Famous cities of antiquity
One of the most ancient civilizations of Egypt is V-IV millennium BC. Gh. with its capital at Memphis, founded around 3100 BC. e.
Other ancient civilizations — Sumer, with its city-state of Ur, Babylon and other — has existed since the end of the IV before the II millennium BC. Gh. in Mesopotamia, now southern Iraq.
The most ancient cities of India — Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, date back to the IV-III millennium BC. e., the famous Petra — a city carved into the rocks of South Jordan — the end of the II millennium BC. e.
And the oldest city is the biblical Jericho, inhabited, according to the excavation, with IX millennium. e.
It turns out that the age of most of the most ancient cities in the world, known to date, not more than 5-6 thousand years.
But is it?
The finds at the bottom of the Gulf of
The western Indian land juts far into the Gulf of Cambay. In January 2002, the investigation of the bottom of the bay, 30 miles from the city of Surat, at a depth of about 40 meters on the screen began to appear sonar images of large objects of a square or rectangular shape. Further studies were conducted with the use of deep dredge.
The fact that up to the surface of her bucket, created a sensation among archaeologists worldwide.
One of them was Michael Cremo, an American historian of archeology of the California branch of the Bhaktivedanta Institute. Previously, the Institute published a book by Michael Cremo and Richard Thompson's "Forbidden Archaeology: untold story of mankind."
This book provides, in particular, there is strong evidence that "people with anatomically modern existed simultaneously and together with other primates for tens of millions of years." In that case, they could, for example, to hunt dinosaurs and portray them from life on the stones of Ica, in sculptural compositions of Acambaro and petroglyphs (rock carvings) in the mountainous valleys of Kazakhstan.
But that said Cremo on the findings extracted from the bottom of the Gulf of Cambay:
"In the past few months bucket dredger raised to the surface fossilized human bones, pieces of treated wood, stone tools, pottery shards, and many other items, clearly showing that there is now the bottom of the bay, in the old days was the land and her people lived. After this had additional gidrolotsirovanie bottom and found the new contours of regular geometric forms that are (now there is no doubt), the ruins of the ancient sunken buildings. "
Researchers believe that the buildings stood on the bank of the river that once flowed on the Indian subcontinent and into the sea. Radio-carbon analysis showed that the age of discovery 9,500 years!
As for the "former" river, on which stood the sunken city, in the "Rig Veda" of Indian literature, dating from the years 1700-1100. BC. e. mentions a broad and deep river Saraswati, which originates in the Himalayas, which runs through the entire north-eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and flows into the Arabian Sea. It also describes the existence in ancient India, the city-states and the events that took place in them for at least 9,500 years ago.
But Saraswati in India do not. So, we decided to scientists 'realists', what is written in the "Rig Veda" — or imagination, or does not belong to India, and to some other places, where there is such a river.
However, in the late twentieth century. Indian archaeologists have provided pictures of the Indian subcontinent made by U.S. satellite "Landsat". In the pictures clearly shows the wide river channel once existed that began in the Himalayas and flows in the same Gulf of Cambay, the bottom of which lie the ruins of the newly opened city. Later archaeologists found on the former banks of the former river several hundred places in ancient times, people lived.
One more "food for thought".
In one of the ancient manuscripts written in Sanskrit, tells of a large lake, located in the north of India, in the Kashmir Valley. In fact, no lake there. But recent geological studies have shown that the lake really existed before, to it on the south side closely approaching the low mountain range. Then something happened, the ridge down, and all the water drained out of the lake. This happened at least … 40,000 years ago!
But since this lake is written in the codex, so it saw someone who 40,000 years ago knew how to write, or at least talk.
Maybe one of those of whom wrote in his "Forbidden Archaeology …" Michael Cremo?
Opening in the Middle East
Here are found the ruins of cities, and the existing 10 and 11 thousand years ago. Archaeologists are to dig in the desert, but when the city was built around the extended fertile plains.
A great puzzle for scientists is located in the Turkish city Chatalhyuk. Archaeologists dig deeper, the more ancient stone foundations they find. And their age, as well as household items lying around (for example, polished stone mirrors), is 9-10 thousand years.
Surprises presented excavations of Jericho, which lies on the west bank of the Jordan River, 22 kilometers north-west of Jerusalem. Scientists have found that people lived here from 9000 to 1850 BC. e. The basis of area of about 5 hectares consisted of mud brick building, surrounded by a wall three meters high with a tower, towering more than 8 feet.
In May 2001 a group of Polish archaeologists, led by Ryszard Mazurovskii, professor at the Institute of Archaeology of Warsaw University, opened in Syria, at the foot of the Taurus Mountains, the city of Tel Kvaramel (Tell Quaramel) with a round watchtower aged not less than 10 thousand years. It was built of stones held together by river silt, had a diameter of 7.5 meters, the thickness of the walls of 2 meters and its height is more than 9 meters. Today it is the oldest known science of stone structures. According to researchers, the tower served people over 5000 years.
One year after the excavations revealed the ruins of 25 round houses built in the second half of the IX millennium. e. of the blocks, made from dried river mud and set on a stone foundation. And in every house had a sewerage system: in a mud floor grooves were made, ending with the holes in the walls to drain liquid waste.
Found that people have lived continuously in this city, at least, from IX to VIII millennium BC. e. In the city, and found all kinds of utensils, vessels, carved in stone, stone arrowheads, the touchstone for sharpening, decorated with geometric motifs and animal prints. Archaeologists have found carved stone figure very realistic image of a snake.
Who built them?
Until now it was thought that only since VIII millennium. e., or in the period of so-called Neolithic dokeramicheskogo, namely the Middle East began to form the world's first agricultural civilizations began domesticating animals. But this concept does not agree discoveries in India, at the bottom of the Gulf of Cambay, in Tel Kvaramele, Chatalhyuke and Jericho.
But the city are starting to build when there is a need in it. Construction — a complex and hard work for its implementation need not random people, and professionals with the knowledge of at least the basics of arithmetic and geometry, with the development of creative imagination, which have abstract thinking. In addition, the town came to, a certain level of social organization, the presence of basic infrastructure. And again, the citizens need to feed, drink and clothing. But all this can provide just enough of an advanced civilization.
What level has reached a development 11,000 years ago?
According to the prevailing views, then was the era of the transition from the late Paleolithic to the early Mesolithic: roving collectors, hunters with stone and bone tools, later — with bows and arrows, then with the dogs … Could these people build a city? And why would they need them?
So who built those houses with sewage and arranged them along the streets that formed the city for thousands of years ahead in this activity Egyptians and Sumerians, not to mention the Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans?
"… There was an island which lay before the straits, which you call the Pillars of Heracles. It was called Atlantis and was more of Libya and Asia put together … The power of the kings of this island Union extended to many other islands and a portion of the opposite mainland, and on the other side of the strait — up to Egypt and Tirrenia. But when 9000 years ago happened unprecedented earthquake and floods, Atlantis disappeared in some awful day, lost in the abyss … "
Wrote in a V. BC. e. Greek philosopher Plato in his work, the dialogue "Timaeus." So maybe it is the opening of archaeologists — one more argument in favor of the ancient civilization of Atlantis on Earth? After all, it is logical to assume that the surviving inhabitants of the legendary continent of the deceased (and their descendants) who settled in the new, wild lands were subsequently as architects and superintendents, and in general have become mentors and educators, "the locals."
And the dates as if it fits …
Category: Mystery stories