Our knowledge of Celtic culture is based primarily on archaeological evidence. How would flowery and neither would look authentically literary sources, it is advisable to continue our brief evaluation of the environment in terms of the existence of the Druids scale accuracy, the proposed Hawks. We start therefore with technology issues, what archeology can inform us the most reliable and direct way.
Location of iron ingots
Technological methods and the possibility of any people depend primarily on their ability to use the raw materials. However, of all the available natural resources person chooses only those that can be incorporated into the economy and way of life of the community, that is, those that are socially necessary and appropriate. In an economy with relatively static technology, though well adapted, used only a limited number of available natural resources, which is used from generation to generation. In the same economy, where there is a tradition of practical experimentation and invention, people are finding new opportunities and exploit them. Communities using stone tools and unfamiliar with metallurgy, deposits of copper, tin and iron ore not only interesting, but as it is in the world and does not exist. For hunters concept of good fertile soil is meaningless.
The last few centuries BC and barbaric, and civilized society in Europe use the same natural resources, and the extent and effectiveness of their use of controlled social and technological competence. The Greeks and Romans, Scythians, Celts and other peoples almost simultaneously came to a stage of technological development, when to make military weapons and tools to use iron. According to the classification of the past, present from the XIX century, they were in the Iron Age. Barbarous Europe over the Aegean Sea to use iron from the VII century BC. e., melted metal from the ore extracted from the ground or from the marsh sediments. In the days of the Druids in the Celtic world was established regular trade characteristic bidentate metal ingots. There is even a suggestion that the emergence of a rich culture rannekeltskoy Rhineland in V century BC. e. may be related to trade iron Aboriginal exploited deposits.
Blacksmith played a very important role in the Celtic world, and have been distributed not only knives, axes and scissors of the same type, but the more sophisticated products, except worn utilitarian yet decorative. These were, for example, the chain, which hung over an open fire bronze cauldrons, or stands for firewood in the fireplace. Armorers used iron for the manufacture of swords, spears and wooden protective lining pa boards. Sometimes they get steel donlilyaya during forging iron coal, but it was rather random and not targeted, experimental, as in other more developed civilizations.
For the production of bronze constantly required copper and tin. Crafts made of her pots, bowls, bottles, mirrors, jewelry and even sculptures and ceremonial weapons: helmets, handles swords, scabbards, shields and pads on the part of a horse harness. While iron ore abound, inventories of copper and tin were very limited, so that trade in ores and their products create many problems. Jewelry and ceremonial objects utensils are often made of gold and silver, and with the II century BC. e. Celtic went into circulation coins of the same metal. Bronzes are sometimes decorated with colored enamel. This technique is likely to come from Sarmatia and eastern regions of the Caucasus. The skill of Celtic craftsmen metal kept up with their Greek and Roman counterparts and were almost equal to metallurgists and smiths medieval Northern Europe.
Location iron supports for firewood and chains "rod-ring" for boilers
The mineral resources other than metallic ores should especially include salt, which is also extracted by evaporation of salty water sources, and on the coast of the evaporation of sea water. Salt from inland reserves mined in Europe for many centuries. She herself was a valuable subject of trade and exchange, and also makes it possible to preserve food and trade in salted fish and meat (corned beef and smoked). Gaul from Roman times was famous for its bacon. For the manufacture of tableware is widely used clay. These were rough and molded products of rural residents, and skilled craftsmen pottery made on the potter's wheel. However, bricks and tiles made of baked clay Celts were not: the building of the calcined bricks, cement or concrete are the achievement of the Mediterranean world at the time.
Widely and commonly used to grind grain suitable grit. It is made manual rotational (turning) mills that were used in each sector. The technology used in these mills, rotary, not forward (forward-backward) movement emerged in a barbarous world, even in the UK, with approximately II century BC. e. In all the areas where there was a stone, it was used commonly grubootesannym without cement for the construction of dwellings and fortifications.
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