The reform of 1861, which liberated farmers Russian Empire from serfdom, was half-hearted, did not accept neither the landowners nor the farmers. At the same time, and the excitement began on the outskirts of the empire. Particularly alarming was the situation in the west — in Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian lands. Vospryanuvshaya spirit of the Polish nobility felt that the right moment had come, and began to prepare the uprising, counting with the help of Britain and France to return within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1792. The situation in 1863, the Russian Empire in the west was difficult. In the churches were prayers calling for an uprising. In Warsaw, Russian occupants, as soldiers and officers insulted and pelted with stones. They burned books in Russian and German languages. In Italy and Austria (Galicia) were deployed training camps for insurgents. Coordinating uprising centers were based in London and Paris.
Which began in January 1863 in Warsaw and the Polish Kingdom revolt rapidly spread to the Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Latvian countryside. The rebels were different last ruthlessness — were killed by Russian officials, soldiers and officers, their bodies disfigured torture, cut off ears, noses, stabbed, gouged out his eyes. Pillaged and burned Orthodox monasteries and temples were abused by monks and priests. The atrocities were happening and in relation to the peasants — as the Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Latvian, and to his Polish. Killed for disobedience and unwillingness to participate in the uprising not only peasant men, and women, and even children. From among the rebels for these massacres were appointed special executioners.
In Vilna, one of the managers of the uprising was Vincent Constantine Kalinowski. About Belarusians he never read, and I would very much was perhaps puzzled, if I learned that later Belarusian historians call it a diminutive vernacular naming castes. True, he wrote a number of leaflets on local Belarusian dialects, but all these papers are imbued with thoughts of restoring the Commonwealth, and in them, the mantra is repeated: "God save Poland!" Kalinowski said, "The one true faith — is Uniate and Orthodox — the belief dog, schism, which Russian authorities have imposed the force. " He never hid his own hatred of all things Russian. Before his own death in 1864, Kalinowski managed to convey the will of the "Letter from the gallows", in which he wrote the follow: "Only people you zazhivesh happy when Muscovite over you will not be."
Rise of 1863 , it was destroyed. Not true, and hope to see you soon rebelled gentry support Britain and France — are limited only to the harsh notes and protection of the rights of the defeated next gentry.
In Poland, the 150th anniversary of the uprising of 1863 is given at the moment of particular importance. About tortured and killed in all of this is the Polish peasants and committed atrocities against them, of course, no one mentions. Celebrations on the occasion of the anniversary of the uprising 1863 were opened January 16, 2013 at the presidential palace in Warsaw in particular the participation of the President of Poland Bronislaw Komorowski. A very "commemorative" events will be held throughout the year, with the participation of the Polish Sejm, the Senate, the Ministry of Defence and the huge number of public organizations. Scheduled concerts, conferences, exhibitions, exhibitions, commemorations on burial places rebels and much more. At the Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw, January 22, 2013 has already passed the event with a list of names of insurgents killed in the presence of Komorowski in the manner of reading the victims of September 11, 2001 in New York. Two coins were issued in denominations of 2 and 10 zloty. Not forgotten about and Belarusian refugees — already recently in Poland, with the role of the Belarusians will be a ski raid "where Kalinowski."
Poles showed their activity outside of Poland. For example, January 22, 2013 salting Poland in Belarus Leszek Sharepka in Svislochi laid flowers to the monument and R.Taurgutu Kalinouski. The event was the role of representatives of the Belarusian opposition. The report of the Polish embassy about the conduct of this action was said: "On the celebrations Polish Embassy in Minsk, the Belarusian authorities informed and invited them to take part in the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Rebellion (sic — AP) 1863-1864, as a common history should connect voedinyzhdy, not divide the adjacent nations. " The fact that this "union" is aimed, first, against the Union Belarus countries — the Russian Federation, the embassy mentioned.
In Belarus, for the moment difficult social and ideological environment. Back in 1993, before coming to power, Lukashenko was issued special stamp, and February 2, 2013 (a day of birth Kalinowski) held a festive quenching newest stamp dedicated castus Kalinouski on Belpochtampte. According to the band the Ministry of Education in the schools held dictation on "Letter from the gallows" Kalinouski. These initiatives are welcomed by the Belarusian opposition. In addition, the nationalists formed the organizing committee for the celebration of the two-hoo "anniversaries", which is led by the former presidential candidates and uncompromising opponents of Lukashenko — A.Milinkevich and V.Neklyaev. Milinkevich podbavil not so long ago, the heat, saying: "In general, the management of the country at the moment does not know how to react Moscow celebrations, and will not blow up a revolution in the 150th anniversary of the uprising?"
The organizers, as usual, rely on foreign aid, first Polish. Are going to install crosses on the gravesites of the Polish rebels to implement research and educational programs from conferences, historical reconstructions, music festivals and even make a rock opera about Kalinowski. It's all meant to make non-stop for 2-years in a row. February 1, at the headquarters of the Belarusian Popular Front has already passed the first such event, during which the cards were signed "the current insurgency" (numerically sedentary opponents of Lukashenko in the slammer).
And what about the official Belarusian authorities? It feels like they do not know how to react. Meanwhile, the number of serious historians and public figures concerned about the current escalation russophobia polschinizatsiey and public life of Belarus held a scientific conference "Polish gentry Uprising 1863 year. Look at the action after 150 years ", in which the chief editor of the magazine" Belarusian thought "V.Gigin just said," There was a lot of terror … we are talking about 128 rebels were hanged Murav'ev, but do not know what their hands killed hundreds, if not thousands of victims … it was quite feral terrorist violence. "
President Lukashenko has repeatedly read about the quest to return the rule of Poland, if not of the whole, then, at least, over western Belarus. There are proponents of the Polish revenge in Belarus itself. The latest proof of revanchist aspirations of Poland, which reads Lukashenko, has become the calling concert of Polish groups Karat Napalm Grupa, Zjednoczony Ursynow and Irydion, held on 26 January 2013 in Vilnius in the House of Polish C
ulture. Despite the requests of the "Union of Poles in Lithuania", "not to politicize the concert," hip-hop group Zjednoczony Ursynow mature that "in the future Vilnius, Lviv and Polish Grodno will, not strangers" …
It seems that in that part of the former Russian Empire, where 150 years ago the flame blazed the Polish rebellion, newly mature serious events …