Inefficient financial system of socialism. Backward economy of the USSR. The need for reform. Remember this logic chain, which we painstakingly lined up in my head?
All this is heresy. The USSR was killed by those who could not tolerate it. That's the whole essence of what happened in the restructuring.
"The fact that I can not stand the Soviet regime. Moreover, I am not quite that life can not stand because the Soviet regime. And especially its late stage. In my life there is nothing appalling than the late Russian power, did not happen, "- says in his own brand most fresh interview (December 2012), Anatoly Chubais. Previously, he had read in a different way. Now masks dropped.
Meanwhile, in the "late Soviet Union," there was no repression and no dispossession for about 50 years. So he could not tolerate his country Chubais for it.
And for what?
"The belated recognition of Chubais'I can not stand the Soviet regime"
The father of modern Russian capitalism Youth could not tolerate their country, the school and the Russian Lude
Anatoly Chubais is recognized that the main engine of all its activities was hatred of the Russian Union, and calls itself the "anti-people". In his view, the Soviet Union died because oil prices fell and the country had to take out loans. Chubais is horrified that Russian people as ever there, but the basic quality of the people, in his opinion, — the reluctance to work. With all of this, he gives himself to report that fans of Stalin and Putin's supporters in almost all the same people. Chubais lays down hopes for a new generation that does not know the Russian Union and grown in the criteria of the market.
— I have an atypical attitude to the Russian authorities. Moreover, it will, I think, a rather sharp not a good response. — We set a wide variety of people in all the former Soviet republics of three asked similar questions. At the moment, I'll ask them for you. First: that was quite good in the Russian Union?
The fact that I can not stand the Soviet regime. Moreover, I am not much in life that I can not stand because the Soviet regime. And especially its late stage. In my life there is nothing appalling than the late Russian power, did not happen. With all the claims to what is happening in the country at the moment.
It started with a morning turn on the radio and cheerfully voice to that special Russian nasty tone: "Hello, comrades! We start the morning exercises! "Vladimir S. Vysotsky," Song of the charging "- remember? "Do not be creepy bad news — start running in place." This is the essence of shit Russian authorities.
The essence of power and the whole Russian life was to promote lies, gray, obscenity, hypocrisy and stop the best, personal, catchy, free — though verbally all, obviously, was diametrically opposite.
Gagarin's flight, and other advances in science and technology, the victory of the Soviet Union into a sublime Russian war — is, of course, historical events on a global scale. But so far not enough in the country who understands what the cost was paid for them.
If we take the late Soviet power, the Soviet life, that there was not a decent? Certainly, the low level of malice, anger, though hooligans and criminals was enough. And even a poster about the friendship of the people did not immediately perceived as an absolute lie. But when the country was under Brezhnev 18 years and there is nothing — everything is smoothed out, everything is erased, all rounded off, everything is slightly padded.
— You are, in principle, the answer to the question about not uttered a lot of bad about the fact that it was disgusting. But still I will ask separately: what did was disgusting? Not even the Russian Union is not Russian authorities, and in Russian life, in everyday life? You can in fact live, abstracting from the fact that you've got there Russian authorities, "Khmer Rouge" savage capitalism or anything else. Surely there must be some kind of life and besides that.
— Someone could disengage from it, and some do not. Not if you're seriously going to do something for the country. If you're ever going to do something in your own life Russian, for you must be a member of the Komsomol, and later you need to be a member of the Communist Party. According to another just 90 percent of activities — at least for the last people with higher education — are closed. How did you become a member of the Communist Party, you have to participate in the All-Union Leninist Communist Saturday, to listen to "Lenin Institute of millions" must pass partuchebu. I have to do a lot such that by the end of the 80s was seen by all as an absolute game, a complete lie, an absolute … more I already neprelichnye word go about it. But all these things, because it was clear that Russian The Alliance has 500 years, and it will have to do.
"I'm With Youth anti-people"
— Approximately guess what you say at the moment, but still the third of those questions we all asked was: would you want to return to the Russian Alliance, in Soviet life in one form or another?
— Not for just a moment and under any criteria.
— Enough often we read: I then was 20 — 30 years younger …
— Well, it is, in principle, quite normal and natural. But you're asking me about. I said to you that I am in this sense is very abnormally arranged.
— Why is not normal? Since you are such a specific anti-Soviet?
— No, that's not the point. For many ordinary people's school days — it's a happy childhood. And I could not tolerate his school. The school was in an advanced military-patriotic education. We walked to the building in the form of a collar like sailors, and sang the song: "The sun is shining clear, hello, beautiful country!"
Does not cause me my school affectionate emotion. And the main memory is that one day my friends and I decided to analyze it to pieces, and it is better to burn. We were able to tear off just one step on the porch and a seagull that is welded to the patriotic monument. Greater harm, we could not pay her. But we could not stand it all together.
As for the institute, I always thought that life does not begin and goes in vain. I had only one sense: when will end all discussion and, eventually, you get to do some useful work normal?
— In the same school, with all of these collars and seagulls on the military-patriotic monuments, since taught thousands of people other than you, and, most likely, and most of them grew up entirely conventional people who now remembers that the school was excellent : line, songs sung. And to you, then what happened?
— I'm just anti-people.
— In other words, it's you since childhood?
— Completely. It's in my youth with, yes. And it's nothing to be done about it.
USSR died since the country had nothing to Buy Food
— Why Russian alliance fell apart?
— Well, the basic sense of the word — as he has exhausted its own current term. And in the applied sense of the word — the most kutsee description of the history of the collapse of the Union of Russian as read Yegor Gaidar — a graph of lower oil prices from 1983 to 1989.
Here you have a country of 250 million people, which is not able to create competitive products and whose non-convertible ruble. For you, it is necessary to feed, and the country's disorganized agriculture. And it is not as bad mastered the land, as well as kulaks "soaked" 70 years a
go. And you will not be able to fix it, it's agriculture, as it is basically never going to work with Russian authorities. But somehow people need to feed, what are you doing? You implement oil and gas prices and buy grain. Import volumes of grain in the country reached 25 million tons a year. We have at the moment in Russia's grain exports — 20 million tons, and in the Soviet Union was imported — 25 million.
Then you drop the cost of oil. For you, there is nothing to buy food. I remember — non-convertible ruble! What does the Russian authorities in 85 years? Begins to take loans from commercial banks. With pleasure I give: USSR — a reliable borrower. And on the 88th, and already, I have nothing to give. Rocked the creditworthiness of the borrower. Then the next step — sovereign loans. Not for commercial banks, and the countries.
How did you get the sovereign credit, you have a political relationship. But here, you know, in Poland it is necessary to introduce martial law, because, you know, "Solidarity" raged. But you have credit. And Germany, as a creditor, the tanks in Poland is very not like. Choose: You will feed its population or the tanks will enter into Poland, as introduced in Czechoslovakia in '68?
Its shirt close to your body. Do not enter. And ran: GDR fell off, Poland has fallen off, socialist countries flew in different directions, the Warsaw Pact collapsed — and then irreversibly. And in the trigger mechanism — the fall in oil prices.
Russian Lude THERE, AND HIS MAIN QUALITY — unwillingness to work
— The Constitution of '77 announced, "is composed of brand-new historical community of people — the Russian people." Developed it?
— This issue was the subject of harsh discussions on our underground anti-Soviet seminar at one time. We learned that, yes.
— And what did this community look like?
— Baseline socio-psychological attitudes among the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian very close, well, a Kazakh too. Uzbeks have, I think, a bit different, and the Tajiks others. Yet, despite the very severe ethnic differences, socio-psychological attitudes were close.
When the country's 70 years of beating the best in the head, with the first 40 years of beating to death, it can not affect. The country was first destroyed the best part of the peasantry — fists, later — the best part of the war: Tukhachevsky, Blucher … later — the best part of the scientific intelligentsia, the same Vavilov … and so — right up to the 50s — a resolution on magazines "Leningrad" and " Star "- Akhmatova, Zoschenko … In other words, generation after generation the best destroyed, it can not form a very definite attitude to life in most people.
I remember a conversation in the tram 2-year 25 young people, 'Look, where are you working on? "-" In such and such a scientific research institute. " — "How much you pay for?" — "120 rubles". — "Look, you're a complete moron. You've got to do something, and I work in the institute such and such, I paid 110, but nothing to do! "
This is the basic thing. This attitude not only to work, it's an attitude to life: do nothing at all — and get something with all this, to live. This piece is very severe, is the base of the historical community, under the title Russian people.
— This Russian people ended with the Russian Union?
— Of course not, it's nothing.
— The past 20 years is not enough?
— Of course not.
— And when it is translated?
— It is unacceptable to put the question. Let's start with the fact that other people have not. And to remind ourselves that we are part of it! At this historic community, besides the negative component of which I said, of course, was a unique and positive.
— For example?
— For example, creativity. There is a saying: capable, but lazy. So I think that the word "but" should be removed and put the word "and." Able and lazy — it's in a certain sense, the same thing. In this sense, even in gloomy Russian years, opportunities, creativity Russian people were very highest.
STALIN AND PUTIN CONSIDER majestically same PEOPLE
— There are spilled in the air feeling that in general, all Russian vorachivaetsya somehow. And the power of all the harder mimics a Soviet, and social life, and the behavior of each individual … It is particularly surprising that today's active generation — is to a large extent generation of the 80s birth that "stagnation", then do not remember. Where it comes from?
— And you see that the word "sixties" exists, a phenomenon often described and studied, and the words "seventies" and "eighties" does not exist? Do not think why?
— I thought, but did not figments.
— But I have my own version of the response, much less that it's my generation. Since they were not. This is a generation or two, which moved through the Brezhnev era. The era when nothing was happening. Nothing happened either on Mon or Tuesday or Wednesday or Friday. Neither this year or thereafter. Nor in 10 years, not in 15 — nothing happened. And in the '60s happened, and much more. In my comprehension, the peak of Russian authorities came about in the middle 60s. And now it has become a "move out." Turning point — 68 years old, the invasion of Czechoslovakia. And in human terms, and in terms of the economy, in terms of the industry, in terms of science and technology, in the sense of the faith of the people in his country.
The feeling of returning Russian, of course, there is. But to say that "the authorities deliberately cursed us zadurmanivaet head Russian models" will be very superficial and inadequate. With this perception has to meet very often, it is very vserasprostraneno us. I believe that the pre-conditions even deeper. The power in our country, in this sense, acts as though in any political system, focusing on the electorate.
The fact is that we have more than 50 percent of people still consider the greatest politician of our country Josef Vissarionovich Stalin. This phenomenon can explain what you will — the absolute historical amnesia, the absolute lack of understanding of what the Russian life and how it turned into modern life. But in this incriminating Putin …
— … Which is regarded as the greatest second 50 percent …
— Fully maybe not even the second, and the same. I think incriminating — it's very comfortable, but really has no case. Country in which Stalin killed more people than Hitler, Stalin considered the greatest politician. How's that? It matters to the country, to the people, not the favorite. A claim to the nation who are willing to show us? Name me a politician in this country who is willing to make a complaint to the Russian people? Remember a lot of names?
— Probably not.
— So what did cause this phenomenon? Scary level of education — the country does not know its own history — the only part of the explanation. Ultimately, any information is now visible sources. But until the next time there was an alternative request — a request for democracy. And I can say it boldly, as was related to the political force that tried to build on this request. And quite understand how much of our failure has been associated with our own mistakes, and which — in the absence of such a request.
Request Sovietness there will still be quite a long time. But now, for the first time in the modern history of the country, he is opposed to a request for democracy. In this sense, we live in a modern country.
REQUEST FOR DEMOCRACY — the beneficence Total Market Reforms
— But for the first time right? Similarly, a request for democracy took place from 19 to 22 August 91, for example.
— A very good question. You are quite right. But not only this day o
r three, but in general the beginning of the 90s — it was the first such visit of in the democracy. And let us remember, when appearing before such a request? February 17 th, for sure? What else can we call in Russian history? If we go even further, that is where we come — in Novgorod Veche? In general, not a lot to this request.
What does that mean? Display the request in the 90s was the first shy sunbeam April sun in the background is not yet fully ripe for this environment, the criterion. Sober reflection, we must recognize that to a large extent, it was not so much a request for Democracy, as a query against the Communist Party and the Russian Union of its central committee. The degree of hatred to the Russian people and the party bosses have been such, that the people said, "That's something I suggest, though an option." And here came "anti-national democrats" and said, "But for you, please democracy." People said, "Well, let's democracy." No other candidates were proposed, and the men took this. Not from deep obmyslennoy strategy, but simply from a lack of choice. And because love affair with democracy was so Short-and shallow.
— Very similar to the story just from the Swamp — the same way people came: "Take away already, please, that these muzzles of tele behold even feature a bald — for every game, not counting the" United Russia ", for at least some of the candidate, not Considering Putin. " It's the same thing goes.
— I do not agree. See: Request 90's, as has been said, was the first born of hatred for the Communist Party and to the Russian authorities. Today's request for the form grows out of the same. But, in fact, it is excellent for different phenomenon. That phenomenon, which was created 20 years in the country thanks, sorry, the functioning of a market economy — is she gave us 10 years of economic growth of 8 percent a year, the salary increment, made the situation, when our country in terms of life pulled ahead in comparison with its neighbors, which began approximately equal. In Russia, the middle class was born. He needs competitiveness, lack of administrative pressure. We damned Democrats, 20 years about it states already frustrated voice, the forces have read no more.
So here, I believe that today's request for Democracy, as opposed to the 90's, has deep social roots stretching back to the structure of Russian society, which never happened before. And it's not because I just got a zomboyaschika — of course, it is also there, but it's just an excuse. And behind it — millions of people whose lives, lifestyles which are a source of livelihood — the freedom and property. They still do have just started to think about it. This is a very youthful movement has emerged, no favorites. This is a more Brownian stage. But base it entirely fundamental, and therefore unavoidable and therefore different from the '90s. "