Japanese Navy pilots took less than 2-hours to sink or thoroughly destroy all the battleships stationed at Pearl Harbor. But the effectiveness of the operation testified that future fights at sea will be resolved aircraft carriers and artillery while the Giants have already passed. Despite the success of the Japanese, the defeat of the U.S. battle fleet has not decided the final war.
Tremendous progress in the development of nuclear weapons, which was observed in the 1950s, has become a prerequisite paradoxical result: nuclear tool lost the characteristics of the traditional instruments of awareness. It was not to be a means of warfare.
Improvement of nuclear weapons, which is the beginning of the 60s in power charges in a thousand times worse than the bombs dropped on Japan, together with the quantity, which grew to thousands of ammunition, which was the premise of a nuclear war are concerns as to the cause of mutual destruction and population industrial capacity of member of an immense military blocs (NATO and the Warsaw Pact). Nuclear tool for both sides of the reincarnated means of solving military tasks in a purely special tool used to keep the enemy from using nuclear weapons. As a result, in the first half of the 60s there has been a "sobering" states of nuclear euphoria.
Meanwhile, the Russian tactical aviation at that time strenuously worked out delivery of tactical nuclear weapons. In the inventory of tactical aircraft consisted of conventional weapons only bombs and rockets. They had a lack of effectiveness in the defeat of small targets. This was evidenced by the experience of war and Russian majestically these local conflicts.
Puzzle creation of high-precision instruments and complicated the low visibility of the standard for tactical aviation purposes. In the Soviet Union at that time was to have several types of homing missiles, but they were designed to kill or radiant радиолокационноконтрастных purposes. At this time the level of the signal features of armored vehicles and self-propelled machinery was obviously missing for the capture and maintenance of the upcoming low sensitivity of the GOS (homing).
In principle, rockets, homing missiles equipped by thermal, could be applied to the aircraft parking areas or working with a warmed-up engines, boats and locomotives. Moreover, for some missiles "air-air" embed them against ground targets were considered as the main implementation option. To do this, provided for a special preparatory operation — disable proximity fuze. But for the failure of their implementation on the ground targets lacked simple countermeasures. For example, often enough specially set fire puddles of spilled fuel.
But the tasks that could not solve the intricate technique, successfully solved the ordinary Russian people. The teachings have shown that, even despite the increase in speed fighter-bomber pilots almost always successfully detect and track military equipment at public parking lots and on the march, and in the presence of detailed and reliable intelligence — by masked positions.
Because as the most effective means of destruction of small targets front-line aircraft missiles could be seen having a radio command guidance. It should be noted that a similar system has been installed on the guidance of the first developed in Russian Union missiles "air-" "Pike-A." This rocket designed specifically for tactical aircraft, for which the equipment at that time consisted of war veterans — Tu-2 bombers. As the main purpose for this gun ships were set, and the desire for increased range missiles has become a prerequisite for the introduction of an improved homing versions — "Pike-B." In general, at the top of the nuclear euphoria work on this topic in relation to weapons of aviation finished.
Meanwhile, in the United States in April 1959 to armament Fleet Air Arm received rocket "Bullpup» AGM-12A, on which development izderzhali previous 5 years. A similar rocket — "Bullpup-B» AGM-12B — soon took on armament U.S. Air Force. With a starting weight of 259 pounds rocket with the radio command control system carrying 111-kilogram warhead and could hit targets at ranges up to 9100 m "Bullpup" was performed on a "duck" and had an elongated body. Missile length — 3,2 m, width — 0,305 m Wingspan — 0.94 m equipment onboard control system was in front, and the engine in the rear of the rocket. Rockets "Bullpup" successfully used during the Vietnam War. By 1961 the French company "Nord Aviación" made rockets AS-25 and AS-30, a similar mission. They are also equipped with radio command guidance systems.
In the Russian Union, despite the transition in the late 1950s for use in aircraft missiles homing radio command guidance system developed in relation to the anti-missile technology and used rocket-propelled projectiles. For example, in 1960 armament Ground Forces received radio-controlled anti-tank missile (ATGM) "Phalanx", has found application in the next few years as part of the helicopter armament of the Air Force. But because of the number of features and dynamics of the rocket relative shallowness of its warhead "Phalanx" could not be considered as an aviation weapons to defeat a wide range of purposes.
So Makarov, was needed to develop the newest tactical aviarakety having a radio command guidance and set up for implementation at distances that correspond to the visual target visibility — up to 10 thousand m
As a model considered weakly defended targets — cockpit radar and missile systems, tactical and anti-aircraft missiles, aircraft parked, ships, small ships and boats. Also provided for the use of the rockets at the tanks — allowed the guidance system with a sufficiently high probability to hit the target, and the gap 100-kilogram warhead can not withstand even the most languid machine. While the introduction of anti-tank so instead of a massive gun fits the phrase "shooting sparrows with a cannon", but in some situations, tactical combat solutions puzzles price was not the determining factor.
In the 1960s, the main prospects for tactical aircraft in the Soviet Union contacted the MiG-23. It is significant that at the initial stage of its design according to the Decree of December 3, 1963, for the development of the aircraft just wondered missiles K-23 "air-to-air." But on the adjustment of the step. type of aircraft in accordance with the Resolution of 30 April 1965 except for the transition to a combined propulsion system with 2 lifting and one main engines provided for the development of guided missiles X-23 "air-to-ground" with a range of up to 10 sq m and the accuracy of defeats the purpose of 1 / 2000 range. The development team tasked Bureau of Plant number 134 (now GosMKB "Vympel"), is also developing a K-23 missiles.
Initially, the mass of the rocket K-23 was limited to 150 pounds. Even with virtually complete mutual unification of the products created to destroy ground and air targets for missiles "air-land" to set more powerful warhead (100-120 pounds), which corresponded to a greater starting weight — up to 250 pounds. Terms of development led to the basis of presentation of the X-23 flight tests of the joint in the II quarter of 1968.
Chief Designer of Experimental Design Bureau "MiG", one of the founders of Russian jet aircraft, Lieutenant General Engineering and Technical Services
Unfortunately, these terms, as well as all planned activities for the MiG-23 and guided weapons for it, were hopelessly broken. Apart from the absolute lack of experience in the development of missiles "air-land" significant problems that have been identified in the development of the guidance system coupled with a radar MiG "Sapphire-23", the collective Bureau of Plant number 134 just failed to pay tribute to the attention of X-23. They needed time to finish work on a classic for the CB and vitally important for the customer missile "air-to-air." In addition, the plant number 134 completed the testing of anti-aircraft missile complex "Cube". These difficulties and the alignment of the Kh-23 tightening work on the MiG-23 showed that the Russian frontline aviation in the coming years, most likely, will not receive guided weapons "air-to-ground."
At the same time, the effectiveness of a similar instrument was confirmed by the course of the fighting. The Yankees were used in Vietnam missiles "Bullpup", which made it possible to perform combat tasks forces and the least at the least losses, compared with the introduction of unmanaged ammunition.
The right decision for the Russian aviation group found which created the MiG-23. Official creator became his manager — Artem Mikoyan.
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The magazine "Arms and equipment", "STAR" yawned in the Queen Rostislav Angelic