Most of today's ethical standards of European civilization — only about 200 years old. Things that are now taboo imposed a state of emergency, such as cannibalism, in the XVIII century, were commonplace. The priests were drinking the blood of children, fat executed cured epilepsy, and the establishment of the mummies, which were eaten as lechuschee facility was put on stream.
On this part of the history of Europe is necessary to keep in mind as obscurants and liberals. First make sure that their actions — whether it's blasphemy laws or religious education — a return to tradition, spirituality and holiness. Second well, the Liberals have to think about how you can simply fall into degradation, while advocating for pedophilia or consumption of hard drugs. Everything that call and then reach both of these camps, Europe for 2500 years of its existence has already passed (or even a couple of times in a circle) — the female priesthood, pedophilia, slavery, anarchist and communist communities, etc. One need only look into the past, to extrapolate that experience into a true to realize how this thing will work for now.
Also, the European experience indicates that there is no immutable ethical standards. The fact that yesterday there were pathology, is now becoming the norm. In contrast, and as few times around. Take one of the most basic taboos of our civilization — cannibalism. He definitely condemned by all sectors of society — religious, political, legislative, public, etc. In the twentieth century is not enough to justify cannibalism and force-majeure, such as hunger (as it was during the famine in the Volga region and the blockade of Leningrad) — for society, this is no excuse.
But a few centuries back — when there were open institutions and lived the greatest humanists — cannibalism was commonplace.
Human flesh was listed as one of the best pharmaceuticals. In all it was a — from domes to toe.
For example, a British lord Charles II often drank brandy from a Human skulls. In particular medical reason or skulls were registered in Ireland, and brought them to the king there.
In the field of public executions are always crowded with epilepsy. It was believed that the blood bryznuvshaya to behead, cure them of their disease.
The blood at all then cured many diseases. For example, Pope Innocent VIII often drank blood, decant three boys.
With the death toll to the end of the XVIII century, was allowed to take the fat — it was rubbed with various skin diseases.
But in particular large-scale consumption was the flesh of mummies. In this market, in the late Middle Ages were working the whole company.
One "Medieval product" has reached our days, which to this day continues to be valued almost its weight in gold — this is mummy. Wholesale price of 1 g. this substance at this point is 250-300 rubles. ($ 12.10, or $ 10.000-12.000 per 1 kg). Millions of people around the world continue to firmly believe in the miraculous power of the mummy, even knowing that feed on corpses.
How lechuschee means, mummy began to be used around the tenth century. Shilajit is a thick dark line-up, which the Egyptians since the beginning of III millennium BC. e. embalmed body of the deceased. As the demand for this facility was very large, hardened ground in recent times have to clean off residue with skulls and bones, scraping from the cavities of the body and recycle.
This fishery mummy was a terrible rip-off of Egyptian tombs. But the game is worth the candle — according to a report healer Abd al-Latif, dating back to around 1200, mummy, acquired from 3-The human skulls, sold for 50 dirhams (dirham — silver coin weighing 1.5 grams).
The demand has caused a huge revival of trade this "very therapeutic drug." Enterprising negotiators Cairo and Alexandria made sure, that the mummy became the principal article of export to Europe. They hired crowds of Egyptian farmers to dig cemeteries. Companies hucksters exported milled human bones in all corners of the world. In the XIV-XV centuries. mummy became an everyday tool, sold in pharmacies and drug stores herbs. When raw materials became scarce again, began to use the bodies of executed criminals, dead bodies in the hospice or Christians killed by drying them in the sun. So were made "real mummy."
But since this method does not cover the supply of the market demand, production methods mummy take other forms. The kidnappers abducted from their graves just buried the body was dissected and digested them in pots until such time as the muscles are not separated from the bones, oily liquid dripping from the boiler and poured into bottles come true for mad money Italian negociant. For example, in 1564 a French doctor Guy de la Fontaine of Navarre in stock 1st of merchants in Alexandria found piles of bodies of several hundred slaves, which were intended for processing into mummies.
Soon to trade in processed carcasses were connected and the Europeans.
Namely, John Sanderson, the Alexandrian agent of Turkish trading company in 1585, he received orders to join the board in trade mummy. Approximately 600 pounds of dried dead bodies mummified and sent it by sea to Britain.
But it became more profitable to get mummy on the spot in Europe.
Already in the XIV century for the manufacture of mummies began to use the corpses of not so long ago dead people and executed criminals. Sometimes that butchers selling directly from the scaffold and the freshest blood "human fat ". About how it was done, it is told in the book A. Kroll, published in 1609 in Germany:
"Take the red-haired corpse intact unblemished male 24 years old, who was executed on or after the 1st day or to reverse, preferably by hanging, breaking on the wheel or planted for the count … Hold it one day and one night under the sun and the moon, then cut into large pieces and sprinkle with powder myrrh and aloes, that he was not very bitter … "
There was another method:
"The flesh should be held a few days in wine alcohol, then hung to dry in the shade and the breeze. After that will come in handy for you again to restore the spirit of wine with reddish flesh color scheme. Since the appearance of the corpse neotvratno causes nausea desires a good idea to soak the month that mummy in olive oil. The oil absorbs minerals mummies, and can also be used as a pharmaceutical, especially as an antidote for snake bites. "
Another recipe suggested recognizable pharmacist Nicolas Lefebvre in his own "Complete book of Chemistry", published in London in 1664. At first, he said, should be cut off from the muscles of the body healthy and young men, soak them in wine alcohol, then hang it in a cool, dry place. If the air is very mokrovaty or there is a rain, that "these muscles need to hang in the tube every day and dry them on a mild fire of juniper, with needles and knobs, to the state of corned beef, which sailors take in distant voyages."
Evenly development of production of pharmaceuticals from the bodies of people has become even more sophisticated. The doctors announced that it will increase the healing power by using a donated human cadaver.
For example, in the Ara
bian Peninsula men aged 70 to 80 years gave their bodies for the sake of others. They had nothing to eat, only drank honey and perceived baths out of it. A month later, they began to radiate this honey in the form of urine and faeces. After the "sweet old" died, their bodies were placed in a stone sarcophagus filled with the same honey. After 100 years, the remains were removed. So get the drug — "confection", which, they believed, could instantly heal people from all diseases.
In Persia, in order to make such a product needed a young man of 30 years. As compensation for the destruction of some of his time well fed and otherwise humored. He lived like a prince, and later it sank in the consistency of honey, hashish and pharmaceutical herbs, the body in the coffin was sealed and opened only after 150 years.
This fascination with eating mummies at first led to the fact that in Egypt in 1600 to about 95% of the looted tombs, and in Europe by the end of the XVII century, the cemetery had to be guarded by armed troops.
Only in the middle of the XVIII century in Europe one government after another began to make laws or significantly limiting the eating of the flesh of corpses, or prohibiting quite do it. Quite mass cannibalism on the mainland only ended by the end of the first third of the XIX century, although in no distant corners of Europe, he practiced until the end of this century — in Ireland and Sicily were not forbidden to eat a dead baby before baptism.
And in the twentieth century remained the echoes of the practice preparation — pharmaceuticals with the introduction of human flesh. Here, for example:
"Externally for burns of the product purchased from the bodies of people — kadaverolyu (kada — so corpse) Is devoted to the thesis A.M.Hudaza, made in 1951 at the Azerbaijan Institute of honey. The product was prepared from the internal fat, vytaplivaya it in a water bath. The introduction of his burns allowed, according to the creator, reduce healing time by half. For the first time human fat under the title "gumanol" with a view to healing has been used in surgical practice, Dr. Godlenderom in 1909 in the Soviet Union used it as L.D.Kortavov in 1938 "
Or here's another:
"The substance obtained after boiling the long dead bodies can be fully curative. Of course, this is just a guess. But in one of the scientific and practical seminars specialists from the research laboratory N.Makarova demonstrated artificially acquired their mummy (scientists call this substance MOS — mineraloorganichesky substrate). Protocols of the research showed: MOS can increase the performance of people, reduce the period of rehabilitation after radiation injury, increase male potency. "
The German practice of recycling in World War II concentration camp prisoners on the soap, leather, fertilizers, etc., so Makarov has not been any innovation in Europe — for 150-200 years before the Nazis all this is still the norm (this practice is also confirms that German Nazism was a sharp pullback back in antiquity).
And now, in the XXI century Western civilization still legally consume human flesh — is the placenta. And the fashion for eating the placenta grows year of the year, and in almost all Western hospitals even there the order of its use — or to give new mothers, or rent in the laboratory, producing at its base hormones. More information can be read here. Is it possible to recognize the fashion of eating human placenta one of the hallmarks of Western civilization rollback in antiquity? Most likely, yes.
What else to read about the Middle Ages in Blog Interpreter:
The standard of living in the European Middle Ages was comparable to the early twentieth-century Russian
In 1913 in Russia the level of per capita GDP was 1,605 bucks "sample" of 1993. This is less than in Italy in 1300. The work team of British economists and historians on the economic structure of the UK and Europe with the 1270 th to 1870 generally indicates that the growth rate of per capita GDP in the Middle Ages and in the early days of capitalism were very mixed.
Vladimir Lenin — German monastery
Lenin used in practice from 130 to 150 aliases. But, as you know, he braked to "Lenin". Historians to this day wondering what was justified such a choice. One version — Ilich is named after the German monastery of Lenin, known to Europeans believing his "Lenin's prophecy."