"I was able to. I stood. 5 crushed buried tanks. They have not been able to do since it was the tanks T-III, T-IV, and I was on the "Thirty", the front armor which their shells did not break through. "
Few tankers States — participants of the second World War could repeat these words of the commander of the T-34 Lieutenant Alexander V. Bodnar in respect of its combat vehicles. Russian tank T-34 became a legend at first because he believed the people who sat at the controls and his gun sighting devices and machine guns.
In his memoirs, tankers traced the idea suggested by the famous Russian military theorist AA Svechin: "If the value of real assets in the war is very relative, the great importance has faith in them." Svechin infantry officer was majestically war of 1914-1918, beheld debut on the battlefield, the heavy artillery, airplanes and armored vehicles, and he knew what he had read. If the soldiers and officers have faith entrusted to them by the technique, they will act boldly and decisively, paving the way for himself to win. On the contrary, lack of confidence, a willingness to throw at the level of thought or really weak standard weapons will lead to defeat. Obviously, we are not talking about blind faith based on propaganda or speculation. Confidence in the people inspired design features stand out dramatically from the T-34 series of combat vehicles so far: oblique placement of armor and a diesel engine B-2.
The principle of increasing efficiency of protection of the tank due to the oblique arrangement of sheets of armor was clear though what is studied in school geometry. "In the T-34 armor was thinner than the" Panther "and" Tiger. " The total thickness of about 45 mm. But since it was placed at an angle, the leg was about 90 mm, which makes it difficult to break through, "- says the tank commander Lieutenant Alexander Burtsev. The introduction of the system of protection of geometric constructions instead of the usual brute force increase the thickness of armor plates in the eyes of the crew gave "tridtsatchetverok" indisputable advantage over their opponent tank. "The location of the armor plates from the Germans was worse, in the main upright. This, of course, a big minus. Our tanks are placed at an angle, "- says the battalion commander Captain Vasily belly.
Obviously, all these points have not only theoretical, but also practical reasoning. German anti-tank guns and caliber of 50 mm is almost always not pierce the upper frontal part of the T-34. Moreover, even piercing shells 50 mm antitank gun PAK-38 and 50-mm tank gun T-III with a barrel length of 60 calibres, which are trigonometric calculations needed to break through the forehead of T-34 — in fact ricocheted from the sloping armor of the highest hardness without causing any harm to the tank. The September-October 1942, the NII-48 * Statistical Analysis of battle damage tanks T-34, held at the repair Rembaza number 1 and 2 in Moscow showed that out of 109 hits in the upper front part of the tank 89% are non-hazardous, and the unsafe lesions accounted for the gun with a caliber of 75 mm and above. Naturally, with the emergence of a huge number of Germans in the 75 mm anti-tank guns, and the situation is more complex. 75-mm shells normalize (unfolded at a right angle to the armor when hit), punching a sloping forehead body armor T-34 is at a distance of 1200 m Just as insensitive to the slope of the armor were 88-mm anti-aircraft guns and missiles cumulative ammunition. But the fraction of 50-mm guns in the Wehrmacht right to fight at Kursk was significant, and the belief in a sloping armor "Thirty" was almost all worthwhile. How-or conspicuous dignity in the armor of the T-34 tank crews were observed exclusively in the British tanks, armor protection, "… if the pig has broken tower, the British tank commander and gunner can stay alive, as the fragments do not actually appear, but in the" Thirty "armor crumbled, and the chance to survive being in the tower was not enough, "- says VP belly.
It was only due to the high content of nickel in the armor of British tanks "Matilda" and "Valentine." If the Russian 45-mm armor of the highest hardness of 1.0 — 1.5% nickel, the armor-hard British tanks containing 3.0 — 3.5% nickel, which provided some great viscosity of the latter. Together with any modifications that the protection of the T-34 by the crew in the parts did not hold. Just in front of the Berlin operation, according to Lieutenant Colonel Anatoly Petrovich Shvebiga, former deputy brigade commander of the 12th Guards Tank Corps on the technical side, at the tanks welded to the screens of the iron bed nets to protect against bazookas. Notable cases screening "tridtsatchetverok" — is the fruit of creativity repair shops and manufacturing plants. The same can be said for painting tanks. From the factory tanks come painted in green color inside and out. In preparation for winter in the tank puzzle deputy commanders of tank units on the technical part came whitewash painting tanks. The exception was the winter 1944/45, when the war was on location in Europe. None of the veterans did not remember, that was applied to the tanks camouflage.
Even more trivial and confidence-inspiring piece design T-34 was a diesel engine. Most of the training took place as the driver, radio operator or even the commander of the T-34 in civilian life one way or another faced with the fuel, at least with gasoline. They knew from personal experience that petrol is volatile, flammable and burns just a catchy flame. Completely trivial experiments with gasoline used engineers whose hands was made T-34. "In the midst of a dispute designer Nikolai Kucherenko used in the yard is not the most scientific, but a nice example of the dignity of the new fuel. He took a torch and holds it to the bucket of gasoline — a bucket simultaneously bowed flame. Later the same torch dipped in a bucket of diesel fuel — the flame extinguished, as in the water … "* This experience is projected on the effect of falling into a tank shell that can ignite fuel vapors, or even inside the car. Accordingly, the crew members of the T-34 belonged to the enemy tanks down to some extent. "They were the internal combustion engine. Too big disadvantage, "- says gunner Sergeant Peter Ilyich Kirichenko. The same attitude was to the tanks to be delivered under the Lend-Lease Act ("Too many have died because he was shot, and there is an internal combustion engine and armor is crap" — says a tank commander, Lieutenant Yuri Maksovich Polyanovskiy), and Russian tanks and self-propelled guns, ammunition carbureted engine ("Once in our battalion came SU-76. They were with petrol engines — Lighter very real … They are the first battles all burned …" — says VP Bryukhov) . The presence in the engine compartment of the tank diesel engine crews instilled in the belief that the chance to take a terrible death by fire at them is much less than that of the enemy, whose tanks tucked hundred square meters of l. volatile and easily flammable gasoline. The proximity of the bolshennymi volumes of fuel (to assess the number of buckets that the tanks had every time when filling the tank) was concealed by the idea that set fire to his guns, anti-tank shells will be more difficult, and in the event of a fire at the tank will be time enough to jump out of the tank. But in this case, the flat projection experiments with a bucket on the tanks was not entirely justified. Moreover, statistically tanks with diesel engines had advantages in fire safety in relation to the cars with petrol engines. According to statistics from October 1942, T-34 diesel burned even a little more often than aviation gasoline to refuel
the tanks T-70 (23% vs. 19%). Engineers landfill NIIBT Kubinka in 1943 concluded just the opposite of home fire assessment capabilities of different types of fuel. "Application of the Germans and on the new tank, released in 1942, carbureted engine, not a diesel engine can be explained by: […] is very important in fighting fires criteria percentage tanks with diesel engines and the lack of them here significant advantages over carbureted engines, especially with the competent design of the latter and a reliable automatic fire extinguishers. " Bringing the torch to the bucket with gasoline, set fire to a pair of designer Kucherenko volatile fuel. Conducive to ignite the torch over a layer of diesel fumes in the bucket was not. But this fact does not mean that diesel fuel does not break out of a much more massive means of ignition — shell hit. Because placement of the fuel tanks in the fighting compartment of the T-34 did not increase fire safety "Thirty" in comparison with their peers, in which tanks were located in the rear of the hull and were stepping on a lot less often. VP Bryukhov confirms uttered: "The tank is lit when? When a shot hits the tank with fuel. And it burns when a lot of fuel. And in the end fighting no fuel and the tank is almost off. "The only advantage engines of German tanks before engine T-34 tank crews felt the least noise. "The petrol engine, on the one hand, flammable, and on the other hand — quiet. T-34, he not only roars, and click tracks, "- says the tank commander Lieutenant Arsenty K. Rodkin. The power plant of the T-34 was not initially anticipate the installation of silencers on the exhaust pipes. They were displayed on the stern of the tank without any sound-absorbing devices, rumbling exhaust of the 12-cylinder engine. Other than the noise the most powerful engine of the tank raised its dust deprived muffler exhaust. "T-34 raises the terrible dust, as the exhaust pipes are oriented down" — says AK Rodkin.
The designers of the T-34 was given his own fellow two features that distinguish it in the middle of combat vehicles allies and enemies. These features are added to the tank crew belief in his own arms. People went into battle with pride for their trusted technology. This was even more important than the actual effect of the armor slope or a real fire tank with a diesel engine.
The tanks have emerged as a means of protecting the calculations of machine guns and weapons from enemy fire. A balance between the protection of tanks and anti-tank artillery capabilities precarious enough, the artillery is constantly being improved, and most new tank can not feel themselves not dangerous in the battlefield. Even more precarious balance make it a massive anti-aircraft guns and hull. Because at some point, there comes a situation when caught in a tank projectile penetrates armor and turns the iron box to hell.
Great tanks solved this puzzle, and after the death, having received one or several hits, opening the way to rescue the people in themselves. Unusual for the tanks of other states of the driver's hatch in the upper front body parts T-34 was in practice, quite comfortable for leaving the machine in critical situations. The driver Sergeant Simon L. Aria says: "Luke was smooth, with rounded edges and climb and climb out of it there is no difficulty. Moreover, when you get up from the driver's seat, it is actually protruded outward to the waist. " Another advantage of the driver's hatch of the T-34 had a chance to fix it in a crotch of a relatively "open" and "closed" positions. Arranged flap mechanism was easy enough. To facilitate the opening of a heavy cast flap (60 mm wide) propped up the spring, the stock of which was a rack. Rearranging the stopper of the tooth in the tooth rack, you can fix the hatch aggressively without fear of it failing at the potholes of the road or the battlefield. Of the driver of the mechanism readily used and preferred to keep the hatch ajar. "When possible, it is better to open the hatch" — says VP belly. His words were confirmed by the company commander Lt. Arkady Marevsky: "I mechanics flap is always open at hand, in the 1-x, everything is visible, in-2, the flow of air at the open upper ventilates the fighting compartment hatches." So makarom provides a nice overview and the ability to rapidly leave the vehicle when hit by the projectile. In general mechanic was, according to the tank, in a more fortunate position. "The probability of surviving the greatest was the mechanic. He was sitting smallish, before it was inclined armor "- says the platoon commander Lieutenant Alexander Bodnar, according to PI Kirichenko," The lower part of the body, it is usually hidden behind the terrain, it hard to get into. This one stands above the ground. Priemuschestvenno into it. And killed more people who were sitting in the tower, than those at the bottom. " Here it is necessary to see that the question of the tank unsafe for hits. Statistically, the original period of the war most of the hits accounted for the body of the tank. According to the above report, the NII-48, the housing accounted for 81% of hits, and the tower — 19%. But more than half of the total number of hits were non-hazardous (non-through): 89% hit to the upper frontal part, 66% of hits to the bottom of the frontal part and about 40% of hits on the board did not lead to a through hole. In this case, the board of hits in the 42% of their total number accounted for engine and gear compartment, lesions were not dangerous for the crew. The tower, on the contrary, made its way relatively easy. The least strong cast turret weakly resisted even a 37 mm anti-aircraft shells automatic guns. Compounding the situation is the fact that the tower "Thirty" were getting languid guns with the highest line of fire, for example 88-mm anti-aircraft guns, and getting out of long-barreled 75-mm and 50-mm guns, German tanks. The screen area, which read tanker on the European theater of operations was about 1 meter. Half a meter of clearance of accounts for the rest covers about a third of the height of the body of the T-34. Most of the upper front body parts screen area is not locked.
If the driver's hatch unanimously assessed as successful veterans, it is just as unanimous tankers in the negative assessment hatch tower T-34 tanks of early issues with a round tower, nicknamed for the proper form of "pie." VP Bryukhov says of him: "A large hatch bad. The very heavy and hard to open it. If the jam, all, no one will pop up. " He was echoed by a tank commander Lieutenant Nikolay Antonovich Gluhov: "Large flap — very awkward. Very heavy. " Consolidation into a single manhole for 2-sitting next crew, gunner and loader, it was unusual for world tank. His appearance on the T-34 was not due to tactical and technological considerations associated with the installation of a massive tank guns. Tower predecessor, the T-34 on the conveyor Kharkov plant — the BT-7 — equipped with with 2 hatches, one for each of the tower is placed in the crew. During the same appearance with open hatches BT-7 has been nicknamed the Germans "Mickey Mouse." "Thirty" almost all received an inheritance from BT, but the tank instead of the 45 mm gun was a 76-mm tool, and changed the design of tanks in the fighting compartment housing. Must be removed for repair of tanks and bulky cradle 76-mm guns forced designers to combine the two into one tower hatch. The body of the T-34 gun with recoil devices were recovered through the studs on the cover bolts in the rear recess of the tower, and the cradle with the sector gear vertical lay — a tower hatch. Through the same hatch and fuel tanks were removed, fixed in the fender body of the T-34. All these difficulties were caused by the beveled to mask gun side walls of the tower. Cradle gun T-34 was larger and higher loopholes in the f
ront of the tower and was able to retrieve only reversed. The Germans were shooting guns of their own tanks, combined with his mask (actually the width equal to the width of the tower) forward. Here it is necessary to say that the T-34 designers have paid a lot of emphasis on the ability of the tank repair by the crew. Under this puzzle have been adapted even … ports for firing personal weapons on the sides and stern of the tower. Port plugs were removed, and the holes in the 45-mm armor installed small modular crane for dismantling the motor or box. We Germans devices on the tower for mounting such a 'pocket' crane — "Pilz" — appeared only in the final period of the war.
One should not think that by installing a large hatch, designers, T-34 did not perceive into account the needs of the crew. In the Soviet Union before the war, it was believed that a large hatch of the tank will facilitate the evacuation of the wounded crew members. But the combat experience, complaints tank on a heavy tower hatch forced the team Morozov proceed with the next upgrade of the tank to the two openings to the tower. Hexagon tower, Dubbed "nut", again received the "Mickey Mouse ears" — two round hatches. These towers were placed on the T-34 tanks, which were issued in the Urals (CTZ in Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk and UZTM in Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil) to illumine 1942. Factory "Red Sormovo" in Gorky until spring 1943 continued to build tanks with the "pie." Problem extraction tanks on tanks with "nut" was solved by means of a removable armor jumper hatches between the commander and gunner. The cannon were taken out by the method proposed to simplify the production of cast towers in 1942, the plant number 112 "Red Sormovo" — lift the rear of the tower with overhead hoists, and formed between the hull and turret clearance advanced instrument.
Tankers, so as not to fall into a situation of "hands-free skin latch looking", chose not to lock the hatch and fix it … trouser belt. A. Bodnar recalled: "When I went on the attack, the hatch was closed, but not on the latch. One end of a trouser belt I cling to hatch latch, and another — wrapped several times around the hook, holding a munitions on the tower, so if that — head banged, belt slips off, and you jump out. " The same techniques used by commanders of the T-34 with the commander's cupola. "At the commander's cupola was a double door hatch, lockable with 2 latches on springs. They even healthy people hardly opened, and the wounded could not be accurately. We shot this spring, leaving the latch. In general, try to keep an open hatch — it is easier to jump out, "- says A. Bourtsev. Note that no design office, either before or after the war did not use in one form or another soldier's achievements resourcefulness. Tanks as previously equipped with snap-hatches in the turret and the hull that crews in combat preferred to keep open.
Daily service crew "Thirty" was full of situations in which the members of the crew went to bed and monotonous load any of them did light, but the same operations that are not sufficiently different from the neighbor's actions, such as an open trench or refill the tank with fuel and ammunition. But the battle and a march at once recovered from being built in front of the tank on the team "to the car!" People in suits 2-crew, which lay down the main responsibility for the tank. The first was the commander of the machine, which in addition to the battle for control of early T-34 served as a gunner guns: "If you are the commander of the T-34-76, you do and you shoot himself on the radio komanduesh, everything yourself" (VP Bryukhov). The second person in the carriage, which lay down the lion shred of responsibility for the tank, and the means and for the lives of their own comrades in combat, was a driver. The commanders of tanks and tank units assessed the driver in battle is very high. "… The most experienced driver-mechanic — it's half the battle" — says NE Gluhov. This rule did not understand the exceptions. "The driver Kryukov Grigory was 10 years older than me. Before the war he worked as a driver and has already managed to war at Leningrad. He was wounded. He felt a great tank. I believe that only through him that we survived the first battles "- says a tank commander Lieutenant Jora Nikolaevich curve.
The special position of the driver in the "Thirty" was justified comparable complex control that requires experience and physical strength. To a large extent it applied to the T-34 tanks of the first half of the war, which was a four-speed gearbox that required moving the gear relative to each other with the introduction of a suitable pair of meshing gears driving and driven shafts. Changing the speed in such a box was very difficult and achieved great physical strength. AV Marevsky recalls: "The shift lever with one hand is not enabled, had to help himself to his knee." To facilitate gear boxes have been designed with gears constantly meshed. A gear change was made longer by moving the gears and moving the seating on the shafts of small claw couplings. They moved along the splined shaft and engages with them a suitable pair who were already engaged with the gear box assembly time. Box of such type have, for example, the pre-war Russian tales L-300 and AM-600 is also available with bike 1941 M-72, a licensed copy of the German BMW R71. The next step in the direction of improvement was the introduction of the box in a box synchronizers. This is a device that level speed of cam clutches and gears, with whom they mated when you turn one way or the other gear. Shortly before the change down or over-clutch transmission came into engagement with the gear on the friction. So she began to spin evenly at the same speed with the gear selected, and when the transfer clutch between them was made quietly and without shocks. An example of the box with synchromesh gearbox can serve as a type of "Maybach" German tanks T-III and T-IV. Even more perfect was so called planetary boxes Czech-made tanks and tanks "Matilda." Logically, the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR Marshal Timoshenko 6 November 1940 on the results of the first tests of the T-34 has sent a letter to the Committee in Defense of the CPC, in which, as it is stated: "In the first half of 1941, the factory should create and prepare for mass production planetary box for T-34 and KV. This will increase the average speed of tanks and easier to manage. " Nothing to do so before the war did not have time, and in the first years of the war the T-34 fought wars with less than perfect frame in existence at the time. "Thirty" with a four-box proficiency achieved a very good driver-mechanics. "If a driver is not trained, it can instead of first gear to insert the fourth, as it is also reversed, either instead of the second — the third, resulting in damage to transmission. The necessary skills to bring change to automatism, that could switch with closed eyes "- says A. Bodnar. In addition to problems in shifting four-speed gearbox was characterized as weak and unreliable, often fails. Face when switching gear teeth were broken, were observed even breaks the transaxle case. Engineers landfill NIIBT Kubinka in an extensive report in 1942 by a joint Russian trials, trophy and acquired under the Lend-Lease equipment was given a box of T-34 series of early simply disparaging assessment: "gearboxes Russian tanks, especially the T-34 and KB, not satisfy one hundred percent of the requirements for modern combat vehicles, second gearboxes as Allied tanks and tanks of the enemy, and fell behind by at least the last couple of years the development of technology tank development. " As a result of these and other reports on the shortcomings of "Thirty" was a decision of T-bill
s from June 5, 1942 "On improving the properties of tanks T-34. " In the framework of the implementation of this resolution to the beginning of 1943 the design department of the plant number 183 (evacuated to the Urals Kharkov plant) was developed five-speed gearbox with constant engagement of the gears, which with such reverence expressed fought on the T-34 tank crews. The fixed gearing and the introduction of the next transfer has greatly facilitated the control of a tank, and the gunner did not have to pick up and pull the lever together with the mechanic-driver to shift gears.
Another element of the T-box 34, which places the fighting machine in dependence on the training of the driver, was the main clutch, connected the box with the engine. Ah well describes the situation A. Bodnar, after preparing the injured driver-mechanics at the T-34: "It is almost all depended on how well adjusted to the main clutch free play and off, and how well a driver can use it, when it moves. The last third of the pedal to release slowly, so as not to tearing, as if to vomit, then probuksuet machine and warp friction. " The main part of the brain dry friction clutch of the T-34 was a package of 8 and 10 leading slave drives (later, in the framework of improving the box tank was 11 and 11, leading the slave drive) are pressed together by springs. Improper shutdown with friction clutch discs for each other, their heating and warpage could damage the tank out of action. This damage is called "friction burn", although technically there were no flammable objects. Ahead of other countries in the practical implementation of such decisions, as long-barreled 76mm gun and oblique placement of armor, the T-34 still noticeably lagged behind Germany and other countries in the design of the box and turning devices. On German tanks, the same age as the T-34, the main clutch discs was working in the oil. This will effectively remove heat from the friction discs and much easier on and off the clutch. Improved the situation servo, which equipped the clutch pedal off the head from the experience of fighting the introduction of the T-34 in the initial period of the war. The design of the mechanism, despite the inspiring certain amount of reverence prefix "servo" was quite common. Clutch pedal is held down by a spring which in the process of pressing the pedal passed the dead point and changed the direction of the force. When the tanker just press down on the pedal, the spring resisting depression. At some point, she, on the contrary, began to help and pulled the pedal itself, providing a suitable speed of the wings. Prior to the introduction of the ordinary, but the necessary parts of the work in the hierarchy of the second tanker crew was very weighty. "The driver for the long march was losing weight two to three kilograms. All were exhausted. This, of course, it was a very difficult time, "- says PI Kirichenko. If the errors on the march of the driver could lead to a delay in transit due to repair one or another duration, in the latter case, the abandonment of the tank crew, then in combat failure of the box T-34 due to driver error could lead to fatal consequences. On the contrary, the skill of the driver and vigorous maneuvers could ensure the survival of the crew under heavy fire.
The development of the design of the T-34 during the war came first in the direction of improvement of the box. In the above-cited report of engineers landfill NIIBT Kubinka 1942 were the words: "In the near future due to the increasing mobility of funds PTO is at last not least as a guarantee of invulnerability machine than powerful armor. The combination of a good booking machines and speed of its flexibility — the basic means of protecting the modern military machine of antitank artillery. " Lost to the final period of the war the advantage of armor protection offset by improved driving properties of the "Thirty". The tank has to move faster both on the march and on the battlefield, it is better to maneuver. The two features, which are believed to tankers (the slope of armor and a diesel engine) was added third — speed. Who fought on the T-34-85 at the end of the war AK Rodkin defined this way: "We tankers was a saying:" Armor — garbage, but our tanks are fast. " At the rate we had an advantage. We Germans tanks were gasoline, but the speed at them was not very big. "
The first task of 76.2-mm tank gun F-34 was "the destruction of tanks and other mechanized means of the opponent." * Veterans tankers unanimously called German tanks the main and most severe enemy. In the initial period of the war T-34 crews were confident to fight with at least what the German tanks, rightly believing that the powerful gun and reliable armor protection will ensure success in battle. The appearance on the battlefield, "Tiger" and "Panther" has changed the situation reversed. Now German tanks were "long arm", allowing to fight without worrying about disguise. "Taking advantage of the fact that we have a 76-mm cannon that can take on the forehead of their armor with only 500 meters, they were standing in the open" — recalls commander platoon lieutenant Nikolai Ya Steel. Even piercing shells to 76-mm gun did not give advantages to this kind of duel, as the penetrated only 90 mm of homogeneous armor at a distance of 500 meters, while the frontal armor of T-VIH «Tiger" has a thickness of 102 mm. The transition to 85-mm cannon immediately changed the situation by allowing Russian tankers to fight the new German tanks at ranges above kilometer. "Well, when there was a T-34-85, where it was possible to go one on one" — says N. Ya iron one. The massive 85-mm gun crews allowed the T-34 to fight with his friends of old T-IV at a distance of 1200-1300 m on the example of such a fight Sandomierz bridgehead in summer 1944, we can find in the memoirs of N. Ya Zheleznova. First T-34 tanks with 85-mm gun D-5T left the assembly plant flow number 112 "Red Sormovo" in January 1944. Start mass production of T-34-85 is a 85-mm gun ZIS-S-53 was launched in March 1944, when a new type of tanks were built on the flagship Russian tank design of the war, the factory number 183 in Nizhny Tagil. Despite the rush to a retooling of the tank 85 mm gun, which became a massive series of 85-mm gun was listed crews safe and does not cause any prirekany. Vertical guidance tools "Thirty" was done by hand, and for the rotation of the tower from the start of production of the tank was introduced electric. But the tankers in combat preferred to turn the tower manually. "Hands are a cross on the mechanisms of turret guns and pickups. Tower could turn the electric motor, but in the battle to forget about it. Twist grip "- says GN curve. This is simply explained. At the T-34-85, which is responsible GN Kryvau, pen turret manually once served as a lever to drive. For the transition from manual to electronic drive was necessary to expand the turret knob vertically and move it back and forth, causing the engine to turn the tower in the right direction. In the heat of battle to forget it, and the handle was used only for manual rotation. Moreover, remembers VP Bryukhov "Elektropovorotom need to be able to use, and then rvanesh and later have dovorachivat."
The only inconvenience that caused the introduction into service 85-mm gun was the need to look closely to it that is not very long barrel touched down on the road or potholes battlefield. "At T-34-85 a barrel length of four meters or more. At the smallest tank ditch can peck the ground and grab the barrel. If after that shot, the trunk opens petals in different directions, like a flower, "- says AK Rodkin. Full length of the barrel 85-mm tank gun reference 1944 was more than 4 meters, 4645 mm. The emergence of 85-mm guns and new shots to it has also led to the fact that the tank is finished explode wit
h the breakdown of the tower, "… they (the snaryady. — A. IV) does not detonate at all, and in turn explode. At the T-34-76, if one shell exploded, then detonates all combat pack "- says AK Rodkin. This is in some degree increased the chances of crew members "Thirty" for survival, and with photo and newsreel war missing painting from time to time flashed on the frames 1941 — 1943's — T-34 lying next to a tank or inverted after falling back on tank turret.
While the German tanks were the most insecure adversary "tridtsatchetverok", then do the T-34 was an effective means of destruction not only armor, and weapons and manpower that hampers their own infantry. Most of the tankers, memoirs which are in the book are on their own account in the best case, several armored vehicles of the enemy, but with all this, the number of people shot out of a cannon and machine gun enemy infantry in the tens and hundred square meters of man. Ammunition of the T-34 was in the top of the high-explosive shells. Regular ammunition "Thirty" with the tower-"nut" in the years 1942-1944. consisted of 100 shots, including 75 B high-explosive and armor-piercing 25 (of their 4-piercing since 1943). Regular ammunition of the T-34-85 divined 36 high-explosive rounds, 14 armor-piercing and 5. The balance between armor-piercing and high-explosive shells in almost all reflects the conditions in which fought "Thirty" during the attack. Under heavy artillery fire tankers were almost always not enough time for precise shooting and shooting on the move and small stops, relying on the weight of the oppression of the enemy shots or defeat the purpose of a few rounds. GN Kryvau recalls: "Experienced guys who have been in battle, they say to us:" Never stop. Lupite in stride. The sky-land, where the projectile flies — Lupi, PUSH ". You asked how many rounds I fired in the first fight? Half of ammunition. Belabored, thrashed … "
As is often the case, the practice gave a hint techniques not provided by any statutes and teaching aids. Relevant example is the introduction of an internal signal in the tank clanging shutter closing. VP Bryukhov knows: "When the crew well-organized, strong mechanic, he hears what the shell is exhausted, click wedge gate, he's too heavy, more than 2-pounds …" The tools are installed on the T-34, were equipped semi-automatic gate opener. This system worked properly followed. When fired, the gun rolls back the clock back after absorbing the recoil energy recuperator returned the gun body to the starting position. Before the return of the gear lever gate run up against the copier on a gun carriage guns, and the wedge went down, the associated foot kicker knocked out of the breech empty shell casing. Charging shall be sent to the subsequent round, shoot down their own weight to keep on their feet ejector wedge bolt. Languid detail, under the influence of massive springs abruptly returns to the initial position, which produced a rather harsh sound that overlaps the roar of the engine, chassis and clanging sounds of battle. Hearing the clanging shutter closing, a driver, without waiting for the command "Short!" Chose rather rovnenky plot area for rather short stop and Aimed Shot. Placement of ammunition in the tank at any inconveniences caused no charging. The shells can be taken as from the packing in the tower, and from the "bags" for semi crew compartment.
Not always occur in the crosshairs goal was worthy of a shot out of a cannon. By running either find themselves in open space German infantry commander, T-34-76 or T-34 gunner-85 led fire of coaxial machine gun. Exchange machine gun mounted in the housing, could very well be used exclusively in the melee, when immobilized for one reason or another tank was surrounded Marines enemy with grenades and Molotov consistency. "This is a close combat weapon when tank knocked out, and he braked. The Germans are suitable and can be mowed, be healthy as "- says VP belly. In a move to fire the machine gun of course it was almost impossible, as the telescopic gun sight gave meager capacity for surveillance and targeting. "And I have, in fact, there was no sight. I've got a hole such that it can not see a damn thing "- says PI Kirichenko. Perhaps a more perfect exchange machine gun was used when the ball was shot out of the installation and was used for firing from the bipod out of the tank. "And so it began. Removed the frontal machine gun — they are on our rear logged. Tower deployed. Gunner with me. Put the gun on the parapet, conduct fire ", — says Nikolay Kuz'michev. Almost got a tank gun that could be used as a crew of more effective personal tool.
Installing the radio on the T-34-85 in the tower next to the tank commander had just reincarnate gunner-radio operator in the most worthless member of the crew of the tank, "passenger". Ammunition of the machine guns of the T-34-85 in comparison with the tanks of early releases decreased by more than half, to 31 disk. But the realities of the war terminates when the German infantry appeared bazookas, on the contrary, to increment the usefulness of the course arrow machine gun. "By the end of the war he became a need to protect against" faustnikov, "clearing the way. Well, what if difficult to see him from time to time mechanic gave a hint. If you want to behold — you will see, "- says AK Rodkin.
In such a situation, the released after moving into the radio tower space was used to house ammunition. The majority (27 of 31) drives to the machine-guns in the T-34-85 was located in the department of management, next to the shooter, who became the main consumer of rounds of machine gun.
In general, the occurrence of bazookas increased role of small guns "Thirty." Became even practiced shooting "faustnikov" pistol with open hatches. Regular personal weapon crews were guns "TT", revolvers, pistols and captured one sub-machine gun "PCA", which provided for the installation of equipment in the tank. Submachine gun crews used when leaving the tank and in the battle in the town when you do not have enough angle the cannon and machine guns.
With the increased visibility of the German anti-tank artillery became more fundamental component of the survival of the tank. Difficulties experienced in their own military operation commander and driver of the T-34, almost all were associated with a rather poor ability battlefield surveillance. First "Thirty" had mirrored the periscopes in the driver and in the turret of a tank. Such a device is a box with a mirror mounted at an angle on the top and across the bottom, and the mirrors were not glass (they could crack the shells from shocks), and polished steel. Display quality in a simple periscope to see myself. The same mirrors were periscopes on sides of the tower, is one of the main means of monitoring the battlefield the commander of the tank. In the above-cited letter to Timoshenko on November 6, 1940 are these words: "Observation Devices driver and radio operator to change to a more modern." First year War provoevali tankers with a mirror, instead of later prismatic mirrors installed monitoring devices, ie the entire height of the solid glass was periscope prism. Coupled with the fact limited review, despite the improvement of traits actually periscopes, often forced the driver-mechanics T-34 ride with open hatches. "Triplexes on the driver's hatches were absolutely disgusting. They were made of a nasty yellowish or greenish Plexiglas, which gave quite distorted, wavy pattern. Disassemble anything by itself triplex, especially in leaping the tank, it was unreal. Because the war waged with half-open hatches on the palm "- says SL Aria. I agree with him and AV Marevsky, indicating also that the triplexes of the driver just squirt mucky.
ialists NII-48 in autumn 1942 on the results of the analysis of lesions of armor made the following conclusion: "A significant percentage of unsafe defeats T-34 tanks on board the details, rather than head-on, can be explained by an acquaintance or a weak command tanks with tactical features of their body armor or naughty review of them, at this time the crew can not find the firing point and make a U-turn in the tank position, less dangerous to break through his armor. We need to do better acquainted tank crews with tactical features of the hotel of their cars and to provide the best view of them. "
Task to ensure the best view was solved in a few steps. "Mirror" polished steel were also eliminated from the surveillance devices commander and loader. Periscopes on the cheeks of the tower T-34 were replaced by a slot with blocks of glass for protection from debris. It happened in the transition to the tower, "nut" in the fall of 1942. New instruments have allowed the crew to organize the radial monitoring the situation: "The driver forward and to the left watching. You're the commander, try the next round. A radio operator and charging more to the right "(VP Bryukhov). At the T-34-85 were installed monitoring devices MK-4 at the gunner and loader. Simultaneous monitoring multiple directions allowing time to notice the danger and to react to it by fire or maneuver.
Longer just solved the problem of providing a decent review for the tank commander. The item on the implementation of the T-34 turret commander, who was present even in the letter S. Timoshenko, 1940, was made almost two years after the war began. After long tests with trying to squeeze into the tower, "nut" liberated tank commander cupola on the T-34 began to set in the summer of 1943. The commander there is a feature gunner, but he could not lift his head from the eyepiece and look around. The main advantage of the turret had the opportunity to review the radial. "The commander's cupola spun around, and beheld the commander of all, do not keep a fire, the fire could not control his own tank and maintaining a connection with others", — says A. Bodnar. To be clear, then whirled itself is not the pinnacle, and its roof with a periscope device monitoring. Earlier, in 1941-1942, the commander of the tank except the "mirror" on the cheek of the tower was a periscope, formally called a periscope sight. Turning it vernier, the commander could provide for a review of the battlefield, but very limited. "In the spring of '42 to the KB and on the" Thirty "was a commander's view. I could twist it and build all around, but it's still a very small sector ", — says A. Bodnar. The commander of the T-34-85 with a gun ZIS-S-53, freed from the obligations of the gunner, was besides the commander's cupola with slits along the perimeter of a prismatic, spinning in hatches periscope — MK-4, which allowed even to look back. But in the midst of tankers and found this worldview: "I did not use the commander's cupola. I have always kept an open hatch. Since those who closed them, they were burned. Do not have time to jump out, "- says N. Ya iron one.
Without exception, respondents tankers admire sights German tank guns. As an example, let's memoirs VP Bryukhova: "We have always said good-quality Zeiss optics sights. And before the end of the war it was high quality. We did not have such optics. Themselves were more comfortable our sights. We aim mark in a triangle, and from it the right and left of danger. Do they have these divisions, the amendments to the wind, at a distance, something else. " Here I must say that on the Information fundamentally differences between Russian and German telescopic gun sights were not. Gunner beheld the reticle and on both sides of the "fences" amendments to the angular velocity. In Russian and German sight was corrected for distance, but it was administered by different methods. In the German gunner's sight turned the pointer, exposing him in front of a radially disposed scale distances. For each type of projectile had its own sector. The move Russian tank builders were held in 1930, had a similar design sight three-turret of the T-28. In "Thirty" was exhibited distance to move along the vertical column of range scales thread sight. So functionally Russian and German scopes were not different. The difference was as the very focus, in particular, deteriorating in 1942 in connection with the evacuation of the plant Izyumske optical glass. Among the real shortcomings of early telescopic sights "tridtsatchetverok" include their alignment with the bore guns. Bridging the gun vertically, tanker was required to sit up or fall on its own site, keeping his eyes moving the eyepiece with the gun sight. Later on the T-34-85 was introduced to the corresponding German tanks "break" sight eyepiece of which was fixed and the lens barrel guns followed by a hinge on one axis with journals gun.
Flaws in the design of surveillance devices negative impact on the habitability of the tank. The need to keep an open hatch of the driver forced the latter sit at the levers, "taking to the same stream on chest icy wind sucked roaring behind the turbine fan" (SL Aria). In this case, the "turbine" — a fan on the motor shaft, the air is sucked out of the crew compartment through a weak motor bulkhead.
A common complaint against Russian military equipment production from both foreign and Russian by the professionals was spartan furnishings inside the machine. "As a defect can be identified complete lack of comfort for the crew. I used to climb in South American and British tanks. There, the crew was in a more comfortable criteria: the tanks were painted from the inside light paint, the seats were a semi-soft armrests. At the T-34 was nothing like that "- says SL Aria.
The stays on the seats of the crew in the tower T-34 and T-76-34-85 really was not. They were only on the seats of the driver and gunner-radio operator. But for myself alone arm rests on the seats crew were part corresponding to a greater extent for the U.S. technology. Neither the British nor the German tanks (except for "Tiger") seats in the turret crew did not have the stays.
But there were some real shortcomings design. One of the problems faced by the creators of the tanks of the 1940s, have been penetration into the tank propellant gas guns ever-increasing power. After firing the shutter disclosed, threw the sleeve, and the fighting compartment cars were gases from the gun barrel and the discarded shell. "… You shout," piercing "," splinter! "You look, and he (zaryazhayuschiy. — AI) is to combat pack. Carbon monoxide poisoning from the propellant gas and lost consciousness. When a hard fight, who occasionally endured it. All the same ugorayu "- says VP belly.
For removal of powder gases and ventilation crew compartment used electronic exhaust fans. First T-34 took possession of the BT one fan at the front of the tower. In the tower with a 45-mm gun, he looked appropriate, because he was actually on the gun breech. The T-34 fan turned out to be not over a smoking after a shot breech, and over the gun barrel. Its effectiveness in this regard was not clear. But in 1942, at the peak of the lack of devices, the tank has lost even that — the T-34 is factory empty caps on the tower, fans simply did not exist.
In the process of modernization of the tank with the installation of the tower, "nut" fan moved to the stern of the tower, close to the area where the powder gases are accumulating. The T-34-85 has already received two fans at the rear of the tower, larger caliber guns sought saturated ventilation crew compartment. But during intense fight fans did not help. Part of the problem of the protection of the crew from the powder gases solved by bl
owing compressed air shaft ("Panther"), but extends the suffocating smoke liner blow was unreal. According to the memoirs of GN Krivova, experienced tankers recommended immediately throw out the liner through the loader's hatch. Structurally, the problem was solved only after the war, when the design was introduced ejector guns, "siphoned off" gases from the barrel of a gun after firing, before the opening of the gate automation.
The T-34 was almost all revolutionary design, and how at least some transitional model combined the inside news and pledged soon outdated solutions. One solution was the introduction of a crew gunner-radio operator. The main function of sitting by the inefficient exchange machine gun tanker was service station tank. Of early on, "Thirty" radio station installed in the right side of the driver's compartment, next to the gunner. The need to keep a crew person engaged configuration, and maintenance of the radio performance was a result of imperfect communication technology of the first half of the war. It was not that it was necessary to operate the key: Russian armored radio station that stood on the T-34 did not have a CW mode, could transmit Morse code dashes and dots. Gunner-radio operator was introduced as the main consumer of disk imaging with adjacent vehicles and from higher levels of management, a tank commander, was simply not able to produce technical service radio. "Unreliable had a station. Radio operator because special, and the commander is not such a great spec. In addition, when hit by a wave of armor was incorrect, the failure of the lamp "- says VP belly. It should be added that the commander of the T-34 with a 76-mm cannon cooperated function of the tank commander and gunner and was very very busy, so even engage in normal and comfortable radio station. Isolation of an individual to work with the radio was typical for other countries — participants of the second world war. For example, the French tank "Soma S-35," the commander does the gunner, loader and tank commander, but for all that was radio operator, freed even from the service machine gun.
In the initial period of the war, "Thirty" were equipped with radios TK-71-W, and that not all of the machines. The latter fact should not confuse, this situation was common in the Wehrmacht, radio is usually very exaggerated. Really transceivers were in the unit commanders of platoons and above. According to the state in February 1941 in a light tank company Fu.5 transceivers installed on a 3-T-II and 5 PG-III, a 2-on T-II and 12-T-III were placed only receivers Fu.2. In Rothe medium tanks 5 have transceivers T-IV and three T-II, and the two T-II and nine T-IV — just receivers. At the T-1 transceivers Fu.5 is not put, excluding special commander kIT-Bef. Wg.l. In the Red Army had a similar, in fact, the concept of "radio broadcast" and "linear" tanks. Crews "linear"; tanks had to act, watching the maneuvers of the commander, or to receive orders flags. Place under the radio to "linear" tanks filled discs to stores machine-guns, 77 discs capacity of 63 rounds each instead of 46 for the "radio broadcast." On June 1, 1941 in the Red Army had 671 "line" to the T-34 and 221 — "radio broadcast."
But the main problem of communication of the T-34 in 1941-1942. was not so much the number as the quality of the stations 71-TC-W. Tankers evaluated its ability to be very moderate. "On the way she took about 6 kilometers" (PI Kirichenko). The same outlook express other tankers. "The radio TC-71-W, as for now I remember, it's not easy, unbalanced radio station. It is very often broke down, and it was very hard to put in order, "- says A. Bodnar. Together with the radio station that at some extent compensated for the information vacuum, since it allows to listen to reports sent from Moscow, the famous "From the Russian Information Bureau …" voice Levitan. Severe deterioration of the situation observed during the evacuation of factories radio when in August 1941 with the release of the tank radio was actually terminated until the middle of 1942.
With the return of evacuees companies in order to mid-war trend towards 100 per cent of radio armored forces. The crews of the T-34 got the newest radio station, developed on the basis of the aviation RSI-4 — 9P, and later its modernized versions, and 9RS 9RM. She was much more stable in the work through the use of its frequency crystal oscillators. The radio station had an English origin and has long produced with the implementation supplied under Lend-Lease devices. At the T-34-85 radio station has moved from the driver's compartment in the fighting compartment, on the left wall of the tower, where her service was now engaged commander, freed from the obligations of gunner. Yet the concept of "linear" and "radio broadcast" tank remained.
In addition to communication with the outside world was in each tank equipment for internal communication. Reliability intercom of early T-34 was low, the main means of signaling between the commander and driver were boots mounted on the shoulders. "Internal communication worked ugly. Because communication was performed legs, in other words, I have stood on the shoulders of boots of the tank commander, he crushed me on the left or on the right shoulder, respectively, I turned the tank to the left or to the right, "- says SL Aria. The commander and loader could talk, although often communicate with gestures occurred: "charges under the nose shoved his fist, and he already knows what it takes to charge armor-piercing, and splayed his hand — fragmentation." Place on a T-34 later series intercom TPU 3bis worked much better. "The inner tank intercom was average at the T-34-76. There had to command the boots and hands, and on the T-34-85, it has been great, "- says N. Ya iron one. Because the commander began to give orders to the driver-mechanic voice over the intercom — the technical ability to deliver his boots on the shoulders of the commander of the T-34-85 was not there — it separated from the gunner's compartment.
Speaking about the means of communication of the T-34, you need to note the subsequent. From movies to books and travels back story of the call of German tank commander of our tanker to fight in broken Russian language. This does not correspond to reality. All the tanks with the Wehrmacht in 1937 was used range 27 — 32 MHz, does not intersect with the range of radio stations Russian tank — 3.75 — 6.0 MHz. Only on the commander's tank was put second short-wave radio. She had a range of 3.1 MHz, the same again, with the incomparable range of our tank radios.
The commander of the German tank battalion usually has something to do, apart from calls to a duel. Besides commander's tanks were often older types, and in the original period of the war — entirely without arms, with models of guns in motionless tower.
The engine and its systems do not actually have caused prirekany crews, as opposed to the box. "And I will tell you frankly, the T-34 — the most reliable tank. Sometimes stopped, something he had not in order. Oil struck. Hose is not fixed. To do this, always in front of the march was conducted painstaking inspection of tanks "- says A. Bourtsev. Prudence in the management of the engine sought a powerful fan mounted in the same block with the main clutch. Errors of the driver could lead to the destruction of the fan and outlet of the tank out of action. Also caused some difficulties during the initial operation of the acquired tank, getting used to the features of a specific instance of the T-34. "Every machine, every tank, every tank gun, each engine had its own unique features. They can not determine in advance, they can be detected only during the daily operation. At the front, we were o
n unfamiliar machines. The commander does not know what kind of fight his gun. The mechanic does not know what can and what can not it diesel. Naturally, the factories were shot guns and tanks carried 50-kilometer run, but it was not quite enough. Obviously, we wanted to find out your car is better to fight for it and have used every opportunity, "- says N. Ya iron one.
Significant technical difficulties for tankers appeared when the docking engine and box with the power plant in the process of renovating the tank in the field criteria. It was. In addition to the substitution or repair virtually the box and remove the motor from the tank had a box when removing steering clutches. After returning to the place or the substitution of the engine and the box was required to install the tank relative to each other with the utmost precision. According to the control of repair of the T-34 accuracy of the installation should be 0.8 mm. To install the units, walk with a 0.75-ton hoist, such accuracy sought costs time and effort.
Of all the complex components and assemblies power plant design flaws that prompted the harsh handling, had only the air filter engine. An old filter that can be installed on tanks T-34 in 1941-1942, poorly cleaned the air and let the normal operation of the motor, which led to the deterioration of Hassle-2. "The old air filters were ineffective, take up much space in the engine compartment had a huge turbine. They often had to clean, even if you do not go down the dusty road. A "Cyclone" was very good ", — says A. Bodnar. Filters "Cyclone" have shown themselves perfectly in 1944-1945., When the Russian tankers were fought hundreds of miles. "If you clean the air cleaner according to the standards, the engine worked perfectly. But during the battle is not always possible to do everything right. If not enough air cleaner cleans, does not fit to change the oil, gimp is not washed and let the dust, the engine quickly wear out "- says AK Rodkin. "Cyclones" allowed even in the absence of time on technical service run the whole operation before the engine failure.
Constantly respond positively tankers on the duplicated system start-up the engine. Besides the usual electric start in the tank had two 10-liter cylinders with compressed air. The air allows the plant to start the engine even when the failure of the electric starter, as has often happened in the battle against impact projectiles.
Track chains were more often subjected to repair part of the T-34. Truckee had a spare part from which the tank even strolled into battle. Caterpillars occasionally exploding on the march broke hits projectiles. "Caterpillars were eager, even without bullets, without shells. When the soil gets between rollers, caterpillar, especially when turning, stretched to such an extent that it can not withstand the fingers and the tracks themselves, "- says A. Marevsky. Repair and track tension was inevitable companions battle of the machine. With all of this track were harsh give-away factor. "Thirty, it is not only the diesel engine roars, it also tracks clicks. If approaching from the T-34, the earlier you hear clatter of tracks, and later the engine. The fact that the teeth have working shoe exactly fall between the rollers on the drive wheel, which is rotating, they capture. And when the track was stretched to develop, become longer, the distance between the teeth increased, and beating the teeth on the pulley, causing a corresponding sound, "- says AK Rodkin. His contribution to the increase in noise level of the tank brought obliged technical solutions wartime first rollers without rubber tires on the perimeter. "… Unfortunately, come Stalingrad" Thirty ", in which the road wheels were no bandages. They roared terribly, "- says A. Bodnar. These were the so-called rollers with internal shock absorbers. The first rollers of this type, called from time to time "Locomotive" Stalingrad began to produce works (STZ), while before they started really severe supply disruptions rubber. Premature advent of cold weather in the autumn of 1941 led to a standstill on the icebound river barges with rollers that move off the Volga River from Stalingrad to the Yaroslavl Tire Plant. Anticipate the development of the ready bandage on special equipment already on the finished rink. Large batches of finished rolls from Yaroslavl stuck along the way, forcing engineers to find them STZ substitution, which has a solid cast rink with a small damping ring inside it, closer to the hub. When did the irregular supply of rubber, this experience enjoyed by other factories, and the winter of 1941-1942 was to illumine 1943 are launched T-34 tanks, chassis are completely or mostly consisted of rollers with internal shock absorbers. Since 1943 illumine the problem of shortage of rubber entirely a thing of the past, and the tanks T-34-76 fully returned to the rink with rubber tires. All tanks T-34-85 were carried out with the rollers with rubber tires. This greatly reduced the noise level of the tank, ensuring the relative comfort of the crew and making it difficult to detect "tridtsatchetverok" enemy.
Also noteworthy is the fact that during the years of war, the role of the T-34 in the Red Army changed. First War "Thirty" with imperfect box, do not maintain long marches, but well armored tanks were flawless for the specific support of the infantry. During the war, lost its tank was available at the time of the outbreak of hostilities the advantage of booking. To illumine 1943 — early 1944's, the T-34 was comparable to an easy target for a 75-mm tank and anti-tank guns, definitely fatal to his shells were falling 88-mm guns, "Tigers", anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun PAK-43.
But inexorably improved and even completely replaced the elements which have never given before the war tribute values or simply do not have time to bring to the applicable level. At first this power plant and transmission of the tank, from which ensure high and stable neotkaznoy work. With all this, all these elements of the tank kept the good maintainability and ease of use. All this allowed the T-34 to do things for the mystical "tridtsatchetverok" the first year of the war. "For example, out of Jelgava, moving in East Prussia, we went for a day or three of more than 500 km. T-34 normally withstand such marches "- says AK Rodkin. For T-34 in 1941, a 500-mile march would actually be fatal. In June 1941, the 8th Mechanized Corps under the command of DI Ryabysheva after such a march from the same places the dislocation to the area of Dubno lost on the road almost half of its own equipment due to failures. Who fought in the 1941 — 1942 years A. Bodnar so estimates of T-34 in comparison with the German tanks, "From an operational perspective the German armor was perfect, it went out of order less often. For Germans travel 200 km did not cost anything, to "Thirty" will certainly lose something, something will break. Technological equipment of machines have been stronger, and combat — is worse. "
"Thirty" began to illumine 1943 perfect tank for independent mechanized units, created for the most profound breakthroughs and detours. They have become the main combat vehicle tank armies — the main tools for offensive operations of colossal proportions. In these operations, the main mode of action of T-34 were marching with wide open hatches driver-mechanics, and often with lit lanterns. Tanks were hundreds of kilometers, intercepting the retreat of the surrounding German divisions and corps.
As such, in 1944-1945 mirror the situation is "Blitzkrieg" in 1941, when the Wehrmacht came to Moscow and Leningrad in tanks with far not the most best features at the time armor and weapons, but mechanically very robust. Similarly, in the period of the war ending with the T-34-85 in-depth coverage
and detours were hundreds of miles, and trying to stop them, "Tigers" and "Panthers" massively out of order due to failures and crews rushed due to lack of fuel. The symmetry of the pattern is broken, perhaps, the only weapons. In contrast, the German tanker of the "blitzkrieg" in the hands of the crews' tridtsatchetverok "was an adequate means of struggle against superior armor protection on their enemy tanks — 85-mm cannon. Moreover, each commander of the T-34-85 was a reliable, fairly perfect for long station allows you to play against the German "cat" command.
T-34, which came into the fight in the first days of the war on the border, and T-34, Bursts in April 1945 on the streets of Berlin, although called prototype, but were significantly different and outside, and internally. But as in the initial period of war, and on its end with a step tankers story of the "Thirty" machine that could believe.
First it was reflecting enemy projectiles slope armor, resistant to fire and diesel-destroying weapon. Between wins — it is the highest speed, reliability, stable relationship and allows for themselves gun!