The true kamikaze were not terrorists. Japanese pilots since the second world willingly gave their lives for their country.
October 19, 1944. Peninsula of Luzon, the main base of Japanese aircraft in the Philippines. Meeting commanders fighter units conducting Vice-Admiral Onishi …
2-day stay in the newest post of vice-admiral was enough to wake up — he and his subordinate people will not be able to perform those functions which are assigned to them. That is something Onishi took command of the most gorgeously was called the first air fleet — but in fact constituted only three 10-ka tattered in battles
fighters "Zero" and a few bombers "Betty". In order to prevent the South American invasion of the Philippines, there was a large Japanese fleet is concentrated, which included two super battleship — "Yamato" and "Musashi". Planes Onishi had to cover the fleet from the air, but the repeated enemy an advantage in the air force made it impossible.
Onishi told his staff that they understand and without it — the Japanese fleet on the brink of disaster, the best ships after a certain number of days will be put on the bottom of the torpedo and dive bombers from U.S. aircraft carriers. Sink the aircraft carriers with fighter aircraft is unrealistic, even if armed with their bombs. On the "Zero" no bomb sights, while their pilots — matching abilities. In general, there was one suicide in every sense of the word out — fighters, equipped with bombs, will crash into the enemy ships! Onishi subordinates agreed with Vice-Admiral — another method to do away with the South American aircraft carriers have not. After a certain number of days has been created "special attack squadron Divine Wind" — "Kamikaze Tokubetsu Kogekitay."
Sacrifice as a strategy
At the moment the word "kamikaze" became a household term, so that's all the suicide bombers, but in a figurative sense — and people who are not fussing about their safety. But the real bombers were not terrorists, and fighters — Japanese pilots since the second world war, voluntarily decided to give their lives for their country. Of course, the war at least some risk their lives, and some even deliberately sacrificed her. Most commanders and give orders, from the artists who have no chance to survive. But suicide bombers — the only one in the history of mankind example, when suicide bombers were allocated to a special branch of service and specially studied to fulfill its mission. When the staffs to develop their strategy and design offices have designed a special technique …
Once the idea was made by the use of suicide bombers, Vice Admiral Onishi, self-sacrifice to be completed initiative of individual pilots and given the status of official military doctrine. Meanwhile Onishi only just invented, how to effectively use the strategy against South American ships, which have de facto used Japanese pilots. By 1944, the state of aviation of the rising sun was abysmal. There was a shortage of aircraft, fuel, but first — trained pilots. At the time, as schools in the United States and prepared hundreds of hundreds of new pilots in the Land of the Rising Sun was not much either-effective system of training provision. If successful in aerial combat Yankees here withdrew from the front and appointed instructor (because, by the way, the South American aces do not shine a huge number of aircraft shot down), the Japanese are usually waged war before his death. Because of the composition of the pilot's personnel, who began the war a few years later was left virtually nothing. Vicious circle — the inexperienced pilots acted all the least well and died all faster. Self-fulfilling prophecy of the deceased at the time of Admiral Yamamoto back in 1941, one of the organizers of the attack on Pearl Harbor, warned that a long war, his country is not ready.
These criteria and appeared first examples of how slaboobuchennye Japanese pilots who could not get a bomb in south american ship just crashed into the enemy. Dive to the deck plane it is difficult to stop — even if the anti-aircraft guns will cause him a huge amount of damage, it will reach its goal.
Admiral Onishi decided that a similar "initiative" can legitimize official. Especially since the combat effectiveness of the aircraft crashing into the deck will be even higher if it is stuffed with explosives …
First massive suicide attack took place in the Philippines October 25, 1944. Several vehicles were damaged and escort carrier "Saint-Lo," in which hit single "Zero" — sunk. The success of the first kamikaze led to that experience Onishi decided to spread extensively.
Lightweight and robust design "Zero" made it possible to dump a load additional aircraft — explosives
Death — not an end in itself
Soon it was formed four air connections — "Asahi", "Sikisima", "Yamadzakura" and "Yamato". There perceived only volunteers for death in an air sortie for the pilots was a prerequisite of successful end of combat tasks. And by the time of the surrender of the Land of the Rising Sun almost half remaining in the ranks of marine pilots was transferred to the suicide squads.
It is well known that the word "kamikaze" means "Divine Wind" — a hurricane that in the XIII century ruined the enemy's fleet. It would seem, what does the Middle Ages? But, in contrast to the technology, with the "ideological support" from the Japanese military was all right. "Divine Wind", as it was believed then sent the goddess Amaterasu, the patroness of the safe country of the rising sun. Sent at a time when nothing could prevent the conquest of her country 300000th Mongolian-Chinese troops of Kublai Khan. So at this point, when the war came near to the borders of the empire, the country had to save the "Divine Wind" — now embodied not a natural phenomenon, and the young boys who want to give their lives for their country. In Kamikaze beheld only force capable of South American stop coming almost on the outskirts of the Japanese islands.
Connection kamikaze could seem elite on external attributes of their activities, but not in terms of training. Caught in the squad combat pilot additional training is not needed. A kamikaze-trained newcomers even worse than ordinary pilots. They are not taught bombing or shooting, allowing to drastically reduce lead time. In the opinion of management of army land of the rising sun, but the mass training of suicide bombers could suspend the South American coming.
About kamikaze you can read a lot of weird information — for example, the fact that they were not taught the landing. Meanwhile quite clear that if the pilot does not teach landing, the first and the last for him will not combat, but first a school trip! Contrary vserasprostranennomu opinion, quite a rare occurrence in the kamikaze planes were discharged after take-off landing gear that prevented the ability to land. In most cases, the pilots bombers to provide everyday worn fighter "Zero", and then dive bomber or bomber loaded with explosives — and reworking the chassis no one did. If the pilot during the flight did not find a worthy goal, he had to go back to the military base and expected future management tasks. Because several suicide bombers, were making sorties, have survived to the present day …
ikaze attacks produced the effect for which they were designed — teams of American ships were very frightened. But pretty quickly it became clear that bump into an enemy ship is not easy — at least for the low-skilled pilot. A dodge American fighter bombers and certainly not able to do. Because litsezrev low combat effectiveness of suicide bombers, the Americans calmed down, and the Japanese command, however, was taken aback. Meanwhile, for the kamikaze was already invented such aircraft, which, according to the plan of its creators, it would be hard to bring down the fighters. The creator ideas Mitsuo Ohta "punched" project even before they were made by the first group of pilots of suicide (which again points — the idea kamikaze at the time was in the air). The fact that it was built for this project in the company, "Yokosuka", was not faster aircraft, and the only way to control a person's own bomb …
First War "Zero" is induced nightmare for American fighter pilots, and later became a harsh instrument of suicide
A cruise missile with a pilot
The tiny airplane MXY-7 "Oka" (translated from the Japanese "cherry flower") reminded the German flying bomb, invented at the end of the war. But it was a very unique design. Planning a bomb run on the radio from the aircraft carrier, and set it on jet engines to maneuver allowed to bomb and keep up with her running the aircraft. "Oka" ruled sat in her suicide bombers and rocket boosters were in order, so that on the way to the goal to disperse aircraft bomb up to speed almost 1000 km / h It was believed that at this rate, "Okie" as would be immune to anti-aircraft fire, and for the fighters.
Typically, in this period took place in the headquarters of the study on the use of kamikaze strategy in other areas. For example, were made by a person controlled torpedoes, and a mini-submarine boat, which at first had to run into an enemy ship torpedo, and later cut into it yourself. Suicide pilots were planning to use for the collision attack the American "Flying Fortresses" and "Liberators" were bombed Japanese town. Later, the land … and suicide bombers, was pushing a cart with explosives. Such a tool in the Kwantung Army tried to cope with the Russian tanks in 1945.
But, of course, the main purpose of suicide bombers were South American carriers. Guided cruise missile, moreover, suffering a ton of explosives, was to sink the aircraft carrier if not, then at least, very destroy it
and permanently disable. "Oka" was suspended for a twin-engine bomber "Betty" who owed how to get closer to the American squadron. At a distance of less than 30 km from the transplanted kamikaze bombers in "Oka", controlled bomb was separated from the vehicle and slowly began to plan in the right direction. Three solid rocket boosters worked only for only 10 seconds, because it was necessary to include them in the vicinity of a particular target.
Kamikaze different from other Japanese pilots silk suits and crisp white headbands with the image of the rising sun
First combat use of the same aircraft bombs was the real carnage. But the victims were not the crews of American ships, and the Japanese pilots. The need to fly up to the target is close enough
The carrier bombers did very vulnerable — they were in a zone offense deck fighters and aircraft carriers are also brought down. A sophisticated radars available at the time the Yankees, allowed to find a connection approaching the enemy, whether it be a group of suicide bombers, aircraft carriers, bombs, ordinary or torpedo bombers. In addition, it turned out to be dispersed by the action of accelerators cruise missile maneuvered poorly and not very accurately onto the target.
So Makar, save Japan from defeat in the war of suicide could not — and still volunteers who wanted to join the air unit for special purposes, it was pretty straight up to the moment of surrender. In this case, it was not only enthusiastic about not yuntsah smelled gunpowder, and had time to make war on the pilots. In 1-x, a Japanese naval aviator way or another have to get used to the thought of his death. In the U.S. naval aviation has been debugged effective search engine downed pilots at sea by seaplanes and submarines (so help out, namely, an airborne shooter torpedo "Avenger" by George W. Bush, the future president of the United States). A downed Japanese pilot in most cases, drowning in the sea together with his plane …
In-2, which dominated in the Land of the Rising Sun Shinto spawned a special relationship to death. This religio-philosophical system gave kamikaze hope after the job to join the ranks of countless deities. B-3 than on how much more it seemed inevitable defeat of the Land of the Rising Sun, and the surrender of the Japanese military tradition not recognize.
Naturally, scary though what fanaticism. And yet kamikaze pilots were participants in the war and acted against the enemy army. This is their fundamentally unlike modern suicide bombers are without any basis is the word.
Well, those running the Japanese kamikazes were not cynics who coolly handle other people's lives, not even with all this sacrifice of his. Vice-Admiral Onishi Takidziro after the surrender of the Land of the Rising Sun has chosen a way out, the title of which does not need to be translated from Japanese — hara-kiri.