A few days ago the Federal State Statistics finally summed itogiVserossiyskoy 2010 census. Drew the attention of the table changes in the number of peoples of Russia in the last quarter century (see the end of this article.)
While some people (Russian Mordvins, Udmurt) Significantly lost in the numbers, others (Ingush, Dargin, Avar) — Dramatically increase it. In absolute terms, most lost Russian — from 120 million in 1989 to 111 million in 2010. And when you consider that during that time entered the country of about 10 million of our fellow citizens of the former Soviet republics, which are also prevalent in the mass were Russian losses of the state-the people of Russia are comparable to the Russian losses in World War II. The percentage is very much lost Mordvins. Their numbers dropped from a million people to 740,000, which is more than a quarter. True, demographers explain much of the fact that many members of this ethnic group are recorded in Russian. The most "explosive growth" of the peoples of Russia demonstrated Ingush. Their population, according to official statistics, in 23 years has increased just twice.
How to explain that to the people of a country are diametrically opposite processes?
— The main factor that affects the demographic dynamics of the different ethnic groups here in Russia — this is not even the birth rate, and above all — the death rate, — theExpert Committee of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation for Social and Demographic Policy Daria Khalturina. — And in the midst of most of the population was dramatically higher in the last two decades. This is due to immense use of strong alcohol and smoking tobacco.
Therefore, life in this poor region, as Ingushetia, where many do not have the possibility of fully fed, was ten years higher than in relatively prosperous regions of Central Russia and the Urals. This is due primarily to the religious factor. Among Muslims alcohol is banned. In this sense, the very visible difference between Ossetians and Ingush. Male life expectancy at Ossetians, most of them share the Orthodox, for 6 years less than that of people living in the neighborhood of the Ingush. While Ossetian life expectancy exceeds ingushek.
Alcohol use — a key factor that led the Russian and some Finno-Ugric peoples of the leaders in mortality in Russia.
Unfortunately, the authorities only in recent years has to do something to prevent this humanitarian disaster.
"SP": — Why?
— I attribute this to the fact that the situation is a sharp increase in the consumption of spirits was relevant only for the countries of Eastern Europe. It was difficult to navigate, to prevent the consequences. But delays with measures still prohibitively long.
The second point, which influences the size of the ethnic group, as we know, the birth rate. We have a long time statistics per woman of childbearing age had less than 1.3 children. While simple to maintain the number of ethnic groups is needed almost double the result. This situation is typical in the world in the first place for the people with the highest share of the educated population. In Russia — is Russian. In this case, the birth rate fell and the Caucasian republics, but there was a certain "reserve" of the last period of ultrahigh fertility. This is linked to religious beliefs, but in the first place — with the preservation of tribal relations, which have long been destroyed by European nations.
Now and on mortality and fertility situation in several Russian corrected. This is primarily due to the fact that the state began to impose order on the alcohol market. Worked and social support of families. As a result, Russian children per woman of childbearing age increased to 1.6 children. However, it is not enough to overcome the demographic crisis. Besides Russian regions will inevitably face a new demographic hole, caused by the fact that the generation born in the 90's very few.
"SP": — Are there factors other than alcohol, affecting an increase in mortality? Ever, for example, to hear the opinion that in eastern Ukraine, people die much more than the West, precisely because the first long felt superfluous in his country.
— Our studies show no connection psychological state of society and the level of mortality. In Western and Eastern Ukraine, I can say that in the west the main alcoholic drink — wine, and in the east — Vodka and Moonshine. In addition, Western Ukraine lives poorer. Our research shows that economic crises are perfectly reflected in life expectancy in Eastern Europe. In 2008, as in 1998 in Russia, mortality decreased significantly, because the people was nothing to drink. The paradox is that in those times when we have feelings of the citizens in the country has improved, it usually coincided with an increase in revenues and an increase in alcohol consumption. Thus mortality increased.
There was one case in which the death rate has risen sharply during the economic crisis in the early 90's. But this was because the vodka is ten times fell, which was a consequence of the liberalization of vodka prices. Production of vodka itself is cheap, so it and regulate excises.
It should be noted, consume alcohol everywhere in Europe and in America, and Africa. But the Russians did not understand the danger of using the name of spirits. We have people in one night easily empties two bottles of vodka. From this elementary can deny the heart, and increased risk of alcohol dependence. Add the injuries and death from accidents.
We got in a stupid trap — the population is accustomed to drink poison in the form of spirits, and can not get rid of it. We can say, dying of stupidity.
"SP": — to see if the view that, as is typical for the Caucasian peoples process of reducing the birth rate?
— Fertility worldwide decline. Other than some European countries, where it has fallen to very low limits and now slightly raised.
In Ingushetia since the early 90's birth rate also gradually decreased. In Chechnya, it has grown on the grounds that at the time of the terrible social upheaval there was available contraception. Now the birth rate decreases and Chechnya.
"SP": — What about the rules of Islam, to which you referred? How they are combined with contraception?
— In Arab countries, despite the fact that Islam is in many of them is the state religion, it is currently using contraception. All the peoples of the world average for natural childbirth — 6 children per woman. While in Iran, for example, it is 2 child.
Incidentally, the mother's capital was a very positive step for the Caucasus. In Ingushetia, in recent years the birth rate has risen from 1.6 children per woman to 2 children.
But the main reason why the population grew Caucasian republics in the past two decades, it is still reduced mortality. Each successive generation lived longer. The same process is observed in Europe. That is why the European countries have not yet shrinking population. Even at a low birth rate, which increases the life expectancy for a while (about 20-30 years) decreases or even increases. This process would be observed now in Russia, though not a "vodka sea" 90 and "zero" years.
"SP": — Why is the other nationalities write themselves to the Russian?
— We live in Russia. Russian culture and language are predominant. We are rather patriotic nation. Often, children of mixed marriages write themselves into Russian. This is due primarily to the consciousness of people. I had to communicate with people of other nationalities, especially the Ukrainians, who believe that the important thing is not blood, and ethnic identity. If a person grew up in a Russian environment, brought up on Russian culture, is new to the culture and language of their "foreign" ancestors, he had no particular reason not to consider themselves Russian.
"SP": — In recent years, with patriotism in Russia is just not so. And many of the Russian special pride for their national identity do not feel. Especially in the ethnic republics, where they are often denied access to managerial positions.
— Yes, in some of the republics to be Russian is not very profitable. But just outside the national republics, many change their ethnic identity.
It is hard to say why they do it. I think this is partly due to the spread of Russian-language popular culture, which has a very powerful effect on all the "neighborhood" of the people. Russian pop music listening even in the Baltic, Russian movies looks the entire former Soviet Union.
On the other hand a change of identity — this is typical of all times and nations phenomenon. For example, the population of Turkey — is to a large extent the ancient Byzantines, written in Turkish. Altai Turks, who once gave the language the country were Mongoloids. What about the current population of Turkey will not tell.
Different point of view on demographic trends in Russia expressedChairman of the Public Council of the Institute of Demography, Migration and Regional Development Major Yuri
— The growth of some of the Caucasian peoples, in particular, the Ingush I explain a relatively high birth rate, especially in rural areas. Well, the second point — the question of how reliable statistics. This requires a serious check. The number of residents in a particular country depends on government funding for various programs. Therefore, local officials favorably to "correct" the statistics.
"SP": — Why are the greatest Russian "population loss"?
— Because Russian very low birth rate. This is explained by three factors. Russian is still not understood, what their mission today. We Russian, we can not only live domestic side of life. We need a majestic idea. There are firmly established facts. For example, in 1943, after the victory at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union of the Russian population has declined sharply in the rear of mortality. The people saw the future, "wanted to live." In this regard, the question Russian demography — the question of civilizational mission. In the current situation incomprehensible to most pragmatic psevdozadach wait boomers do not have to. The second point — the destruction of a Russian cult of the family, reducing the number of children in families. All the talk about what it's global processes — abstractly correct. But this does not mean that we should cultivate the destruction of the family, that we are seeing today. If you operate the dry figures, then we've got quite a bit of time. If by the end of the 30s of this century will not achieve that 70 percent of Russian families will be 3-4 children, we, as a people, risk disappear from the face of the Earth.
There is another important factor influencing the Russian depopulation. The method of settlement. If we take the so-called Islamic regions of the Caucasus, we find that the growth in their numbers is largely due to the fact that people live in private, in fact ancestral homes. Can often be seen near the main house of the family, his parents' house, and even a guest house. A Russian in the 70-80's instead of going to the estate and landscape (low-rise) urbanization moved to megapolisnoy urbanization. For Russia, this time is very important. In this sense, it is necessary to take an example from the Caucasus. I think the whole country should be to rely on low-rise flats.
"SP": — We do the reverse. All run together in the city.
— Yes, it is a spontaneous process. Because in many areas it is difficult to realize themselves. Plus TV, which constantly shows what gay life in the big cities. As a result, young people have a Class 6 umotat dream of his beaten path in Moscow. We at the state level, the idea of moving megapolisnoy urbanization. In particular, Nabiullina in December last year at the International Congress of urban stated that in the next 20 years, we have 20 million people in small towns MIGRATE in megacities. And we all live in small towns 20 million. Accordingly, cultivated the idea that people should live in cities and they should be in the middle half of the child to the family. This self-destructive government policies.
Changes in the population of many nationalities of the Russian Federation
Changes in the population of many nationalities censuses following data.
|The entire population, including:||147.02||145.17||142.86|
|, the national affiliation of them:||147.00||143.71||137.23|
Photo ITAR-TASS / Marina Kruglyakova