In the middle of the last century there was a myth associated with the discovery of America. Was found Vinland map, which excited the minds of scientists, and the traces of this myth were in this age. The map includes the outlines of North America, and it was done 500 years before this continent discovered by Christopher Columbus. However, some of the scientific community has never recognized the existence of this mysterious card. But this does not change anything, because the palm will remain in Columbus.
What is this card? This is a piece of parchment size 28h41 cm, which clearly shows the applied image coast of North America with two straits: Holy Lavretiya and Hudson. Also on the card is the outlines of Africa, Asia and Europe. The northern part of the European continent contains three images of Greenland, Iceland, and Vinland. On the map there is an inscription «Vinilanda Insula a Byarno reperta et leipho sociis» — «Island Vinland, outdoor companions Bjarni and Leif."
In the upper corner of the map there is a record in Latin, explaining the purpose of swimming travelers. It states that the will of God, having a long and grueling journey to the south of the island of Greenland, through the tumult of the ocean and sea ice, Leif, Bjarni and companions reached the dangerous western ocean and found a new land, which they named Vinland. In these parts there were many vineyards. It further states that Henrik (Eric), who served as bishop of the Holy See of Greenland and neighboring countries, was very pleased to learn about the land. He gave a blessing to the crew continued success. After the unexpected discovery of this land, the bishop returned to his homeland.
Experts have carefully studied this unique document, concluding that it dates from the year 999 AD, there are over 493 years before the discovery of new lands by Christopher Columbus. Thus, the first to discover a new continent, two Scandinavian seafarers — Bjarni and Leif. It is likely that Christopher Columbus, going on his voyage around the world, could learn this card. Interestingly, the information on the map surprisingly intersect with the Icelandic sagas and other ancient sources. Some chronicles contain interesting facts about Bishop Eric Greenland, which is actually in 1121 he traveled to Vinland. Also in the text there is mention of Pope Paschal Second, occupied the throne from August 1099 to January 1118.
First card "surfaced" in 1957, in Barcelona. It was offered for sale by some bookseller with a copy of the book of the Middle Ages "History of Tatarstan", which describes the journey of a Franciscan monk and missionary Johannes de Plano Carpini to Mongolia. Missionary visited Mongolia sometime in 1245-47 year. Unique antiques were bought American Laurence Witten, a resident of Connecticut. Map and book cost him just $ 3,500.
In 1959, he sold the card and book an anonymous buyer for a huge sum for that time to 250 thousand dollars. As it turned out, the anonymous author was a graduate of Yale University, a philanthropist, a powerful patron of the arts, American businessman Paul Mellon. The entrepreneur is not just an editor of one of the oldest student newspapers Yale Daily News, and a member of the famous secret society "Scroll. Manuscript. The key. "
Paul Mellon and research professionals attracted the British Museum, but in 1965, few people knew that there are these rare documents. Then, in the scientific community had a large interest in the topic, which has been simmering for the past few decades. In 1995, the card has been insured for a huge sum of $ 25 million.
Experts conducted a thorough analysis of the map. As it turned out, the ink particles were a form of titanium dioxide — a rather rare mineral anatase. According to experts, anatase could not be part of the carbon ink. But soon one of the researchers were able to prove that the anatase could emerge from the minerals ilmenite, which contain titanium. The metal used in ancient times for paints.
A rector of the School of conservation at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Dr. Rene Larsen was able to prove that to the emergence of anatase involved ordinary sand. He shared their data for 23 of the International Conference on the History of Cartography, which was held in Copenhagen. According to him, in the ancient times to the original dry quickly, using a special sand. Larsen said that he and his team conducted a study that allow us to say that the old document is not a forgery. Small holes found on the book and the parchment, suggest that they have done a wood beetles. And because the documents are in one place, the bugs hurt them simultaneously.
But if you still will be conclusive evidence that the Vinland opened Scandinavian seafarers, the palm will remain in Columbus. After all he did for the New World is much more than the Scandinavian seafarers.
Category: Mystery stories