Classical, that is recognized by modern science version of "Mongol invasion of Russia", "Mongol yoke" and "liberation from the tyranny of the Horde" is sufficiently well known, but it is useful to again refresh her memory. So … In the beginning of the XIII century Mongolian steppes bold and energetic fucking tribal leader named Genghis Khan amassed a huge army of nomads, welded iron discipline, and set out to conquer the world, "to the last of the sea."
Having won the nearest neighbors, and then capturing the China, the mighty Mongol-Tatar hordes rolled westward. After about five thousand kilometers, the Mongols destroyed the state of Khorezm, then Georgia, in 1223, reached the southern outskirts of Russia, where he defeated the army of the Russian princes in the Battle of the Kalka River. In winter 1237 the Mongol-Tatars invaded Russia already with all his innumerable army, burned and destroyed many Russian cities, and in 1241, pursuant to the covenants of Genghis Khan tried to conquer Western Europe — invaded Poland, the Czech Republic, in the south-west reached coast of the Adriatic Sea, but turned back because they were afraid to leave in your rear ruined, but still dangerous for them to Russia. And it began the Tatar-Mongol yoke. Huge Mongol Empire, stretching from Beijing to the Volga, ominous shadow loomed over Russia.
Mongol khans Russian princes were given labels to rule, many times attacked Rus, to plunder and rob, repeatedly killed at the Golden Horde, the Russian princes. It is necessary to clarify that the Mongols were many Christians, but because some Russian princes tied with Horde lords pretty close, friendly relationship, becoming even their sister. With the Mongol troops other kiyazya kept as "table" (ie, on the throne), resolved their purely domestic problems and even a tribute to the Golden Horde were collected in the home. Getting stronger with time, Russia began to show their teeth. In 1380 Great Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy defeated the Tartar Khan Mamai his Tatars, and a century later, in the so-called "standing on the Ugra" converged forces of Grand Prince Ivan III and the Tartar Khan Ahmad. Opponents long camped on opposite sides of the Ugra river, then Ahmad Khan, realizing at last that the Russian has become stronger and has a good chance to lose the battle, gave the order to retreat, and led his hordes to the Volga. These events and are considered the "end of the Mongol-Tatar yoke."
Today has accumulated a lot of information indicating that the so-called "Mongol yoke" is a fallacy today historians as the Tatar-Mongols had not come from the nomadic peoples of Asia, and Russian. Mongoloids Mongols were considered only in the 17th century probably by deliberate falsification historians Peter I. Evidence that the Tatar-Mongols — Russian, Next.
Sources of the "yoke"
The term "Mongol yoke" but does not appear in Russian chronicles. All so-called "destruction and suffering," the Russian people from the Mongols are described in the next record (Heart of strong damask. Collection of Russian Chronicles and monuments of literature.)
Oh, bright light and beautifully decorated with the Russian land! Much beauty glorified you: a lot of fame lakes, rivers and other sources of locally, mountains, steep hills, tall oak, clean fields, marvelous beasts, various birds, countless great city, nice villages, gardens, monasteries, temples of God, and the princes of the terrible, nobles and honest lords many. All you filled, and the Russian land, the Orthodox Christian faith!
From here to the Ugric and to the Poles, to the Czechs, the Czechs to Yatvingians from Yatvingians to Lithuanians, to the Germans, the Germans to Karelians from Karelia to Ustyug, home filthy toymichi and for Breathing sea from the sea to Bulgaria, the Bulgarians to Burtases from Burtases to Cheremisses from Cheremisses to mordtsy — all with bozheyu was conquered Christian people, these countries are filthy Grand Prince Vsevolod obeyed his father Yuri, Prince of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh of his grandfather, who Cumans their small children frightened. And Lithuanians from the swamp to its light does not appear, and the Hungarians fortified stone walls, iron gates of their cities, to their great Vladimir is not conquered, and the Germans were happy that they are far away — the blue sea. Burtases Cheremysi, vyada and Mordvinians bortnichali the Grand Duke Vladimir. And the Emperor Tsar grad Manuel fear great gifts sent him to the Grand Duke Vladimir Constantinople had not picked up.
And in those days — the great Yaroslav, and to Vladimir, and until this Yaroslav, and to his brother George, Duke of Vladimir, misfortune struck the Christians and the Holy Virgin Monastery of the Caves lit trash.
This text is called the "Word of the destruction of the Russian Land" and is not a fragment surviving works of the Mongol invasion. But the text was too poor, and it did not discern any foreign invasion.
Part of this document destroyed (perhaps later Romanowski historians create falsification). However, this does not say that, and in the continuation of the document deals with the capture of Russia Mongols. And the word "pagan" may be referred to as peasants, pagans, and just the neighboring peoples.
Are there any doubt that the people who attacked the Rus was just Mongols-Asians. For example, there are doubts Mongoloid appearance chapter nomad Genghis Khan set out on a fairly "historically young" portrait that is being kept in Taiwan. Ancient sources depict Genghis high, long-bearded, with a "lynx", zelenozheltymi eyes. Persian historian Rashidad-Din (a contemporary of "Mongol" wars) reported that children in the family of Genghis Khan "were produced mostly with gray eyes and blond." G.E.Grumm Grzhimailo mentions "Mongol" the legend that the ancestor Genghis Boduanchar knee in the ninth — a blond and blue-eyed! And the same Rashid al-Din writes further that the self is the generic name Borjigin assigned Boduanchara descendants, just Grey-Eyed means!
By the way, just look drawn and Baty — blond, light-bearded, blue-eyed … The author of this all his life lived not too far away from the places where supposedly "created his innumerable army of Genghis Khan." By the way, in any language Mongolian group no name "Bat" or "Batu." But the "Bat" is in Bashkir, and "Basti", as already mentioned — in the Polovtsian. So the name itself Chingizova son was definitely not from Mongolia.
Interestingly, the writing of his glorious ancestor Genghis Khan, his people in "real" modern Mongolia? A disappointing: in the XIII century Mongolian alphabet did not exist. Everything chronicles the Mongols were not written before the XVII century. Consequently, any mention of the fact that Genghis Khan and really went out of Mongolia, will be no more than three hundred years later, written retelling of ancient legends … which, I think, liked the "real" Mongolia — certainly very pleased to suddenly find out that your ancestors, it turns out, once passed with fire and sword until the Adriatic …
Zzagadochnoe in the fact that no contemporary of the events can not find the Mongols. They simply do not — haired, raskosoglazyh people, those anthropologists and referred to as "Mongoloids." We managed to trace only two tracks certainly come from Central Asia Mongoloid tribes — and Dzhalai Barlasov.'s Just they do not come to Russia in the army of Genghis, and in the Seven Rivers (near present-day Kazakhstan.) there in the second half of the XIII century dzhalairy migrated to this region of Khujand and Barlas — River Valley Kashkadarya. Semirechye they came from to some extent in the sense otyurechennymi language. At the new site, they are already so were Türkicized that XIV., at least in the second half, as their mother tongue Turkish language "(from Labor BD Grekov and A. Jakubowski," Russia and the Golden Horde "(1950). As and there was no assimilation Mongoloids the Russian people, which was manifested in 300 years!
Since 80-ies of the XVI century, begins purposeful movement ineostanovimoe Russian east of the Urals — "walking meeting between the sun." It would be logical to assume that in this way thousands of kilometers of Cossack explorers stumble at least some traces of the great Mongol Khans empire stretching from the east coast of China to the borders of Poland …
The slightest trace of the empire is not! Somewhere vanished city had disappeared magnificent "Yamskoy path" of a thousand miles by which allegedly flew to the Karakoram runners from Russia. Not the slightest trace of material at least something resembling the state. Moreover, local people somehow does not know, does not remember the great capital of Karakorum, once flourished in the Mongolian steppe, or of the great emperor, whose authority extended over half of the world supposedly. of Manchuria, the ruling in Northern China, remember and know well — is a concrete, familiar evil foe still suiting raids. Batu But no reason to Genghis Khan can not remember … What is interesting, anywhere from the Urals to Lake Baikal Cossacks did not meet even the similarity of the state or city! Only "Kuchumova kingdom" in the current territory of the Tyumen region resembles the embryo state, and its capital Isker, small fortification, with the greatest stretch of the imagination can go out of town.
Curiously, all the ancient miniatures Tatar-Mongols are indicated with Russian appearance. At lower miniatures "Standing on the Ugra" and "Taking Kozelsk" appearance attackers not Mongoloid.
Interestingly, the Western miniature "death of Genghis Khan" falling out of the saddle Khan depicted wearing a helmet, it is reminiscent of the helmet Boleslav, — then these were in Poland, and in Russia and throughout Europe. Way, almost all Russian old miniatures depict " Tatars, "which in appearance and armament downright impossible to distinguish from the Russian guards.
Let's leave aside the question of the composition — not because Duke killed Tatar and Tatar duke image should be somewhat different. Look to the foot trodden down of the noble duke "Tatar." It Russian face, Russian coat, Russian bushy beard, a Russian hat, which subsequently were archers. Carrying a "Tartar" — not a curve and narrow Central Asian sword and weapon called "Elmanov" , at the time of the Turks take over the Russian. Sabres this type, changing, long operated by the Russian cavalry, even in Paul's day 1. Moreover, a similar weapon was used by the Germans and Italians (cleaver type "falchion", manufactured in Brescia in the XVI century .).
Source: "New in History: discoveries, facts, secret and overt"
Category: Mystery stories