public.
In the present study, Nubia — Ancient Egypt's southern neighbor, once occupied part of the territory of present Sudan, began only after the Second World War. Until recently, Egypt overshadowed his greatness Nubia, which the Egyptians called Kush in his papyrus, and attitude for a long time, it was condescending. Played a role and old prejudices, under which blacks savages could not create a great state. However, the cost to treat this issue without bias, as was no doubt surfaced facts skinned Nubians built pyramids, became pharaohs of ancient Egypt and made history, is still poorly understood.
Over recent years, archeologists discovered the main temple of the sun, studied the pyramids of black pharaohs, who were solid, with no interior. The graves were deep underground and were walled so that burglars have not found them, but, alas, it did not save the burial from looters.
In Sudan, archaeologists found a list of the kings who ruled there from 1200 until the first century AD to 200 AD. However, many labels have remained unread. The people who lived here have created their own script based on Egyptian hieroglyphics, adapting them to their needs, which is why the value of many texts still remains unclear.
Conquest of Nubia
As it often happens between neighboring countries for centuries Nubia and Egypt were living then in a good quarrel, then in the bad world. When Sesostris I (1970-1934 BC), the Egyptians manage to capture some of Nubia, but after the invasion of Egypt nomadic Hyksos, Nubians reclaim the land. Egyptians occasionally raid the Nubia, trying to get the cattle and slaves, but it does not affect trade and more generally good relations between the two countries. This went on for as long as Thutmose I, who ruled from 1538 to 1525 BC. e., decided not to increase their power at the expense of its neighbors.
He moved his troops beyond the Nile threshold — area of modern Aswan, where traditionally ran the boundary between Nubia and Egypt, and was a frontier fortress Elephantine. By the time the army of Pharaoh have never seen before power: chariots, chopping, and not just sticking with swords and bows glued layered, has a great penetrating power. Passing through three Nile threshold, Thutmose I defeated the enemy and conquered much of Nubia. In Egypt flowed from her cattle, ivory, black slaves, gold and precious stones, which was rich in Nubian land.
However, in the short reign of the son of the winner of Thutmose II «pathetic country Kush leaning to rebellion, and those who were under the power of the lord of the two lands, think of rebellion" — tells inscription found in Aswan.
Conquest of Egypt
Punitive expeditions suppressed rebellions against foreigners, but in general the pharaohs organized board of a new province in the same way as we did throughout Egypt. Tribal leaders were lodged in the Egyptian garrisons, and the children they were kept at the court of the Pharaohs — not only as hostages, but also to give them a present Egyptian upbringing. In Nubia, in addition to Egyptian soldiers, sent skilled craftsmen, artists and priests who were to strengthen the Nubians in the true faith. Thus, Nubia, came under the power of Egypt, absorbed Egyptian culture, religion, customs, and art.
They passed the century. Egypt has lost its former power, a great power before tearing incessant turmoil, one after the other from her split off noma, claimed to be independent states. Suddenly, around 1000 BC. e. in the former kingdom of Nubia appears Napatskoe.
Alara first known by the name of the king napatsky creates in his state the same controls that were once in Egypt. It was used in official documents the Egyptian language, Egyptian god Amun prayed and sacrificed to napatskih temples. Finally, the Nubians decided to restore the integrity of the power, the laws of which remained, and the king Kashta, nephew and successor of Alara, moved his army into Egypt. He was found south noma, the high priestess of Amun in Thebes adopted by a his daughter and gave her his priestly dignity. But only his son — Pianhi — have begun to complete and be in 751 BC. e. first black pharaoh of Egypt.
End of an era
Having won the last Pharaoh of Dynasty XXIV, Pianhi did not rob Egypt, did not go there, and with the support of the Egyptian priests and the Egyptian nobility founded XXV dynasty.
For over a hundred years, until ruled Egypt skinned Nubian kings, he experienced a renaissance, and then a country attacked the Assyrians. Ruthless invaders, armed with iron swords and spears, routed the army of the Egyptians still fighting bronze weapons. Black pharaohs and consisting of Nubians army was defeated, went up the Nile, and disappeared into the stormy Nile rapids in their native lands, where the Assyrians did not dare to turn up.
For several centuries, the state of Meroe, which arose in the former Nubia, and then Napata, maintained their independence: they still wrote in a distorted Egyptian language, erected statues of Egyptian gods and built a kind of pyramid, vaguely reminiscent of the Egyptian. Then there came the Roman legions conquered Egypt, have been unable, however, to control the country, located at the Sahara. A few centuries on the land invaded Meroe neighbors to the east — Abyssinian kingdom of Axum. Egyptian gods were forgotten, deserted temples of Amun …
The climate became drier, and the desert dunes were buried temples and pyramids-forgotten people.
Source: Secrets of the twentieth century. Mysteries of History № 2-C
Category: Mystery stories