After 10 days, after the time when the war began majestic Russian from Moscow to the western borders was oriented column of military trucks, commanded by Captain Ivan Fleury. seven triaxial ZIS-6 and about forty cars with ammunition with unusual closed tarpaulin structures behind the cab drove along the road to Orsha-railway hub in Belarus.
There's also the first in the confusion of war some 10 months stuck s Russian military trains with weapons, ammunition and fuel. Already on July 14 Orsha was captured by the Germans. To train this unit is not got them sent to battle the new Russian super weapon. Then it is not dubbed the "Katyusha".
"Replaces 100 howitzers"
The Germans were not even able to understand what happened when the station turned into a blazing inferno. And for several months, until they captured intact rocket launcher with ammunition, their intelligence to talk about the use of Russian military Toli "tools, which methane raketoobraznye shells" Toli "a multilateral automatic gun methane fire."
First winter pack captain Flerova was surrounded by the enemy, and then captain blew a head unit, sacrificing their own lives. Only 46 of the 160 people returned to their own. But the rumor of "Stalin's organs" or "Guards mortars" already went for a walk across the defense.
Powder rockets were invented in China about a thousand years ago. And even in the nineteenth (XIX) century, they have been used in the Central Asian campaign of the Russian army and the Crimean War, but after the onset of the use of rifled artillery rockets forgotten — it's very inaccurate, they were flying. But the enthusiasm for them has appeared in various countries after the First World War, when rocket was very suitable for dostavkok chemical weapons.
Well, in the Russian republic of new customers guns were chemists. In the summer of 1938 with chemical bombs were tested on the inside of the Pavlograd artillery range. In the test report stated that the warhead of the missile fits 8 l. RH (poisons), and artillery shells of the same caliber — only 2 liters. To make the dead zone in the area of 12 hectares, it was only fairly 1st volley with 3 cars that can compare with 100 howitzers.
For a long time people believed that the "Katyusha" was created by a team of secret SRI-3, which was run by Andrew Kostikov. But in the '70s, it was found that this is the work of head engineer Institute ZHoru Langemak, and Andrew Kostikov only did that "knocking" on Langemak the NKVD and after he was arrested, he took his place. Jora Langemak was shot in 1937, and was received Kostikov Star of the Hero of Socialist Labor (1941) and a certificate of authorship to "Katyusha" (1940).
By the way, "Chemical past" has long pursued a "Katyusha". Walking, for example, the rumor that the USSR was breaking international conventions, stuffed with crisp white phosphorus shells — and this is very flammable and very toxic substance. But in reality, the shells used in ordinary explosives. And the exclusive effect is achieved by firing volleys — there was a law of addition of pulses. Looking back, a veteran of one of the parts of the rocket artillery Yuri Novikov was that after the volley one battery "is a blast wave appeared that the Germans who fell under attack even without being killed, were stunned, contused, infirm and when our Marines after volley with a click get up and running, the Germans could not do anything. "
As of the Red Army "Katyusha" became part of the Guards mortars Head Reserve Command (RGC), of which each had three divisions, and in the division by 2 batteries. "Katyusha" is usually used the massed along the front of head impact. These regiments were directed specifically at areas and not part of the army. The service in the regiment of the Guards mortars including the prestigious and relatively harmless. Command was important "Katyusha" and just like that they are not sent to the front lines.
At the front, "guards" were not in vain, too, because if the car did not go away with firing positions immediately after volley, then a couple of minutes a battery can damage the German artillery.
"Always, throughout the war, read the veteran rocket scientist Alexander Pan: The problem of room one in parts of the Russian Guards mortar shells were feeding. We just ruined the country. Factories were unable to produce shells. Well, here you imagine? If Regiment 384 rocket launch — they need a ride! And if two or three volleys? It has a thousand shells! And there were 115 regiments! "
"Fooled around", "Unpleasant Humming", "ass".
To think that the idea of upgrading the rocket guns came exclusively in the head Russian designers, it would be naive. Giving fluctuate after the first use of multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS, the acronym came later) during the second world war and is owned by the Germans. In the summer of 1941, June 22 against the Brest Fortress 9 cells were exposed mortars special forces regiment of the fourth. They were 6-Barrel 150-millimeter mortars "Nebelverfer" which were named in honor of the one who made them — Rudolf Nebel. We call them by a different: "Unpleasant Humming", "ass", "durilka", "Vanya" … First two nicknames were derived from a typically sharp sound soaring min. Another hallmark of "Nebelverfera" was thick smoke plume which demaskirovyval German rocket positions. And German Mortar first war dragged equestrian team, and later began to tow trucks, and all because of the fact that the installation was not self-propelled ..
The differences between the feathered rockets "Katyusha" and the German mine that did not have "wings" were great. German shells in the summer of stabilized only by rotation as an artillery shell or a bullet. It is interesting to find out that when the German industry in 1943 was received from the SS order to copy a shell "Katyusha" with the Russian standard, everything was made, not including the 1st. Stabilizers set at an angle from the longitudinal axis of the rocket, which is again a rotation imparted in flight.
South American "Katyusha"
U.S. later than other states started creating a missile and a mobile unit to start the missiles. First model was developed in 1942 on the chassis of the truck, "Studebaker." According to the firing range, power and accuracy volley they are very inferior to similar German and Russian jet systems. And only in 1944, the Yankees came out to design efficient fighting unit that could compete with the Russian "Katyusha" on individual traits. The basis for this reactive system served as the average weight of a tank "Sherman." Then on his tower was installed package of 60 tubular rails for projectiles caliber M8 4.6-inch (115 mm). Weight 1st volley was 960 kg and the maximum firing range — 3.8 km.
Was own mock "Katyusha" and the British. First rocket artillery, the British used during landing in Normandy on June 6, 1944. Then, with the support ships armed with missiles, on the heads of the Germans for 1 day produced about forty thousand rockets.
I wonder where did the title of "Katyusha"? But for sure it is not clear so far. Criticism can not stand either one of the versions offered by historians. Yet heretofore word runs worldwide. In any case, particularly since — katusha missile (Katyusha rockets) — in the news for the Palestinian rockets, which explod
e from time to time on the ground in Israel.