Initially, China ordered ships and submarines in Russia, for example, on the basis of Russian Submarine Project 877 EKM "Halibut" (Export capitalist Upgraded) for the Chinese navy was drafted 636 "Varshavyanka." The focus of the upgrade was made to ensure the operation of the devices submarine in the tropics. China put four destroyers Project 956 of the "modern."
The Chinese have learned a lot of strong naval heritage Russian Union (of Russia and Ukraine), including its own first "boot" aircraft carrier. In Ukraine, for China ordered four small amphibious hovercraft project 12322 "Bison" (2 should build in China).
At the current time, the Chinese have gained tremendous progress in shipbuilding and building ships almost one hundred percent without the help of others, only part of the system bought abroad (for example: gas turbines, electrical equipment, certain weapons). Their success in shipbuilding are based on the glittering success of the economy in 2010, Beijing has naikrupneyshey state in the world in terms of civilian shipbuilding. Much work has been done and is underway for the development of coastal infrastructure — ports, marinas, shipyards, etc.
UDC type "Tsinchenshan", etc. 071.
Chinese Navy has since 1949, and split into three fleets: Northern (with headquarters in Qingdao), East (with headquarters in Ningbo) and South (with headquarters in Zhanjiang). The number, according to 2008, 250 thousand people, with a reserve of 600 thousand people. In 1995 he was officially declared the naval doctrine of the PLA Navy. In the framework of this doctrine was based on the "strategy of active defense", which anticipate the establishment of the Navy and the Air Force that support them, are able not only to reflect the anger the enemy from the sea, and the pre-emptive strike, including on the ocean theater . With all of this was made a statement saying that the first step (up to 2000), Beijing plans to make the naval group capable of maintaining the appropriate operational mode within the boundaries of the coastal zone. The area is bounded so-called. The "first island chain" — the Ryukyu Islands and the Philippines, and in the waters of the "China Seas" — yellowish, East China and South China seas. In the main, China headed for this step and moved on to the next.
In the second step of naval construction (2020), the Navy planned to strengthen the country in such a Makarov so that they could produce a successful operational actions within the so-called. The "second island chain" — it's Kuril Islands, Hokkaido peninsula, islands of Nampo, Mariana, Caroline Islands and the peninsula Bimbo Guinea. This zone contains the waters of Japan and Philippine seas, as well as the seas in the Indonesian archipelago.
At step 3 (2050), Beijing involves making a powerful ocean-going fleet, which will be able to solve assigned tasks in any field of the oceans. In other words, the level of today's U.S. Navy.
Frigate, etc. 054.
In 1982, during the first step of China's economic reforms, China's 6th control engineering, which has joined voedinyzhdy shipbuilding industry is transformed into a single municipal China Shipbuilding Corporation (China State Shipbuilding Corporation — CSSC), she began to work on a commercial basis. It is quite possible to preserve the quality control and to prevent the fragmentation of the industry into separate companies. In 1999, this corporation divided territorially into two massive municipal companies — Save An old title of China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC), which was kept under the control of the shipbuilding industry in the southern part of the country, and China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation — CSIC ), to which the company withdrew the northern zone.
CSIC has headquarters in Beijing and voedinyzhdy connects to hundreds of companies, research institutes and research laboratories with 300 thousand personnel. The total shipbuilding capacity is estimated at 7 million registered tons per year. The main shipbuilding center is located in Dalian — Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company (Group).
CSSC has its headquarters in Shanghai, and connects to voedinyzhdy fifty companies, research institutes. Its main shipyards in Shanghai and Guangzhou CSSC comes in and lead Chinese Marine Design and Research Institute of Marine Design & Research Institute of China (MARIC). Work in the company to 150 thousand people. The company, though inferior in the number of workers, but is naikrupneyshim shipbuilder China. By 2015, the management of CSSC plans to become a favorite of shipbuilding (in 2010, was the third).
There are in China and a lot of small shipyards, companies that do not belong to these two companies. In 2009, China had 1,242 companies shipbuilding industry.
Already in 1994, China has become the world's third largest shipbuilding nation, second only to South Korea and the land of the rising sun. In 2009, the number of Chinese-built vessels ahead of the Japanese and took second place in 2010, and South Korea. From 2003 to 2010, the total tonnage of marine commercial vessels tonnage of more than 100 registered tons (RT), built in China increased almost 10-fold (from 3.763 million to 36.239 million RT RT), and an amount in almost 7-fold (from 203 to 1402 vessels). In 2010, China built the 37.7% of the tonnage of ships built on the planet. According to Chinese data in 2008, China built 2,385 vessels of all types, including small boats and warships.
It is interesting that in China, most of the huge ships built for export — 70% or more percent.
Missile boat project 022
The military s
ector is also experiencing a big rise: build surface ships of almost all classes, the influx of new projects at a rate of up to 4 submarine year, designed and built the new submarine launched programm creation of Chinese nuclear aircraft carriers. Lasts for general construction of more advanced frigates, amphibious ships, missile boats. So, in 2004, a head-missile boat of 022 — is the first in the world catamaran with anti-ship missiles. It is built on stealth technology, all scheduled build More than 80 such boats.
There are headaches standards fundamentally new types of amphibious assault ships, helicopter carriers (UDC type "Tsinchenshan", etc. 071), minesweepers and support vessels.
In 2003-2005, built the first Chinese ships with the "Aegis" — a highly integrated combat systems, functional radar with phased array and installation of vertical launch missiles. On the type 052C destroyers of the "Lanzhou" found 8 modules of the vertical launch HHQ-9, Chinese design on 6 anti-aircraft missiles each, a total of 48 missiles (or a copy of the revision of Chinese Russian anti-aircraft missile complex S-300F/Rif). It is possible to start the elimination of the serious shortcomings of Chinese Navy — a weak defense. Secure the air defense ship groupings and frigates with guided missiles, etc. 054 type "Tszyankay" (11 units), they are armed with a 32-cell vertical launch for the installation of anti-aircraft missiles — is the modernization of the ship's air defense system 9K37M1-2 'Calm' mid-range offense and radar detection of air and surface targets Russian development.
At the current time, the Chinese Navy has reached the 1st place in the world by number of units, so far this is the main small ships and boats. By the number of destroyers, frigates and submarines China is second only to the United States. Although it is, in combat potential of the PRC Navy inferior not only to the U.S. Navy, and the Navy of the Russian Federation — the number of nuclear submarines, the number of supersonic anti-ship missiles, sverhtehnologichny potential. China needs to develop naval air defense, anti-submarine warfare, there is a problem with weapons, avionics. But the gap is closing quickly.
Main objectives of the Navy: the protection of the coast (there are placed the most developed provinces in the country), the protection of sea routes (through them comes the main part of natural resources), the ability to blockade Taiwan and conduct amphibious operations to seize the island.
Type 052C destroyer