The Katyn disaster: the historical lessons

16 April 2012 the European Court of Human Rights will make a final verdict on the so-referred to as the Katyn case. One of the Polish radio stations with reference to the plaintiffs' lawyer sovereign Kamiński reported that a meeting of the ECtHR held in the open form, and therefore the whole world will find out in the end, of this truth concerning the Katyn. In principle, one in particular does not even speculate about what will be the verdict of the court. One can only assume what mine was under his forthcoming development Russian Federation and attitudes on the part of international society. Our homeland, by the way, at the municipal level recognizes that the shooting of Polish officers — the work of the NKVD soldiers acting on the orders of Stalin and Beria, as at the time even said President Medvedev.

The essence of the question is to accuse the Russian government benchmark 40-ies in the fact that their orders on the ground alone, the Smolensk region were executed according to one of about 4.5 thousand, while under the other — 20 thousand Polish soldiers. With all of this if such a verdict will be accepted (which is not possible to fluctuate), then, as often happens, the wine and the machine will move to modern Russia.

Recall that the first discussions about the disaster in the Katyn forest, were initiated in 1943 by the occupying Nazi forces. Then the German soldiers found (this word could, in principle, to write in quotes) at Smolensk near Katyn and the station Nest common burial Polish (particularly Polish) officers. The news here has been presented as a fact of mass murder of Polish prisoners of representatives of the NKVD. With all this the Germans said they conducted a thorough investigation and found that the shooting held in the spring of 1940, which once again proves the "Stalinist footprint" in this case. NKVD Tipo specially used for mass executions guns "Walter" and "browning" with bullets made in Germany "Gecko" to restore a shadow on the "most humane" in the world of the German-fascist army. Russian Alliance, for obvious reasons, has subjected all findings German Commission utter obstruction.

But in 1944, when Russian troops from the territory of the Nazis vyshybli Smolensk region, and an investigation into the incident has already spent Moscow. According to the conclusions of the capital committee, which included public figures, military specialists, doctors, medical sciences, and even members of the clergy, it appears that together with the Poles in large graves of Katyn forest rest of the body besides several hundred Russian soldiers and officers. Russian Commission pointed out that the murder of thousands of prisoners of war were committed by the Nazis in the autumn of 1941. Certainly, the findings Russian commission in 1944, too, can not be taken for sure, but our task — to come to the consideration of the so-called Katyn issue from an impartial point of view, based on facts and not on unfounded accusations. This story has a lot of underwater stones, but try not to pay attention to their means, to try to distance themselves from Russian history.

The Committee's opinion on the standard 1944 Katyn tragedy in Russian Union persisted for several decades, until in 1990 Misha Gorbachev has neither transferred into the hands of the Polish President Wojciech Jaruzelski's so called "new materials" in Katyn case, then the whole world is talking about the sins of Stalinism against the Polish officers. What are these all the same "new materials"? They were based on the hidden documents, which were signed Tipo JV Stalin, Beria and other senior municipal leaders of the Russian state. Even during the transfer of the documents in the hands of the experts read as Mikhail Gorbachev, so he took the time to make the findings of these materials as well as direct evidence of executions of Poles in particular units of the NKVD, these documents do not provide and need to be checked for authenticity. But the emperor Gorbachev did not wait for the end of the examination of documents and follow the commission's findings on this difficult case and decided to make "a terrible secret" about the atrocities Russian regime.

In this regard, there is the first discrepancy, which says that in the Katyn issue very early to finish. Why are these hidden documents surfaced specifically in February 1990? But their earlier, at least twice could make public.

First publicity massacre of Polish officers specifically handed Russian security officers might seem even during the famous XX Congress of the CPSU Central Committee, came when the debunking of the personality cult of Stalin by Khrushchev. In fact, in 1956 year Khrushchev could not only condemn the atrocities of Stalin in the Soviet countryside, and get an immense amount of foreign dividends, "the disclosure of secret Katyn", because shortly before the commission of the Congress of South American was also involved in the Katyn affair. But Khrushchev did not use such an opportunity. Well, could I use? Whether there were these "documents" at the time? And talk about the fact that he knew nothing about the real situation first 40s of Polish prisoners of war — naive …

The publicity could take place in the initial period in power, Gorbachev himself, but for some reason did not come true. Why is it accomplished in February 1990? Maybe the secret is that all these "new materials", which until 1990 nothing weird way, it was clear were merely fabricated, and such systematic fraud was carried out specifically in the late 80's, when the Russian The Alliance has already taken a policy of rapprochement with the West. Needed were the true "historical bomb."

By the way, this view may be called in as many swings, but there is a documentation of examination results of the "New Materials" Katyn massacre. It turned out that the documents on which there are signatures of Stalin and other persons requiring discern the case of Polish prisoners of war in a particular order, are printed on a typewriter, and the sheets with the final signature of Beria — on the other. In addition, in one of the statements of the final decision taken at the meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) of March 1940, weird way was printed with the title and trappings of the CPSU. Surprisingly, as the Russian Union of the Communist Party itself did not appear until 1952. About this kind of inconsistencies said, and during the so-called round table about the Katyn issue, cooperated in the State Duma in 2010.

And at the same flaws on the Katyn disaster, which will soon behold the only evidence of guilt of the NKVD officers, are terminated. The materials of the cases that have already been transferred to the Polish side, and it is more than fifty volumes, there are several documents that cast swing mass execution date of the Katyn — April-May 1940. These documents are letters of Polish soldiers who were dated in the summer and fall of 1941 — a time when the land at Smolensk already hosted Nazi troops.

If you believe that the NKVD decided to shoot the Poles, especially from the German guns and German bullets, why it was necessary to do in general? Indeed, in the same Moscow at that time could not know that in year with a small Nazi Germany attacks Russian The Union …

German commission that worked on the site o
f the disaster, found that his hands were bound shot special cotton laces made in Germany. All this, again, says that the visionary NKVD-Schnick already knew that Germany attacked the Soviet Union and, apparently, ordered in Berlin not only the "Brownings", but also those of twine, so bring a shadow over Germany.
The same Commission found in mass (natural) graves at Katyn huge amount of foliage, which obviously could not be showered with trees in April, but it indirectly confirms that the mass murder of Polish and Russian prisoners of war would have been committed specifically in autumn 1941.

It turns out that in the Katyn case there is a huge number of issues that until now did not find specific answers, to be a strong believer in the fact that the shooting — the work of the NKVD. Virtually all of the evidence base, declaring guilty Russian Alliance, based on those documents, the authenticity of which obviously causes oscillation. The occurrence of these documents specifically in 1990, says only that the Katyn almost qualified as another blow to the integrity of the USSR, which at that time already had enormous difficulties.

The challenge now is to turn to the so-referred to as the testimony of witnesses. In the late 30's — early 40's in the area, located in 400-500 meters from the place where then mass executions were carried out, placed so called government dacha. According to the testimony of employees of the cottages here adored come to rest such famous faces as Voroshilov, Kaganovich and Shvernik. The documents that are in the 90 "declassified" explicitly states that these visits took place to be when in the woods near Goat Mountains (former title Katyn) were mass executions of Polish officers. It turns out that senior bureaucrats went to rest in place a huge cemetery … They might not be aware of its existence — a reason, which hard to take seriously. If the shootings were specifically in April-May 1940 in the vicinity of a particular government of the house, then, it appears that the NKVD decided to break the rock-solid annotation on the order of executions. In this annotation correctly states that the mass executions should be carried out at locations not close 10 km from the city — at night time. And then — in the 400 m and not even from the town and from the place where the political elite came to fish and breathe the freshest air. It is hard to imagine how the fishing Klim Voroshilov, when a few hundred square meters of it worked bulldozers, digging into the earth thousands of corpses. With all of this a bit buried. Found that some of the body shot was sprinkled with a little sand, and therefore the forest had to spread hellish smell of countless corpses. That's how the government dacha … All this looks somehow not quite intelligible, taking into account the validity of the NKVD approach to this kind of business.

In 1991, the last head of the NKVD P.Soprunenko said that in March 1940 in his hands held the paper with the decision of the Political Bureau of the signature of Joseph Stalin about the shooting of Polish officers. This is another reason to doubt the materials of the case, because for sure it is clear that Comrade Soprunenko no way could hold its own in the hands of such a document, so its ability to spread so far. It is hard to imagine that this document "Gave him hold" Beria himself in March 1940, after only a month before the shot was arrested former Commissar of Internal Affairs Nikolai Yezhov on charges of attempting to commit the municipal revolution. Neuzh that Beria felt so free that I could walk around the office with a hidden decisions of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU and to give them "hold in your hands," to all who wish to … Trusting thoughts …

As stated in the comments to his book "The Mystery of Katyn" Vyacheslav Swede, falsification of historical materials took place at different times and in different countries. One of the clearest examples of fraud in the United States — a charge of Oswald that he alone decided to kill President Kennedy. Just over 40 years later, it turned out that John F. Kennedy was against the planned multi-komplot with a huge number of actors.

Completely possible that the Katyn tragedy and try to imagine such a Makarov, which is beneficial to certain political circles. Replaced in order to conduct a truly impartial investigation and complete declassification of documentary evidence, the information war lasts around a mass murder of Polish and Russian soldiers, dealing another blow to the credibility of.

In this regard, pay attention to the curious nedavneshnee Tver court decision on the claim E.Ya.Dzhugashvili protecting the honor and dignity of his grandfather I.V.Dzhugashvili (Stalin), accused of the shooting of Polish prisoners of war. Stalin's grandson asks to remove ice from the State Duma of the Parliamentary motion that the Katyn Massacre took place on the direct orders of Stalin. Note that this is the second such claim against the State Duma of the grandson of Stalin (first tribunal was left without indulging).

Despite the fact that the second claim of Tver please the Tribunal upheld the decision it did not name specific. In his own final arbiter Fedosov resolution stated that "Stalin was one of the managers of the USSR during the Katyn disaster in September 1941. " Alone these words Tver tribunal itself that obviously do not though, managed to highlight that all the documents in the case of Polish officers were shot — can be hard adulteration, which has yet to seriously learn and then do it on the basis of real-independent conclusions. This again says that whatever decision is made ECHR, it obviously will not rely on all the historical facts of the accident, which to this day causes mixed feelings.

Certainly, the shooting of thousands of Polish officers — it's a tremendous disaster state of Poland, and the tragedy in Russia, most people understand and share the sorrow of the Polish. And at the same time we must not forget that in addition to the Polish officers in that great war perished 10s of millions of other people, the descendants of whom also dream of a decent respect to the memory of the victims of their own Protz from the state and the public. One may exaggerate the Katyn tragedy, but for all that do not specifically suppress a tyschah tyschah and other victims of the second world war, about how intensely nationalist movements now rearing their heads in the Baltic states, to which Poland is very warm for some reason attitude. History, as we know, do not know the subjunctive, because the history should be treated impartially. At each step of the historical development of any state, there are very controversial period, and if all of these historical disputes in order to use the new escalation of conflict, it will lead to excellent disaster that just crumple civilization.

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