During the "cold war" Black continent was a "battleground" between the USSR and the USA. Eventually, with the support of Cuba and the GDR, reddish empire began to appear in the dominant position in Africa. After the death of the Soviet Union and the socialist bloc, the United States and Western countries is one hundred percent returned to their positions. But now they challenged Chinese dragon. China has become intense seep into African countries with economic projects. Features of its policy are: in-1's, indifference to political regimes with which it works, he, unlike the Soviet Union, or the United States, is not trying to land aimed at China government (until the last least not yet), in-2-in Unlike Western companies, which are engaged only exhaustion of resources, the Chinese produce meaningful social projects.
The trade turnover has increased since the beginning of the 21st century 10 times — so in 2005 he was almost 40 billion. dollars and 55.5 billion already. dollars in 2006, only direct Chinese investment in 2008 amounted to almost 8 billion. bucks. The volume of China's trade with Africa in 2010 exceeded $ 130 billion. bucks. In 2007 was created the China-Africa Development Fund, its initial funds amounted to 1 billion. bucks, but then it was planned to expand to $ 5 billion. Its main objectives are: investment in African agriculture, in industry, telecommunications, oil exploration and production of minerals, the development of urban infrastructure, the promotion of Chinese firms that want to enter the African market.
In November 2006, Beijing hosted a two-day China-Africa summit, in which delegations from 48 African countries out of 52 African states. At this meeting, Beijing wrote off the African states a huge part of the debts, Chinese companies have received contracts in the countries of Africa, nearly 2 billion. bucks, most in the energy field. Yet Beijing has promised to give to African countries with loans amounting to $ 5 billion. bucks. Immediately, Chinese President Hu Jintao has invited African favorites with China to establish "fraternal affairs." So Makar, Beijing almost openly announced his own intention to make Africa a zone of its own influence. In addition, the summit 12 Chinese companies have entered into 16 municipal contracts with African delegations at the amount of 1.9 billion. bucks naikrupneyshimi of them were — the development of oil and gas deposits in Liberia, the construction of the railroad in Nigeria in the 1315 km long and the construction of hydroelectric power station in Ghana. The Chinese government has given the promise to build a clinic in the African countries and schools, invite four thousand African students in China each year and increment the list of African products are not subject to Chinese customs duty from 190 to 440. So Makar, Beijing has put at the forefront in their own relations with the countries of Africa are not abstract "human rights" and "the level of democracy," and help in the development and the fight against illiteracy. Poverty. In this regard, China has continued the good traditions of Russian Union.
Since 2007, Beijing extended its own successful experience in the creation of "free economic zones" in Africa: the first "special economic zone" to do "copper belt" in Zambia, a second area on the peninsula in Mauritius, it will serve as a trading center for China, 21 states will have access member of the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa, the third free economic zone will be set up in the Tanzanian capital of Dar Es Salaam.
In November 2009 in Sharm el-Sheikh summit was held China — Africa. Premier Municipal Council of the People's Republic of China Wen Jiabao said that will be allocated 10 billion. the development of common projects. Moreover, the economic and trade cooperation will be complemented by the transfer of modern technology to African countries to develop without the help of others. It was announced on the implementation of zero tariffs for 95% of African products. China promised to provide medical equipment to African countries by 73 million dollars 30 different infirmaries, to build 50 schools, to make 100 projects for the production of energy from renewable sources (other power projects). The program has also been expanded training of African students in China's education — is now free parking will be provided to 5.5 million students and 100 graduate students from countries in Africa. In addition, Beijing has decided to pay for the preparation of 3 thousand doctors, agronomists 2 million and 1.5 million teachers. Wen Jiabao said that Beijing is willing to continue to provide assistance to African states not only in the construction of large infrastructure, and in the field of agriculture, education, education, health, the elimination of poverty, clean drinking water. China wants to strengthen cooperation in the field of training of technical professionals and managers. All these areas are problematic for African States.
In exchange for the loans, the African countries enter into contracts for the supply of natural raw materials, the construction of infrastructure facilities with Chinese companies. Beijing has decided to keep four objectives: 1) to get access to new reserves of raw materials, to the current time, oil from Africa is a third of China's oil imports, and 2) provided jobs for hundreds of thousands of Chinese people, including those in Africa, to ensure the development of its own economy 3) Beijing to great advantage Baksova himself gets rid of the waste and U.S. securities, buying her real assets, and 4) create a positive image of China, unlike the U.S., the Chinese are really doing a better life of Africans.
In addition, Beijing fruitful work in the direction of military-technical cooperation: Chinese instrument cheaper Beijing provides flexible payment terms, discount schemes, loans. Popular barter scheme: raw materials in exchange for guns. Moreover, the Chinese instrument decent enough properties, due to the Soviet-Russian, Ukrainian technologies. Thus, Sudan bought T96 tanks and other armored vehicles, Algeria, Sudan and Egypt have supplied the Chinese 155-millimeter howitzers. Ghana and Nigeria took the aircraft, armored vehicles Chad and Tanzania, Cameroon and Congo artillery systems, etc.
Advantages of Chinese expansion, compared with the Western neo-colonialism
— The pragmatic approach is not politicized, acquire the loyalty of all political regimes, non-interference in the internal political difficulties. Instead, the PRC requested only stable supply of resources.
— Chinese offer more lucrative terms than Western companies, taking the smallest share of the profits, leaving more in Africa. More favorable credit terms.
— In addition to profiting from the African, Chinese offices contribute to the development of these countries do jobs for the local population and infrastructure, have a social burden — building schools, clinics, inviting the study of African students who would later become qualified teachers, doctors, agro
nomists, etc. §
— Beijing gives loans are not directly in the "hands" of corrupt African officials, as do Western financial institution, a "feed" their "own" African elite. Beijing also allocates money to Chinese companies involved in infrastructure projects in Africa, which he can control and punish.
The reaction of the United States, Western States
Policies to expand the impact of China in Africa, many Western media called brutal and associate with neo-colonial, say China's re-colonize Africa. The Western media, human rights organizations have criticized Beijing for supporting countries with unstable and undemocratic regimes for bad working conditions for African workers in Chinese enterprises.
The main areas of resistance Anglo-Saxons began to Chinese expansion in recent years, several projects — a "Somali pirates." Their peak activity, probably a case occurred in 2006-2007, as well, and will not be further attenuated when Peking began to increasingly large-scale penetration. There are a few distinctive moments in the activities of "pirates": cancel their coordination and awareness, and their intermediaries in the main are in Western Europe, London, at the UN level blocking initiatives to tighten legislation and the adoption of international anti-piracy London and Washington, it is clear that if there is a will, "the international community" in the face of the Western project, just to overfishing and hanged all these "pirates." Piracy has managed quite successfully in the past century, if it was a political will.
Subsequent blow Anglo-Saxons inflicted in Sudan — a country split. China received almost all of its crude oil in Sudan, plus bought there significant areas of land. Now country on the verge of a new violent conflict, because of redistribution of boundaries. Another blow — this is the revolution in Tunisia, Egypt, the war in Libya. "Fuss" around Pakistan and Iran, also damaging to China, which in these countries, their interests.
In general, as long as China is winning the battle for Africa, as his time in Russian Alliance. China looks more bezproigryshno in the eyes of African governments and ordinary Africans, carrying out large-scale economic, humanitarian and vkladyvatelnye projects in the Black continent, which lead to the development of the countries of Africa, the development of human potential. West and the U.S. in the eyes of most of the population, not counting small groups zapadnizirovannoy "elite" of the middle class, the Dark Africa have always been and remain strangers, aggressive. Therefore, today's Russian Federation should follow the example of China, vorachivayas on the Black continent.