China has recently opened Beidou (Their version of GPS or "global system positioning ") for use in civilian purposes and hopes by the end of the decade to capture a significant market share from the unique American satellite navigation system GPS. At present, China has commissioned 14 of 35 navigation satellites Beidou (" Compass "). This is enough to ensure acceptance satellites in the whole area of China. By the end of the decade all 35 satellites are in orbit and on the ground the entire planet will have access to Beidou.
5 years ago, China has decided to expand its original Beidou satellite navigation system 1, to cover the whole planetoid and compete with GPS, Galileo, GLONASS. China is using its own experience of early network Beidou 1 to make the World Wide Web "Beidou 2 ".
Chinese network Compass contains the best features of Russian GLONASS and European Galileo, and certain features of the planned next generation of GPS satellites. In all of all of this, no one had found a method to make a network of navigation satellites, at least not directly. There is a tremendous amount of thought, but still no one has transformed them into tools. In addition, there are problems in the relationship between organizations Beidou, Galileo, GLONASS about the priority in the use of radio frequencies. No one disputes the right of the frequencies used by GPS, because this system they won the first one. But the other 3 players among themselves there are certain difficulties.
All this was the result of the competitiveness of success of American navigation satellite GPS. Yet the entry of competitors proved to be even more difficult than expected. The European consortium Galileo went ahead, despite the rising costs and technical difficulties. Initially Galileo was to be funded from personal resources. But the costs have already exceeded the most optimistic estimates of future earnings, so that at the present time Galileo is funded by taxpayers, as it was in his time GPS and competing Russian and Chinese systems.
The four navigation satellites of the European Galileo system started working for the past 2-years and another 18 were ordered. Four is the smallest number of satellites that are needed to provide a three-dimensional disk imaging on location. The four satellites will be used to test the technology. Each of the 30 satellites of the Galileo system will be put into operation by the end of this decade.
The emergence of Galileo is due to the fact that the Europeans did not like the dependence on the U.S. system and the lack of conviction that our home will be able to keep their GLONASS system viable. If the system becomes operational Galileo then pay for it will be the European countries, not the end user. The devices are capable of receiving both signals (GPS and Galileo) will not cost much more expensive (perhaps only 20 per cent) than receivers of GPS. The presence of the 2-sets of signals will allow the individual to make a more reliable and accurate receivers. In addition, the orbits of satellites Galileo inflated to ensure reliability and high latitudes? in built up areas.
The answer of the Russian Federation on the GPS — GLONASS system was in full force (24 satellites) in 1996, the year soon after the end of the war cool. But the cool end of the war in 1991, the year meant the end of the ongoing funding of GLONASS. To maintain a system of satellites required start spoofing every 5-7 years. By the end of 2002, only seven satellites GLONASS As before work. Still, the Russian economy has recovered and been allocated to a series of launches in 2003 and it was that the increment number of operational satellites to 12 by the end of 2007 to 18. By 2011, the ninth year Our homeland had 24 GLONASS satellites in orbit and brought the system up to full operation in the past year, making it the first real rival GPS.
Funding for the GLONASS system comes from the Russian government, which does not wish to be dependent on the controlled system Yankees GPS. Availability of funds explains the highest oil prices. Most of the used GLONASS receivers are virtually the United GPS / GLONASS receivers. RF will have to invest in GLONASS billion dollars over the next couple of years to get one hundred percent functional system, and then izderzhat more funds to maintain the satellite constellation.