Civilization of the New World. Part 2


Pyramid of Skulls

The main temple of Huitzilopochtli surrounded ascend forty smaller the pyramid and temples. In Tsompantli (Pyramid of skulls) collected the remains of countless terrifying sacrifices relentless Aztec god of war, and in this horrible construction of the Spanish conquerors have counted no less than 136 000 human skulls. In the courtyard, or in the "teopane" that surrounded the temple, located thousands of homes of priests, whose duty is to carefully care for the territory adjacent to the temple, and all the charges were accurately distributed.

Architecture Nahua

As we will see later, Mexico is not so rich in architectural antiquities, such as Guatemala and Yucatan, for the reason that the growth of tropical forests is largely protected from the destruction of the ancient stone structures in these countries. Ruins found in the northern regions of the country are more rude than those who approach the sphere of influence of the Maya, such as Mitla ruins left by the Zapotec. They show signs of such undoubted influence Maya that we better tell you about them, when we talk about the ancient monuments of this people.

Gigantic ruins

In the mountains of Chihuahua, in one of the northern provinces, the famous ruins called "Casas Grandes" (Big House), the walls of which to this day have a height of about 30 feet (9.14 m). According to its general appearance they approach the more modern buildings of the tribes in New Mexico and Arizona, and can be attributed to the more there the people than the Nahua. The massive ruins of gigantic size have been found in Tsakatekas, Quemado. They consist of a long stretch of the terraces and wide paved roads, the pyramid that have withstood the onslaught of many centuries, and giant columns and 18-foot (5.49 m) tall and 17 feet (5.18 m) in circumference each. Wall thickness of 12 feet (3.66 m) rise over piles debris littered the ground. These structures do not show almost no relationship to the architecture of the Nahua or to the north of them, or to the south. They are more extensive than some, and probably some buildings were people in bringing significant advances in the art of construction.

Teotihuacan

In the area of habitat Totonac, north of Vera Cruz, we find a lot of architectural ruins, extremely interesting for its features. Here from time to time to meet the pyramid or pyramid building, topped by a temple with a massive roof, which is characteristic of Maya architecture. Most striking swatches found in the region, are the remains of Teotihuacan and Xochicalco. The first was the religious mecca for the Nahua, and near it is still possible to see the pyramid of the sun and the moon, surrounded by vast cemeteries, where they buried the pious inhabitants of Anahuac (known locally as the Mexican plateau) in the hope that, buried, they will find the entrance to the sunny paradise. The pyramid of the moon has a base, covering an area 426 feet (129.84 meters) and has a height of 137 feet (41.76 m). The pyramid of the sun is bigger with a base area of 735 feet (224 meters) and a height of 203 feet (61.87 m). These pyramids were divided into four layers, three of which survived. At the top of the pyramid of the sun was a temple with a huge image of the light that was cut from a rough stone blocks. In the front part was inserted into the star of the purest gold, captured later as production insatiable companions of Cortez. Of the pyramid of the Moon escapes the path to where the small river bends around the side of the citadel. This path is known as the "Trail of Dead" thanks to the fact that the area around the nearly nine square miles of the graves and burial mounds, and it actually forms a path through a huge cemetery. This citadel, according to Charneya was great place for a game of tennis or "tlachtli" where thousands of spectators gathered to watch the popular game Nahua with the same fervor with which modern fans watching football games. Teotihuacan was a thriving center, modern Tollan. It was destroyed, but later rebuilt chichimekskim ruler Xolotl and since that time has maintained its traditional importance as the center of the national religion of the Nahua. Charnay found it identifies examples of architecture to the architecture of Tollan. As a result of work carried out by them in the area of Teotihuacan, he unearthed a richly decorated pottery, vases, masks and figurines made of terracotta. He also disclosed several large houses or palaces. Some of them have more than 730 rooms feet (222.5 m) in circumference with walls thicker than 7.5 feet (2.29 m), which have been built rings and plates to keep the torches and candles. Floor is a mosaic of rich variety of patterns, "like Aubusson carpet." Charnay came to the conclusion that during the conquest of the monuments of Teotihuacan were still partially intact.

Mountain flowers

Next to the pyramid is Tetskoko Xochicalco (Mountain Colors), the sculptural effect of which is fine and richly decorated with ornaments. Porphyry quarries, which were carved out of huge blocks of 12 feet (3.66 m), are located many miles away from it. Back in 1755 this building was five storeys in height, but the Vandals did a good job, and some pieces of stone carving with exquisite patterns — that is all that now remains of one of the most magnificent pyramids of Mexico.

Tollan

We have already said that the place of "Toltec" city of Tollan were found ruins, which proves that it was the center, of course, advanced civilization. Charnay gigantic fragments unearthed there caryatids, each about 7 feet (2.13 m) in height. He also found the column, consisting of two pieces held together by means of grooves and spikes, bas-reliefs depicting ancient figures, without doubt
similar to the Nahua, and a lot of very ancient fragments. On the mountain above the town Tollan Palpan he found foundations of several buildings with numerous rooms, murals, columns, benches and tanks, resembling a pool for water flow in ancient Roman estate. Were also found water pipes and a large number of pottery, many of which were similar to the old Japanese porcelain. The foundations of houses excavated at Mount Palpan showed that they were designed by these architects, as well as have not been built. Cement that covered the walls and floors, was of excellent quality and looked like the one that was discovered during the excavation of ancient monuments in Italy. The roofs were made of wood and supported by columns.

Pictographic writing

Aztecs, and in fact all the Nahua, used writing system of the type that scientists call the pictorial. Events, people and concepts with the help of pictures and recorded by multi-colored figures on paper made from the agave plant, or animal skin. In this way, from generation to generation, not only the history and mythology Nahua basis, but also record the daily transactions conducted Accounting merchants, made a record of the purchase of land and its ownership. The fact that this method is fast approaching the phonetic writing system, manifested in how the Nahua scribes portrayed people's names or the names of the cities. Them represented by several objects, the names of which resembled the name of the person they were supposed to stand for. Name of the king Ishkoatlya (Ixcoatl), for example, is portrayed with a snake pattern («coati»), flint knives pierced («iztli»), a name of Montezuma (Montequauhzoma) — by drawing a mousetrap («montli»), an eagle («quauhtli "), lancet (« zo ») and hand (« maitl »). Phonetic means that used scribes were very diverse, so that at times whole syllable represented by the figure of an object whose name begins with this style. Another time, this same figure represented only one-letter words. But in general, the scribes sought, no doubt, use more ideographic than phonetic means, that is, they wanted to convey their thoughts more through pictures rather than sounds.

Interpretation of Character

Today's expert is not very difficult to interpret these pinturas (Drawings — App.)
as they were called the Spanish conquerors, at least until it comes to their content as a whole. In this, they are not similar to the original Maya of Central America, which we introduce later. Their interpretation was largely traditional, it is memorized, passed by one generation of readers (amamatini) to another, and they could not be interpreted without exception.

The native manuscripts

Pinturas, or native manuscripts which have come down to us, are very few. Religious fanaticism, which has prepared for them the mass destruction, and even more powerful time so reduced the number that each instance is known bibliophiles and Americanists worldwide. For those that still exist, we can see a lot of details, most of the descriptions of feasts, sacrifices, gifts, and natural phenomena such as eclipses and floods, as well as details of the death and ascension to the throne of kings. These events and supernatural beings who were believed to control them, depicted in bright colors with a brush pen.

Explanatory manuscript

Fortunately for future research the history of Mexico, blind zeal, which destroyed much of the Mexican manuscripts, was stopped thanks to the enlightened certain European scholars. They believed the mass destruction of native chronicles nearly a disaster and take steps to track down a few of the other local artists who were getting a copy of the most important figures, whose details were of course those are perfectly familiar. To these are added the interpretation made from the words themselves local scribes, that there can be no doubt about the content of the manuscripts. These interpretations are known as "explanatory manuscripts" and are a great help for those who study the history and customs of Mexico. There are only three of these manuscripts. "The Oxford Code" Bodleyskoy stored in the library, is historical, it contains a complete list of minor cities, which were subordinated to Mexico City in its heyday. Paris, or the "Code Teller Remensis", which is so called because it was once the property of Le Tellera, Archbishop of Rheims, contains a lot of information about the ancient settlement, which grew out of the various city-states of the Nahua. The Vatican manuscript covers mainly mythology and intricate calendar system Mexicans. Those Mexican figures, which did not include an explanation, of course, are of less value to modern scholars Nahua. Mostly, they relate calendar ritual details and astrological calculations, or horoscopes.

Book of the Dead Mexican

Perhaps the most remarkable and interesting manuscript of the Vatican collection is one the last page which tells of journey of the soul after death through the dark and dangerous underworld. It is called the Book of the Dead Mexican. Depicted body, dressed for burial, whose soul departs from its earthly shell through the mouth. The soul appears to Tezcatlipoca, the Aztec pantheon, Jupiter. She leads the minister, dressed in a skin ocelot, and she stands naked, with a wooden yoke around his neck, before the deity, to hear the verdict. The dead man is being tested that precede entry into the abode of the dead, the realm of Mictlan, and that in a way he did not have to be at risk, being defenseless, he is given a bunch of copies. First, it runs between two very high peaks that could fall and crush him if he fails to cleverly avoid this. Then a terrible serpent blocks his way, and if he manages to defeat this monster, it is expected a ferocious alligator Shochitonal. Eight deserts and mountains of the same amount must then overcome the unfortunate soul and withstand the whirlwind, sharp as a sword that crushes even solid rock. Accompanied by the spirit of his beloved dog tired ghost appears with a ferocious demon Itsputsteke cock on legs, with a demon Neshtepeua that dispels the ash cloud, and many other frightful enemies, until it finally gets to the gate of the Lord of Hell. He bows down to it and then can meet with their friends, who passed away earlier.

System chronology

As already mentioned, the system of chronology was the source of all science Mexicans and regulate the sequence of all the religious ceremonies and festivals. In fact, the whole mechanism of the Nahua life rested on her. Type of division and counting the time shown in the calendar of the Nahua, was also found among the tribes of the Maya in the Yucatan and Guatemala, and the Zapotec tribe on the border between the Nahua and Maya. It is not known which of these tribes first to use it, but the calendar is a symbol of the Zapotec, reflecting the influence and Nahua, and Maya, and it suggests that from him and developed a system of chronology of these people. With the same probability to prove that art and Nahua, and Maya was an offshoot of the Zapotec art, because it is found to the features of both. However, this situation simply illustrates the fact that the border tribes, began to build their civilization in a relatively later period eetestvennym way borrow artistic principles of the two larger tribes, in whose surroundings were. Nahua and Mayan calendars are likely to have evolved from a system of chronology of a civilized people, which undoubtedly existed in the Mexican plateau to the arrival later Nahua tribes and who casually called the Toltecs.

Mexican year

Mexican year was a cycle of 365 days without any additions to match it with the solar year, or other amendments. Over time, he almost lost its value due to lack of seasonal extra hours outside the solar year. In addition, the high priests and rulers for their convenience changed the course of many celebrations and important events. Nexiuhilpilitztli
Mexicans ("Compound years") consisted of 52 years and was in two separate cycles: one cycle of 52 years, 365 days in each, and the other — of the 73 groups of 260 days each. The first was, of course, the solar year and covered 18 periods of 20 days each, which the Spanish chroniclers called "month", also it included five nemontemi
(Unlucky days). Those days were not inserted into the calendar, but were included in the year and just went beyond the division, on a twenty segments. Cycle of 73 groups of 260 days each, divided into trinadtsatidnevnye segments, called "the cycle of birth."

Lunar counting method

Uncivilized people, almost without exception calculate the time period between the full and waning moon, as defined by the full of the moon, and the twenty-day period, as it is found, is the basis of counting time the Mexicans who named him cempohualli. Every part of his day represents a character, such as "home", "snake", "wind", etc. Each cempohualli
was divided into four time period of five days each, which early Spanish writers called "weeks", and these periods were distinguished symbol denoting the third day. These were the days of the year, regardless of the length. The very year designated by the name of the third day of the week, with which it began. It was inevitable that the names of the twenty days of the Mexican "month" four (Colli (Home) tochtli (Rabbit) acatl (Reed) and tecpati
(Flint) will always consistently repeated because of the high incidence of these days in the solar year, Mexico. Four years is a year the sun. During nemontemi (Unlucky days) none worked, as these days are portends misfortune and bad.

We saw that in the days of the calendar year came one after another continuously from year to year. But the religious authorities had their own method of chronology, and did a year always started on the first day of their calendar, and no matter what character meant that day in the secular calendar.

Group of years

As already stated, the years were combined into groups. Thirteen years were one xiumalpilli (Ligament), and the four of them formed a thirteen-year period nexiuhilpilitztli
(Complete bunch of years). Thus, each year was considered a double aspect: first as a single period of time, and secondly as part of "the year of the sun." And they are numbered and referred to in such a way that each year, the chain had 52 years of special characteristics.

Fear of the last day

At the end of each period pyatidesyatidvuhletnego terrible fear of the end of the world covered the Mexicans. The statutory period of time, which was considered the designated divine authority. And it was intended that after the completion of one of these cycles pyatidesyatidvuhletnih time on earth will stop and the universe will be destroyed. For some time before the ceremony toxilmolpilia
(Binding years) Mexicans were in a depressed state, and the wicked — in terrible fear. As soon as the dawn of the first day and fifty-three, people start to stare intently into the constellation of the Pleiades, because if it passes overhead, then over time will continue, and the world will get a reprieve. Tried to appease the gods or to energize the offering of human sacrifices still alive chest which by friction fueled the fire, and the flames ignited so devoured the heart and the body of the victim. When the planets, the hoped-for, crossed the zenith point, people rejoiced loudly, and the home, which remained cold and dead, once again lit the sacred fire, which consumed the sacrifice. Humanity is being saved for another term.

The cycle of birth

As we said, the cycle of birth consisted of 260 days. Originally it was a lunar cycle of 13 days, and he wore the names of 13 moons. He was part of the secular calendar, which, however, had nothing to do, since it was used only for religious purposes. Later lunar names forgotten, and instead began to use the numbers from 1 to 13.

Nahua language

Nahua language reflects a very low level of culture. This is a general measure of the level of thinking of the people, and if we looked at the Nahua civilization through their criteria, we would have to ask for forgiveness for the conclusion that they have not yet emerged from barbarism. But we must remember that at the time of the Nahua conquest, the Spaniards have learned over the fruit of an ancient civilization that awaited them when you see a plateau of Mexico, but retained their own primitive language. The older and more cultured people, as were their predecessors, probably spoke more polished dialect of the same language. But its impact on gross Chichimeca and Aztecs was obviously small. Mexican language, like most languages of the Americas, one of the "incorporative" type: it unites all related words in a sentence in a conglomerate or a compound word, merging the individual words of which it is composed, together with the changes in their shapes and thus linking them together to express all in one word. Immediately becomes apparent that the system was extremely awkward and led to the creation of words and names of the wild-looking and sounding. In the story about opening the Spanish America, written by local chronicler of Chalco Chimalpainom, born in 1579, we have, for example, this passage: "Is-chiucnauhxihuiti inic onen quilantimanca Espana camo niman ic yuh ca omacoc ihuelitiliztli inic niman ye chiuhcnauhxiuhtica,in oncan ohualla ».
This passage is selected at random, it is a common example of the literary language of Mexicans XVI century. In free translation of its meaning is: "For nine years he[1] in vain to remain in Spain. Yes, nine years he waited there help from influential people. " Clumsiness and awkwardness of language could hardly be better illustrated by pointing out that chiucnauhxihuitl means "nine years" quilant i manca— "He remained," and otasos ihuelitiliztli— "He got help." It must be remembered that the first sample was composed of Mexican man, who had the advantage of getting education in Spain, and put it in literary form. What was the language spoken by the Mexicans before the Spanish conquest, you can see the errors in grammar forgiving old Spanish missionaries, whose greatest victory was the fact that they have mastered a language for the benefit of their faith.

Science Aztecs

Science Aztecs was probably one of the most exciting facets of their civilization. Like all peoples in the semi-wild stage of development, it was a mostly astrology and divination. The first was based on the amazing system of chronology, and with it the priests or those who are placed separately for the study of the stars, pretended that they could predict the future of newborn babies and everything that happens to the dead in the afterlife. They did this by evaluating the influence of the planets and other bodies to each other, to give the overall result. Their art of divination was that in order to see the signs in the singing and flying birds, look like grains, feathers and entrails of animals, through which they confidently predicted the events of both the public and private character.

The system of government Nahua

We can say that the boundary of the Aztec Empire, given their dependent state embracing modern Mexico, southern Veracruz and Guerrero.

Among the civilized nations of this vast space the dominant form of government was an absolute monarchy, although in some smaller communities exist republic. The law of succession, as well as the Scottish Celts, ordered to the throne, was elected chief of the living brother of the deceased monarch, and if he died, they had to be older nephew. But incompetent people are almost always rejected by the voters, although the choice was limited to one family. Usually elected ruler and military prowess, and knowledge in politics and the spiritual realm. Indeed, the Mexican monarch was almost always a man of the highest culture, artistically subtle, and the unfortunate Montezuma was an example of the true ruler of Nahua. Advice to the monarch was one of the people who elected him, and other people who have had weight in the state. He ruled the provinces, was in charge of financial affairs of the country and other issues of national importance. Know took all the top military, judicial and religious positions. In every city and every province sent judges who exercise criminal and civil proceedings and whose opinion abolished even the decision of the monarch himself. Daily activities were decided by smaller officials, and officials of lower rank are performed something like policing surveillance families.

Mode of life

Gen. Nahua was a specific mixture of simplicity and demonstrative. The life of people was a hard work in the fields, and in the cities they worked hard, doing various crafts, among them the construction, processing, manufacturing clothing and other articles of bright feathers and armor of tightly quilted material, jewelery and small goods. In markets crowded with vendors of flowers, fruit, fish and vegetables. Tobacco is widely used by men of all walks of life. At feasts, women could attend, even though they sat at separate tables. Entertainment first class there were great splendor, variety of dishes was significant and included venison, turkey, and many small birds, fish, plenty of vegetables and baking for seasoning sauces were served with a delicate flavor. All this was served in dishes of gold and silver. Pulque, a fermented drink made from the agave plant, was ubiquitous. Cannibalism usually indulged in ritual activities, and it is surrounded by such gastronomic delights that became even more disgusting in the eyes of Europeans. It has been said that this repulsive custom practiced solely by the tenets of the Nahua religion, which prescribed to kill the slaves or prisoners of war in the name of god and eat them. The meaning of this was that the consumers acquire a unity with that deity incarnate. But there is good reason to suspect that the Nahua, devoid of meat large domestic animals, intentionally engaged in cannibalism. The older people, who lived up to them in these parts do not seem keen on such terrible meal.

A mysterious book of Toltec

A work of literary creation Nahua, whose disappearance is surrounded deepest secret is Teo-Amoxtli
(The Divine Book), which is referred to some chroniclers as a product of the ancient Toltecs. Mexican chronicler Itstlilshochitl claims that it was written by the sage of Tetskoko, some Uematsinom, around the end of XVII century, and it describes the journey from Asia Nahua, their laws, practices and customs, their religious dogma, science and art. In 1838, Baron de Waldeck in his book «Voyage Pittoresque»
claims that he owned it, and the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg identified it with the "Mayan Dresden Codex" and other native manuscripts. Bustamante also states that amamatini (Chroniclers) Tetskoko was a copy of the capture of their city. But this seems to be only speculation, and if Teo-Amoxtli ever existed, that in general is not without probability, then it's probably never been seen by Europeans.

Local historian

One of the most interesting is a Mexican historian Don Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, Blood Tetskoko of royal descent. He has written two major works, entitled "History of Chichimeca" and «Relaciones», collection of historical and semi-historical events. His curse or a blessing was pronounced tendency for miracles, and he comes over so much the stories that might make us think the ancient Toltec civilization or Nahua most outstanding and impressive ever existed. His descriptions Tetskoko, even very bright, clearly represent an outpouring of romantic and idealistic mind, which, subject to his patriotism, wished to launder the country where he was born, the shameful stain of savagery and prove its equality with the great peoples of antiquity. For this we do not want to quarrel with him. But we have to be alert and not take for granted any right of his statements, until we find him in the pages of the indisputable proof of a less biased and more credible author.

Topography Nahua

The geography of Mexico is not as familiar to Europeans as the geography of various countries on the continent, so that the reader does not happen in Mexico and does not know the spelling of her puzzling names, easy to get lost in them and in a careful reading of a book like this, to be in a hopeless maze guesses as to the exact location of the most famous historical center of Mexico. A couple of minutes needed to read this paragraph, enlighten him in this regard, and will save us from further confusion. On the map, he will see that the city of Mexico, or Tenochtitlan (the local name), was located on an island in Lake Tetskoko. Now the lake has dried up somewhat, and modern Mexico City is at a distance from him. Tetskoko, the second largest city, lies to the north-east of the lake and a few more isolated. Others pueblos (Cities) are grouped on the south or west coast. To the north of Tetskoko located Teotihuacan, the sacred city of the gods. To the south-east of Mexico City is Tlashkallan or Tlaxcala, the city that helped Cortes in the war against the Mexicans and the inhabitants of which were mortal enemies of the central government Nahua. To the north is the sacred city of Cholula and Tula, or Tollan.

Tribal Nahua

Acquainted with the location of the Nahua cities, we can now look at the map, which gives us an idea of the geographical distribution of different tribes Nahua and which does not require an explanation.

History Nahua

A brief historical overview or summary of what is known about the history of Nahua Besides simple stories, will further help the reader understand the mythology of the Mexicans. Since the beginning of the period of residence on the basis of the Nahua of Agriculture has developed a system of feudal rule, and at different periods in the history of this country, some cities or groups of cities were the supreme power. After the "Toltec" period, which we have already described and discussed, we can see at the helm of the supreme authority, the people akoluanov which of their cities and Cholula Tollantsinko ruled much of the country. Later Cholula has support alliance with Tlaxcala and Huexotzinco.

Bloodless battle

Saying, "How many countries, so many customs" is nowhere to be better illustrated than by the curious annual struggle between warriors Mexico and Tlaxcala. Once a year they met in the pre-conditioned by the field and enter the fray, with no intention to kill each other, but to take prisoners for sacrifice on the altars of the gods of war. Soldier grabbed his opponent and trying to come out the winner. Separate groups desperately pulled and pulled one another, trying to grasp the extremity of the accident, who first knock to drag him into the prison, or to save it. Deprived of liberty tlashkaltekskogo soldier brought to Mexico City in the cell and placed first at the stone pillar to which he was tied by one leg chain or belt. Then he was given a light weapon, more like a toy than a warrior outfit, and put in front of him one of the most famous Mexican warriors. If he happened to win six of these formidable foes, he was let loose. But just as he was wounded, he immediately dragged to the sacrificial altar, where he pulled out of his chest and gave his heart to Huitzilopochtli, the implacable god of war.

In about 1384 BC. e. tlashkalteki finally secured his position by defeating tekpanekam of Huexotzinco, and then fade into obscurity, except for this annual battle with the Mexicans.

Lake City

Now our attention require communities grouped around various lakes in the Valley of Mexico. More than four dozen such rapidly growing communities flourished during the conquest of Mexico. The best known of them were those who settled along the shores of Lake Tetskoko. These cities were grouped around the two centers, and Atskapotsalko Tetskoko those involved in a bitter feud, culminating in the end, the complete defeat Atskapotsalko. We can say that this event began a real history of Mexico. Those cities that have become allies Tetskoko eventually captured the entire area from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean.

Tetskoko

If, according to some authorities, Tetskoko was originally close to the people Otomi, in the later years of the lake all public entities, he was the typical city Nahua. But some other communities, whose power was nearly as great as the power Tetskoko, assist the city in achieving the dominant position. Among these cities was Shaltokan, the city-state, no doubt based Otomi people, which was located at the north end of the lake. As we have learned of the allegations Ixtlilxochitl, chronicler of Tetskoko, his hometown is on the cutting edge of civilization Nahua came here during the Spanish. And if it is at the moment almost obeyed Mexico City (Tenochtitlan), this does not mean that he was lower in the field of handicrafts.

Tekpaneki

Tekpaneki who lived in Tlacopan, Koyouakane Uitsilopocho and were also typical of the Nahua. This name, as we have explained, indicates that in each village had its own tecpan (Home of the leader), and does not represent the people. Their state was probably founded around the XII century, but claims that he is not less than one thousand five hundred years. This people have formed a sort of buffer state between the Otomi in the north and other Nahua tribes in the south.

Aztecs

The threat from the north side of the Otomi became acute when tekpaneki received reinforcements in the form of the Aztec tribe kind of Nahua, who came on their own, of Aztlan (Country waders). The word "Aztec" means "people of herons," and this has led to speculation that they came from Chihuahua, where herons are found in abundance. There is doubt as to the origin of the Aztec Nahuatl relatives, but they do not have sufficient justification, since the names of ancient Aztec chiefs and kings, no doubt, the origin of the Nahua. Arriving in Mexico, the nation was at a very low level of culture, and probably not far away from the savages. We have already stated in general terms, some of the legends relating to the arrival of the Aztec earth Anaukaka or the valley of Mexico, but their true origin is questionable and it is very possible that they came from the north, as well as other Nahua immigrants before them, and how to this day do Indians Apaches. According to their own figures, by the way, they stopped for a while in a few points, and the leaders Koluakana turned them into slaves. But in captivity, they have shown themselves as aggressive, which were released and came to Chapultepec, who left because of his differences with shaltokanekami. When they came to the land, populated tekpanekami, we were to pay tribute, but, nevertheless, they are so prosperous that the village, which tekpaneki allowed them to build on the lake, soon turned into a rapidly growing community, and among them were the nobility tekpanekskoy are leaders.

Aztecs as allies

With the Aztecs tekpaneki greatly expanded their territorial possessions. They added to the empire city after city, and their allies, after all, invaded the Otomi, which quickly subdued. Those cities that were based on the outskirts akoluanami Tetskoko also joined with the intention tekpanekam rid of the yoke of the Chichimeca, the brunt of which they feel for yourself. Chichimecas or tetskokantsy had violent resistance, and for a time tekpanekov independence was at stake. But they eventually won, but was defeated and Tetskoko given Aztecs to plunder.

New States

Up to this time the Aztecs paid tribute Atskapotsalko, but now, having become stronger thanks to the success in the recent conflict, began to refuse to pay it, and asked for permission to build an aqueduct from the lake to supply water to the city. This tekpaneki they refused, and was applied to the Mexico City policy of isolation, his goods were embargoed, and communication with its population was forbidden. There was a war in which tekpaneki defeated, suffering heavy losses. After this event, which can be attributed to 1428, the Aztecs quickly began to make progress, and their ascent to the heights of power in all of the Valley of Mexico was almost certain. Teaming with Tetskoko and Tlacopan Mexicans subdued many countries far outside the valley and to the reign of Montezuma I pushed its borders almost to the borders of the modern republic. In the footsteps of the soldier was a merchant and commercial expansion of the Aztecs began to compete with their military glory. Being smart traders, they were ruthless in collecting tribute from the countries they conquered, producing goods from raw materials that are dependent on them, cities paid tribute. These goods are then sold beyond their tribes. Mexico has become the main market of the empire, as well as its political center. Such was the state of affairs when the Spaniards came to Anahuac. About their appearance bitterly lamented by some historians as it accelerated the destruction of the West of Eden. But no matter how bad it was their rule, it was probably a very mild compared to the cruel and insatiable power Aztecs over their miserable vassals. In the Spanish conquered provinces saw tyrannical despotism and belief, membership of which was so diabolical that it casts a dark shadow over the lives of the people. All this they replaced the more lenient system of vassalage and serious religious services more enlightened clergy.

Lewis Spence, Inca and Mayan Myths

Category: Mystery stories

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