The present paper, being a continuation of the theme "The kamikaze like P-700" Granit ", will be built in a dialogue with readers. I will try to answer some more worthy of attention, in my opinion, the questions to the best of their own competence.
For example, one of their questions was: "… A full-fledged military airfield (with shelters for aircraft, weapons and supplies petroleum products, with a cover of TIR) is expensive … how many airports can be built instead of the 1st aircraft carrier?"
Since October 2010, addresses the issue of the construction of the third runway of the capital's airport "Domodedovo". The declared cost of the newest bands amounted to 1 billion dollars. A similar project Runway 3 "Sheremetyevo" airport is even more expensive — about 1.5 billion. U.S. Despite the seeming irrationality, this is due to the highest price — this is an ordinary global practice, cheaper to build a good runway. Project Runway 3 "Sheremetyevo" airport significantly more expensive, because provides for the transfer of the village Isakovo and construction of facilities for water circulator p. Kliazma. What is the Project Runway 3 from a technical point of view? No, it is not covered in gold — an ordinary band armobetonnaya 3,200 … 3,600 meters, inscribed with her markings and lighting equipment. I hope that after the announcement of these figures, the interest of the fans ground airfields and asymmetric responses slightly abated.
But, perhaps, military airfield did not need a longish and expensive runway? We try to understand. Thus, the Su-27, the takeoff distance / distance — 600 … 800 meters. Supersonic bomber Tu-22M3 bomber: length of the runway of 2000 meters, run — 1300m Far raketonoets bomber Tu-95: The length of the runway of 2,700 meters, run — 1700 meters so that structurally reduce the length of the runway will hardly be able …
How many more will cost taxiways, hangars caponiers or closed (no one is not going to leave zarzhavevat aircraft in the open, right?), Storage of ammunition, spare parts and fuel, facilities for personnel, airport ground equipment, KP, radio and electrical equipment, the system of the airfield we can only guess … Indirectly, a giant price of similar objects reveals their comparable small amount — an airbase can be counted on one hand. And the price aerodrome somewhere in Kamchatka or the Kuril Islands compared with the price of service AUG.
Well, a few common phrases to complete the chapter. I am not a crazy fan of carrier-based aircraft and did not suggest instead of a second runway at the airport Domodedovo 3 to put an aircraft carrier in the Moscow River. It only comes about for some problems in some cases, at prices carrier may be better land aerodrome.
In the water … surrounded!
Many readers have wondered why the deck-based aircraft that simple destroys at least some non-aircraft ship, while the carrier itself remains immune to these same weapons. The answer is simple — in-1's, all a matter of size. Even the largest non-aircraft ships in the world — TARKR pr.1144 have a full displacement of about 26,000 tons, accounting for only 25% of the displacement of an aircraft carrier of the "Nimitz". This determines the ability of the ship in the struggle for survival.
How then killed huge "Yamato" or "Musashi"? With them is even easier — they could not get out to the distance of the implementation of its own guns, have come under attack decked bombers. With each attack damage battleships accumulate until have gained critical level.
Of course, all is not quite accurate. Almost all depends on the design of the ship, its technical condition and crew training. Here is an excellent example:
On the night of November 29, 1944 the submarine USS Archer-Fish stormed "Shinano" — the largest aircraft carrier the second World War, full displacement of 70,000 tons. In goal came four torpedoes, through 7:00 Japanese aircraft carrier sunk. It's only been 17 hours, as he came into its own first combat sortie (!)
After the torpedo attack "Shinano" kept running and fighting capacity. But the water has spread rapidly around the premises aircraft carrier, the ship lost power and became nakrenyatsya side. All explained by the fact that "Shinano" was urgently introduced into the fleet Pravitelskogo, despite a lot of defects (eg sealed bulkheads were not encapsulated). Personnel of the first time set foot on the deck of the ship a few days back — the sailors were not familiar with the plan of the interior and did not know what to do. Simply put, an unfinished and untested aircraft carrier was neboegotov.
In the fire … burning!
Many were astonished by the ability to associate with modern weapons kamikaze attacks during the second World War. Let's get back to this story. What was the standard kamikaze? Worn "Zero" with 250 kg bomb under one wing and drop tanks under the other. Soon there will be an "advanced" version of the kamikaze — jet-shell Yokosuka MXY7 «Oka» 1000 … 1500 pounds of explosives at transonic speeds. The control system safer nowhere. A living person — this is for you and selection purposes, and evasive maneuver, and the rocket-leader …
After the first kamikaze attacks became clear impact aircraft carrier suicidal attack does not sink. Japanese pilots changed their strategy — now strikes in the most sensitive places: on samoletopodemnikam and clusters of aircraft on the deck. In the end, the only one of the big carriers, seriously affected by the kamikaze attack, was the "Bunker Hill." Two suicide bombers, exploded in the midst of aircraft on the deck, caused three hours of fire and killed hundreds of sailors.
In Leyte Gulf kamikaze more lucky — they all the same managed to drown the aircraft carrier "Saint-Lo." What is the secret of success? "Saint-Lo" was the escort aircraft carrier displacement of 8000 tons. Strike aircraft carrier residents of the country of the rising sun did not manage to kill him, despite numerous trials.
It should be noted that the first South American carrier with an armored deck (type "Midway") appeared only in 1946. Because some kamikaze penetrated the flight deck and disappeared in a blinding flash inside the ship's hull. About the penetrating power of the same "Okie" do not have to hesitate: April 12, 1945 destroyer USS Stanley was broken such "things" through and through — and that it helped out — "Oka", taking off from the body, detonated at a certain distance from the destroyer.
From time to time, as an example of poor survivability of aircraft carriers lead case of fire on the aircraft carrier "Forrestal". July 29, 1967 around 10:50 local time on 127-mm rocket Mk 32 «Zuni» suddenly tripped due to a power surge when switching from an external power supply to the domestic. The rocket flew across the flight deck and knocked on the PTB under the wing attack aircraft A-4 Skyhawk. Ripped from the wing tank and fuel JP-5 kindled. Overheating jerked other aircraft fuel tanks, flame spread across the deck. 9 bombs detonated, scattering shrapnel destroyed the fire department. The explosions struck in the armored deck openings through which the burning fuel was draining into the interior and on the hangar deck. The fire was extinguished after 14 hours. Killed 134 people. Fire destroyed the stern of the aircraft carrier, 90 aircraft of 21 burned and was thrown overboard.
The main culprit is always referred to as a fire rockets "Zuni" — really curious as to how this baby has caused such harm. Although, this is not entirely true. If a detailed understanding of at least some major tragedy, the cause will always be some little thing — a spark, hair crack someone's negligence. Suffice it to recall the fire at SSBN "Ekaterinburg" — crashed ceiling and violation of safety led to a billion dollar harm. Because state that only the guilty "Zuni" wrong. Such specificity of carrier-based aircraft, because from time to time there are such cases.
Most of us are hard to imagine an explosion of hundreds of kilograms of explosives. Very tenacious myth that the detonation of such a hell of a consistency like a universal apocalypse burn everything in its path. Let's look at the facts of the history of military conflicts.
For example, the triumphant sinking destroyer "Eilat". Evening October 21, 1967 destroyer got to the add-P-15 missile "Termite", which was released to the Egyptian boat. A second later, the second missile pierced the side and killed the engine room. Burning destroyer lost stroke and lost power. After a moment the third rocket slammed into the stern and the crew left the doomed ship. As soon rafts took away from the tumbling plane as a fourth rocket slammed into the bottom and "Eilat" went to the bottom to feed the fish. Of the 200 crew members were killed 47 sailors.
P-15 "Termite" — Russian-made anti-ship missiles. Starting weight — 2.5 tons. Cruising speed — 0.95 M. Warhead weight — 500 kg. "Eilat" — the last British destroyer HMS Zealous, year of construction -1944, displacement — 1700 tons.
The result is very weird: for the sinking of the ship displacement of 1,700 tons, as it took at least 2 anti-ship missiles hit a 500-kg warhead!
Follow the story took place August 30, 1974 in Sevastopol. As a result, a fire in the aft missile cellar died BOD "Brave." Total there were two drums 15 SAM missiles "Wave". What is an anti-aircraft missile B-600? The first step — a powder jet engine PRD-36, equipped with 14 cylindrical gunpowder pieces, weighing 280 kg. The second stage is a rocket made of aerodynamic configuration "Duck" Phillips wings and rudders. The engine is the second stage is equipped with a sword powder weighing 125 kg. The warhead missiles — high-explosive, with ready-made shrapnel. The total weight of the warhead — 60 kg, 32 kg of them — an alloy of TNT and RDX with 22 kg — submunitions.
Finally, in the aft cellar BOD almost immediately detonated 6,000 kg of gunpowder and 480 kg of explosives! But the ship displacement of 5,000 tons is not turned into dust, or even falling apart. From the moment of the explosion until the ship was sinking more than 5 hours, all the while the crew fought for the survival of the ship. The fire spread through the compartments, until he reached the depth bombs and tanks of jet fuel.
BOD "Brave", despite the fact that he was doomed, showed good durability. As a result, in-situ terrible explosion killed a total of 19 people from the ship's crew.
By focusing on these facts, the following conclusion can be made: the explosions of warheads RCC containing hundreds of pounds of explosives, despite its enormous power, can not be guaranteed critical strike damage even small ships.
End of topic
Judging from the countless reviews, many readers in their own reasoning repeated the mistake Russian naval command. After all, what created Fleet — AUG is not a settlement. And do not even struggle with underwater strategic missile carriers.
The main task of the Navy, in the broadest sense, has always been promoting the success of the ground troops. It is also aware of the ruler of Peter, when he took Azov. And most effectively with this problem sovladevaet fleet, having in its composition aircraft carrier ships.
Carriers are not omnipotent, with proper approach, at the cost of severe losses, they can kill. And in the Third World War aircraft carriers, most likely, will be worthless (eg Americans always deny the presence of nuclear weapons on their decks, and the last special deck carrier thermonuclear charges A-5 "Vidzhlente" was created in the late '50s.) AUG — a tool for daily use, the best means of local wars, the protection of sea lines of communication, and the decisions of other, more fundamental problems in the interests of their own country.
Indeed, as rightly pointed out some of the readers, the current realities of Russian Federation for the Navy's better to have 10 frigates than one carrier. But then the Russians have a future. Is not it time now to start thinking about it?