Gods of Egypt

The gods of Egypt in their evolution have been several historical stages. Initially, the hierarchy of the gods every time I get re-orientation depending on what area to move the capital of ancient Egypt, and with the sun — Pa — identified key local deities. In the end of "socialization" of Egyptian gods reduced to empower the most important of them (Amen-Ra, Osiris, Horus) "regalia" Pharaoh, ruling the world or in the world of living dead. Other gods become their servants or relatives.

It was connected with the centralization of power in the hands of the ruling pharaoh and identification with it two major agricultural deities — Osiris and Horus. With Gore (the god of fertility) was identified during the life of Pharaoh, with Osiris (lord of the underworld) after death. Ancient Egypt was developed agrarian country, because it is agricultural cults and the needs of the state association determines the development and subsequent deformation of religion in Egypt.

Osiris — one of the main deities of the Egyptian pantheon, the god of the productive forces of nature, and later revered as the king of the underworld, in the existing mythological canon, the eldest son of Geb and Nut, brother Seth, Isis (who was both his wife), and Nephthys. Initially identified, apparently, with the waters of the Nile flood, carrying life and fertility. Osiris was later proclaimed the fourth king of Egypt, having received authority from Hebe. According to legend, he taught men agriculture and handicrafts, ie enabled them to go from barbarism to civilization. Osiris is associated with one of the most important for the Egyptian culture mythological cycles, telling about his treacherous murder committed by Seth, and subsequent resurrection of the god Isis and Horus. Gore handing power over Egypt, Osiris then becomes the king of the underground kingdom of the dead. Osiris was worshiped throughout Egypt and far beyond.

Isis — the goddess of fertility, water and wind, "great charm", "Mrs. volhovany", in the established canon of the mythological daughter of Geb and Nut, sister and wife of Osiris, sister Nephthys, Seth, mother of Horus, one of the most revered goddesses in Egypt. Her cult was in the Hellenistic age is widespread in other states. Isis — one of the main characters of the myths associated with the name of Osiris. According to the myth. Seth, the god of the desert and the storm head ass, kills his brother Osiris and scattered body parts on all nomam Egypt. Isis, the wife and sister of Osiris, gathers them together (symbol of the union of Egypt and the collection of taxes) and buries her husband, who now becomes the king of the underworld. In later tradition, it is perceived as the ideal faithful wife and loving mother.

Gore (Chorus) (literally, "height", "sky") — one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt, the sun god, usually is embodied in the form of a falcon or a falcon-headed man, sometimes — a winged sun. It was believed that his magic power — a source of soil fertility. Of all the incarnations of the most important are Mountain Gore — the son of Isis and Osiris. Horus, son of Isis, — one of the main protagonists in the events surrounding the death and resurrection of Osiris — he wins the murderer of Osiris, Seth and Osiris back to life. Gore succeeds power of Osiris in Egypt, protector of the pharaohs. After the death of the pharaoh was identified with Osiris, and the new — with Gore. Horus name is included in the five-membered title of pharaoh.

One of the Moon-god, the god of wisdom and numeracy, "lord of the Truth," the judge in the world of the gods, the patron of scribes and judges. He was portrayed as a man with the head of an ibis, holding in a hand mosaic scribe. As the god of the moon, He is the creator of the calendar, according to his will a year divided by months and years, he recorded the dates of birth and death, and also maintained an annals. He played a significant role in the cult of the dead — delivers each of the deceased in the afterlife realm, and also recorded the result of the weighing of the heart in the balance of Osiris.

Ma'at — the personification of truth and order (the Act), was considered the wife of the god Thoth. Image of Ma'at — a woman sitting on the ground with an ostrich feather attached to the head. Maat is mentioned in the "Pyramid Texts", but its value increases at the end of the Old Kingdom, when it announced the daughter of Ra. It was important in the funeral cult — the image of Maat was used as an emblem of the court of Osiris.

Anubis — God is the protector and patron of the dead, and his zoomorphic incarnation — sprawled on his belly black jackal or dog, and a man with the head of a jackal or dog. In the era of the Old Kingdom ("Pyramid Texts"), Anubis was worshiped as the chief god of the dead, but during the Middle and New Kingdoms, he lost his place to Osiris, and he became the god Osiris from the environment. In the realm of the dead, Anubis brings soul of the deceased in the Hall of Two Truths, where the trial of her, his heart weighs in the balance. Anubis plays an important role in the implementation of the burial ritual, in the process of embalming and mummification.

Amon (literally, "hidden", "undercover") — the patron god of Thebes, God the Creator, the head of the Theban triad, which with him were his wife — the sky goddess Mut and son — moon god Khonsu. Since the beginning of the XII dynasty cult of Amun cult displaces native Theban god Montu. Later Amon is identified with the sun god Ra and his cult spread throughout Egypt. He proclaimed the first king of Egypt, "the king of the gods", "king of the two lands", the name may be in a cartouche. The ruling Pharaoh proclaimed son of Amun-Ra. With Mr. Amo-bound nation-wide celebrations, such as holidays Valley when Amon attends royal necropolis and the sanctuary of the reigning king, or the festival of Opet, when Amon went from Karnak to Luxor. The largest and most ancient temple of Amun — Karnak temple at Thebes.

Atum — the ancient god of Heliopolis was the god-creator, head Heliopole Ennead. Usually depicted as a man with a double crown on his head and was called the "Lord of the Two Lands", ie Upper and Lower Egypt, which emphasizes its essential relationship to Pharaoh. As follows from Heliopole theogony, Atum created himself, embodied in the image of the primitive hill, and then impregnating herself, gave birth to the god Shu and Tefnut feminine complement, from which then took the other gods Ennead. Was early identified with the god Ra, whose cult has replaced the cult of Atum in Heliopolis.

Nephthys (Greek), Nebethet (Eg., literally, "the mistress of the house") — the younger sister of Isis, involved her in all funeral rites and mysteries associated with Osiris. Depicted as a woman with a hieroglyph on the head, consistent with its name. Seth's wife was considered, although the text makes this relationship is not ephemeral, almost absent.

Nut — goddess of the sky, the sister and wife of the god Geb the earth, the daughter of Shu and Tefnut, the mother of Osiris, Seth, Isis, Nephthys, one of the goddesses Heliopole Ennead. Just like Geb, had no special places of worship, but has been involved in a lot of myths. Consent of one of the myths Nut produces daily Sun-Pa and the stars and every day to eat them. When her husband Geb quarreled with Nut-eating children, the god Shu separated them, lifting Nut up, and Shu leaving the bottom. In one of the fragments of "Pyramid Texts" Nut as the wife of Geb is called "Queen of Lower Egypt" and later, she participates in the funeral cult, lifting spirits of the dead to heaven and protecting them in the tomb.

Ra — the sun god, one of the most revered gods of Ancient Egypt. Initially, the creator-god in theogony-statistical model, the priests of Heliopolis, but during the reign of Dynasty V, originating from Heliopolis, the cult of Ra spread throughout Egypt. Ra is identified with the more ancient Heliopole Creator God Atum and declared the father of the gods, creator of the world and people. Later Ra was "one set" with Horus (Ra-Garahti), with Amun (Amun-Ra) and some other deities.

Seth (Seth, Sutekh) — in the established canon of the mythological son of Geb and Nut, the brother of Osiris, Isis and Nephthys. Seth was usually depicted as a man with the head of an ass. During the Old Kingdom, along with the god Horus was considered the protector of Ra from the serpent Apophis, and patron of the pharaohs, which was manifested in "Pyramid Texts", and in the titles of some of the Pharaonic Dynasty II. But in parallel with this idea existed (probably later) about Seth as an evil deity, the god of the desert, treacherous murderer of Osiris, a view that then becomes the primary.

Sekhmet (Sahmet, Sekhmet) (lit. "mighty") — the wife of the god Ptah of Memphis, usually depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness. Warlike goddess, protectress of the pharaoh in battle, to destroy his enemies, his flame breath. As a healing goddess of the sample, patronage doctors who believe its priests. Identified with Tefnut and Hathor.

Seshat (feminine of "sesh" — "scribe") — the goddess of letters, daughter or sister (sometimes the wife) of the god Thoth. Her image — a woman with a seven-pointed star on his head. Seshat is often performed as a Person of other goddesses — Hathor, Nephthys. On the leaves of the tree, "Shed" Seshat recorded in life and reign of the pharaoh. Also considered the patroness of the construction work. Originally a religious center Seshat was apparently Mr. Sais, but then the main place of worship was its city Hermopolis.

Tefnut — in Heliopole cosmogony sister and wife of Shu, the daughter of Ra-Atum, the mother of Geb and Nut. Its zoomorphic incarnation was a lioness. Tefnut was worshiped as the daughter of Ra, and at the same time as the eye, shining on the forehead of Ra, rising above the horizon, and destroys it Arago. Identified with Hathor. Known myth about leaving hurt Hut chord Tefnut from Egypt and then returning it back and connected with this event religious festival that takes place during the flooding of the Nile.

Hathor (Hathor) (literally, "house of Horus", ie, "the sky") — the goddess of the sky in ancient myths presented as a celestial cow that gave birth to the sun. Its zoomorphic — cow or a woman with horns (and sometimes ears) cows. Hathor was considered his wife Behdetskogo Mountain. She was later identified with the goddesses Sekhmet and Tefnut and revered in the lion's appearance. Hathor-Tefnut considered the Eye of Ra and is associated with a lot of myths. Later, Hathor was worshiped as the goddess of love, music, festivals and ancient Greeks identified with Aphrodite.

Shu — god of the air, filling the space between heaven and earth, the spouse Tefnut, father of Geb and Nut. He was a Heliopole Ennead. Special temples in honor of Shu is not fixed, known only to his place of worship at Heliopolis. Ennead — nine in the first gods theogonic system, the Heliopolis: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Axle rice, Isis, Seth, Nephthys. Later similar Enna-water (or octad) emerged in other cities of ancient Egypt.

Category: Mystery stories

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