There is nothing that controls life, of our life, like the time. People already in prehistoric times were able to count down the days, months and years with great accuracy. At first, they looked into the sky with the naked eye, watching the sun, moon and stars.
Later — astronomical principles laid the foundations of his stone circles, pyramids or temples. Up until recently, archaeologists believed that the ancients were capable of something, considering these facilities rather abstract. Secrets of ancient monuments in Europe, Asia and America, and not only serve religious and spiritual goals, but also played the role of calendars, opens new science, armed with modern computers — astroarheologiya.
In the forms of ancient Buddhist sacred buildings hidden cosmological symbolism.
Structures erected by the ancient Indian civilizations were sanctuaries of harmony of the cosmos. Mayans and Aztecs created extremely accurate calendar, served including astronomical purposes.
Many of the most significant monuments of ancient and early history of the world have facilities calendar, whose purpose was to fix the time in space forms. These whimsical structures of Central and South America were built on the solid basis of astronomical knowledge.
Time — one of the greatest mysteries in the world and the key to many mysteries. Many modern physics, and along with them, and mystics believe that time itself does not exist. That which we call time, there is only an apparent sequence of movements in space. Therefore, the time is not really possible to measure.
What we are seeing in the so-called dimension of time — no more than a change in the space. And the hour hand also shows us only its own motion. Regarding how the concept of time and how closely it is related to the properties of space, brilliantly proved mathematically by Albert Einstein in 1905 First of all, he gave up the conventional notions of space, replacing it with the notion of curvature of space. Representation of space with nonlinear coordinates leads, of course, the complete destruction of the concept of time. Therefore is different hours of the laws of the theory of relativity would be running at different speeds, if they are in motion. This is a natural scientific discovery involves a number of problems associated with the cosmos, and then the question of the beginning of all things, that is, of Creation.
However, Einstein's revolutionary ideas seemed only natural scientists, who from the time of the Renaissance and, in any case, the Enlightenment used to living in a deceptively safe world where everyone has a purely mechanical explanation. Mystics, the theory of relativity does not reveal anything new. Which would be the cultural community they belong to, for them the space-time continuum has always been a manifestation of the divine. The key to this understanding they were stars and annual cycles of nature. Linking one with the other, the mystics are closer to the penetration of the central mystery of creation that goes far beyond the mechanistic picture of the astronomical world.
The main mystery of Creation
No accident that all the ancient and partly in some modern cultures calendar attached to a pronounced religious significance. Again, not a coincidence that many of the religious places of worship, and, in turn, served as a calendar or goals have been specially built for this purpose. Modern Christian churches also constructed to the altar facing east. A East — not just the light. Where the sun rises. No wonder we are now talking about the countries, "lying to the sunrise," or about the Land of the Rising Sun in the Far East. Time and space are united even in the language: even our grandparents called south noon.
Complement the calendar clock. The first counts the periods of the annual cycle, determine the time of day clock. Naturally, they are closely related. This was known to the ancient Romans. The length of one hour for me at them every day. Summer daylight hours were shorter than the night, in the winter the opposite: the Romans divided the period between sunrise and sunset into 12 equal intervals. While such an account, and seems unnecessarily complicated, but people used it for thousands of years.
A few decades ago, archaeologists believed that the ancient people were able to make such calculations. How could these "savages" have such knowledge in astronomy, which is not and people in XX.? Only when the study of ancient history and ancient astronomers have undertaken, the ability of our ancestors to measure time and count calendar confirmed. So there was a new scientific discipline — astroarheologiya. Its pioneers were scientists Scot Alexander Tom or his colleague Carlo Sardinian Mashya. Now is contested (though not all archaeologists recognize this old school) that most significant monuments of the ancient and the oldest ages in the world in one way or another connected with the calendar, that is, as if they are fixed in time, spatial forms. Accepted as proof of this is not the majority opinion. Today this is usually done computer simulations based on the principles of probability theory, which determine whether a given structure, whether it be a stone circle, abstract at first sculpture in the rocks, a pyramid or an ancient temple built by the laws of astronomy or not.
Astronomical unit, or a monument?
Structures actually encountered very different. Some of the buildings that were obviously built as a giant astronomical instruments for measuring time. Most often it is a sundial which marked the date of the most important periods of the year, and in some cases, the daytime hours. Others were not designed for direct measurement. They served as a monument to the accumulated knowledge of the harmonic rhythms of the cosmos and creation as a whole. Sometimes they are arranged in such a way as to approach or sunrise or any visible stars on a certain day came against the desired mark. Such facilities are not used for research, and, conversely, do presume that builders accurate astronomical knowledge. However, they do not leave today, no doubt at your destination. More difficult is the case with the third group of such facilities, the size and location of which are on the ground is not connected with the calendar period, and the symbolism of numbers with a space, adopted in the culture.
These are multi-tower shumeriytsev and Babylonians, called ziggurats. Their triangular shape represented the division of the world into three "levels" — Heaven, Earth and the Underworld, and 7 levels corresponded seven spheres. A similar symbolism is found in buildings in China, for example, in the Halls of pollock, built, according to legend, the king of Wen Zhou Dynasty (1122-255 years. BC. E.). Square building (square served as a symbol of the Earth) was covered with a circular thatched roof (circle symbolizing Heaven). The building consisted of a 5 or 9 square "rooms" that had 12 doors on the number of months of the year. As the sun goes one by one, the 12 signs of the Zodiac, and the king was part of a new monthly room and announced through its doors his decrees to the people. In early Buddhism and Hinduism were also known similar structures with cosmic symbols — for example, the Buddhist stupa, which embody the firmament.
Famous ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu is located on the remote mountain plateau in the Peruvian Andes. Strange oblique plane of its temples allowed to carry out accurate observations of the stars.
Pyramid of the Sun in ancient Peru were built long before the Incas.
Ancient Inca constructions astronomers were mostly simple sundial, such as the sanctuary of the Sun or Intiuatane step "Throne of the Incas" in Cuzco (Peru).
On the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, there are almost 7000 round stone towers, built of large blocks of stone in prehistoric times. They are called Nuraghe. Legend has it that before there were more than 12 thousand. As it was, we can only guess. Attempts to give a spread of dating — from "the ice age" to "Iron Age." More on why Nuraghe built, there are also some speculations. They believed, and visiting graves of the Egyptians and the ancient dwellings of the giants, and the mausoleums of the great nobles, temples dedicated to the mystical cult of fire, a monument in honor of military victories, fortifications, watchtowers and even houses.
Most of these conjectures do not hold water. For everyday use, in which any kind as those dark, devoid of windows built entirely unsuitable. Not even a hole through which one could deduce the smoke chamber. In addition, most of the year in Nuraghe reigns such high humidity that any of its citizens will soon be threatened with rheumatism and arthritis. No traces of graves they also found. For such a small island like Sardinia 12,000 fortifications — too much. Rather than unite the defenders of the island, they would divide them into small, unfit for combat troops, which at the same time would be too much to small, mostly peasant population could afford to feed such a militia long time. Yes, and from whom it was necessary to defend the island, more than 1,000 years not having seen any invaders? Nuraghe tombstone is also not credible. The ancients had their burial Sardou — dolmens.
Fear of eclipses
Only in 1984, Professor Carlo Mashya University of Cagliari managed to solve the mystery with the help of methods Nuraghe astroarheologii. Most of the towers were oriented to the south entrance. Location of internal passages and rooms can be concluded that they were used for observations of the Sun at certain times of day and year. Some of Nuraghe built differently. At one entrance is pointed directly at the direction where the sun rises on the winter solstice, the other — on the rise point some of the brightest stars. Passion for the construction Nuraghe the islanders seem to have been related to solar and lunar eclipses, observed in Sardinia between 1200 and 200 years. BC. e. Whenever one of the luminaries dwarfs ancient Sardis built their solar or lunar deity Nuraghe new temple.
On the high ancient knowledges in astronomy say Sardi and other prehistoric structures on the island, namely, temples, wells. This is a kind of underground structures, which archaeologists have found already 70. About 30 of them — in good condition. Built them all equally, and always next to Nuraghe. A stone staircase leads down to 6 m below the ground, and ends in front of a round stone well covered high, like a Gothic roof. The top of the roof comes to the surface, and there is a hole. Stones in some of these temples, wells, built about 1500 years ago, look as if they had just processed yesterday the latest stone-cutting saw.
Unlike solar and stellar temples, Nuraghe these amazing wells, according to the professor Mashya served lunar sanctuaries. The first of the wells, carefully examine them along with the astronomer Proverbio, a sacred source of Santa Cristina. It turned out that a well laid so that once a year the light of the moon enters the hole in the roof accurately and within a few minutes after midnight, reflected in the water well. And this is the only time corresponds exactly to the situation of the Moon, in which it can happen eclipse! Of course, it could be an accident, but from the category of very rare. However, further studies of both professors showed that the well-preserved well St. Vittoria di Serri is arranged the same way.
History of Peru long before Columbus consisted of a number of highly developed cultures. For example, the Incas were able to build monumental structures, whose astronomical significance is undeniable.
Astronomical facilities in Central America
Calendar facility Sardinia belong to the category of astronomical buildings that are only secured the accumulated knowledge of the cosmos in the form of a cult, but not used for new measurements and observations. The same role played by the many buildings pre-Columbian Central and South America. One of the most difficult is the complex El Caracol at Chichen Itza in Mexico. Caracol in Spanish — "snail", is a round tower, resting on two overlapping rectangular platforms and got its name from a spiral staircase inside her. Erected its Toltec somewhere between 975 and 1200. The name of the complex, Chichen Itza, dates back to the Mexican tribe Itza, in the XIII century. settled on these, then there is the abandoned lands. Toltecs were also not the first: around the end of X century. they changed before living there Maya.
Lower platform Caracol 6 m high and the size of 61.5 x 66.9 m has a rectangular shape, while the upper 3 m above and is an oblique triangle with sides 21, 21, 22.15 and 24 m to the same out-of-axis 5 ° relative to the lower platform. However diagonal drawn from the northeast to the southwest corner of the two platforms are almost there, strictly parallel to one another, almost through the center of the round tower. With the departure of only 37 arc they point to the point where in 1000 the sun rises at the summer solstice, and in the opposite direction it was going down at the winter solstice. From the stairs lower platform observer, again in 1000, saw the spot where the sun at the summer solstice was setting.
From the stairs of the upper platform with a deviation of it only in 31? could watch the sunset on the two days, when it stood at the zenith of Chichén Itsey. And that's not all. The bottom tray is stylobate, podium height of 33 cm, in which a niche of the observer with two columns, standing very close to each other. If you lean against a wall niche and look directly into the space between the columns, you can see part of the sky, where Venus comes when it reaches the end point of its northern declination. The proof are other facts, one of the pillars painted black, the other — in the red. Another Mayan designated east red north — white west — black and south — yellow. Venus is called the Morning and Evening Star, so the red and black — its color. Finally, the whole structure was dedicated to God Kukulkanu, which in its Mayan mythology identified with
In the wilds of the virgin forest of Petén (Northern Guatemala) is an ancient complex of Tikal with the pyramids, temples and palaces, shrines once served Maya. Between 300 and 900 AD. this nation has created a splendid monument in the southeast of Mexico and in the eastern districts of Honduras. In addition, it had a deep knowledge of mathematics and amazingly accurate calendar. Mayan astronomical knowledge today is unchallenged. Their calculations for Venus 481 movement was given an error just 0.08 days.
In the heart of the ancient Indian city of Chichen Itza in the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico is famous temple-pyramid, called Castillo. Each of the four sides of the pyramid is equipped with a ladder, numbering 91 sgupen and another, in the sum of the number of stages gives 365 — the number of days in the year.
Direction to the Morning Star
Finally, the round tower also served for observation. Upstairs — a small rotunda with four doors leading to the outside gallery, too, with four doors, but arranged differently. Gone out of them on the "balcony" and looking through one of the doors into the past, it is possible to see one of the adjacent narrow portion of the sky. From 8 to determine the direction astronomically significant was 5. This — the direction of the bright star Canopus, Castor and Pollux, to the point of call Fomalhaut (when most southern and most northern declination), and on the point of sunset on the day of passing the zenith. For other observations, may have served 8 holes on the roof of the tower (still only 3 of them). Attempting to reconstruct give several possible directions, for example, on a number of key provisions of the Sun and Venus, and the star Achernar.
Calendar was the largest construction and solar observatory Uahaktun in Guatemala. In the period between 300 BC. e. and 150 AD. e. Maya erected there the whole complex of religious buildings, among which are four step pyramid. Three pyramids stand, or rather stood in a row on a terrace height of 4.57 m, and the fourth was located at some distance from them, about opposite the middle of the terrace. Below it is a stone staircase length 9.9 m between the pyramid and the fourth terrace, closer to the latter, there are three stone pillars.
On the stairs, there are 3 points — at bottom, at the top and in the middle, where the tops of the columns are at eye level — with which you can watch a number of astronomical objects when viewed over the three other pillars or pyramids. Most surprising is that the three pyramids on the terrace cover so the full range of sunrise throughout the year, if viewed from the top of the stairs of the fourth pyramid. Because of the extreme pyramids sun rises on June 21 and December 21, that is, in the days of the solstices. Because of the high pyramids it dates March 21 and September 23, that is, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. One of the other areas of the observation marks the day on April 6, the former starting day for the Maya of the dry season, and thus the field work. They had, it was one of the most important holidays of the year.
Was this temple warriors colonnaded entrance dedicated to Lord Morning Star? At Chichen Itza, the Maya city, the architectural influence of the Toltecs traced very clearly.
Settled in Belize, the Maya erected in Hunantuniche grand colonnade stars.
The Round Tower, built at Chichen Itza in the Toltec era, served as an astronomical observatory. Because of its internal staircase it was called El Caracol ("snail").
Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan height of 64 m was the tallest structure in ancient Mexico.
Of the other pre-Columbian astronomical sanctuaries in Central America should be called more complex of religious buildings of Copan in Honduras, and Monte Alban, the sacred mountain of the Zapotec in Oaxaca, Mexico. Describe them we do not, we only point out that their astronomical purpose no doubt.
Calendar structures discovered in the Andes, in remote areas of steep mountains. Most of the buildings built by the Incas. The complex of Pisac in Peru, built about 1450, the famous Machu Picchu was built in the Andes (Cusco) later, the so-called "Throne of the Incas" in Suchune, again near Cuzco, or "Moon Stone" in about Kilyarumi there. The ancient Inca buildings all were mostly sundial. Carved stone columns, lines and angles were strictly verified and carefully polished. Shadows of them accurately indicated that calendar date. They were called "Intiuatana", which means "the place where it was caught by the Sun." The root "Yata" in this compound word is not just "catch", but the very concept of a "solar year."
One of the most interesting is the solar temple complexes in Kalasasaya Tihuanako, Bolivia. It was built ayyamara Indians who lived there between 540 and 900 AD. BC. e., before the Maya. The temple has a rectangular shape and is oriented strictly to the cardinal. In the center of the west wall has a niche for observation, from which can be seen through the temple point of sunrise at the winter and summer solstice. At some distance from the center of the eastern wall of her adjusted later stone staircase. The observer, standing in a niche, could see the sunrise over it on March 24 and September 21 (spring and autumn equinox), which explains the position of the staircase is in the middle of the wall.
Instruments for astronomical measurements in Asia
Equinoxes — it borders dividing the spaces between the solstices 4 roughly equal parts. Error in the calculation of these dates and periods due to the fact that the Sun is not exactly in the center of the Earth's orbit. However, the builders of the temple Kalasasaya failed to take into account the eccentricity of the orbit of the Earth!
Went up the stairs and looked from her to the western wall with a length of 48.9 m, it was possible to select one of ten identified particularly high with stones, connected to each other. Ancient astronomers observed points so sunset, is used to separate the calendar year into equal parts. Exactly the same calendar properties owned, apparently, and "signs on the earth," drawn by near Nazca in southern Peru.
If the calendar facilities in Central and South America served mainly to identify certain points in the year, designed to build, in ancient Asia, they were built as tools for regular astronomical observations and measurements. One of the first installations of this type is a square brick tower, with a width of 15 m at the bottom and at the top — 7.5 m, about the middle of its height it has a narrow window of 12 m, which sets out the gnomon — vertical "arrow" of solar hours. This tower is located about 70 km from the Chinese city of Luoyang in Henan Province. It was built in 1276 during the reign of Zhou Gouna in the ancient city Yanchzhene. Her model, however, clearly served a similar Arab tower, built around 1000
That it can be used for accurate astronomical measurements from the middle of the base of one of its walls laid stone "track" length of 36 m, which are punched grooves for water, provides oversight of strictly horizontal position of the stones "track." The stones bear the label. Thanks to them, it was possible to accurately measure the length of the shadow at noon sun at any time of the year, so that this building was, in fact, nothing more than a huge stone calendar. Even more great tool of this kind was created in 1437 in Samarkand, included now in the Republic of Uzbekistan. It was built under the guidance of Mirza Muhammad Taragay, grandson of the great conqueror Tamerlane (Timur), better known as Ulugbek, although that name does not mean anything other than "the great prince."
The famous Ulugbek observatory today remained only ruins circular stone wall, partially submerged in the ground. Judging by the markings on the stones, the wall-quadrant allowed to count the value of the right ascension of the heavenly bodies. To build the quadrant as follows Prince had people break into the rocks near the mine width of 2.5 m on the preserved data, supplemented quadrant observatory tower, whose height was 60 meters, as the Hagia Sophia Mosque in Istanbul. With this tool, Ulugbek managed to hold astronomical measurements with unprecedented accuracy. He compiled a catalog, which indicates the coordinates of more than 1000 stars. Ulugbek's sad fate: his son Abd al-Latif had sent assassins to him during their pilgrimage to Mecca in October 1449
Star calendar age of 3.5 thousand years
However, the case was not lost, it continued for nearly 300 years later, an Indian maharaja Dzhaysingh II, who in 1728 founded a new capital of his principality Amber — the city of Jaipur. The city is located 250 km south-west of the present metropolis of Delhi. Dzhaysingha II was not satisfied with the accuracy small astrolabes made while in the East, and he decided to find yourself a more accurate tools. Not knowing about the telescope, he had built in Delhi (about 1724), Jaipur (1734), Mathur (after 1734), Benares (1737) and Ujjain (1734) five large observatories.
The complex of buildings in Mathura in the 40's. this century was dismantled stone for new buildings, others remained more or less intact, especially in Jaipur and Delhi. Good understanding of these astronomical construction gives a report Jesuit Father Joseph Tiffentalera, dated 1785: "Above all it is remarkable place that is designed for astronomical observations, the structure, similar to whom this country has never before seen, admired both for its novelty and arranged in a number of its tools. This place is large and spacious, and it is located on a plain near the prince's palace, surrounded by a stone wall, whether it is used for observing the sky. At the entrance you can see the 12 signs of the zodiac, laid great circles of limestone. "
Stupa — Buddhist ecclesiastical buildings, based on the symbolism of space. Monument of ancient culture, depicting in stone laws of motion of stars and served originally for storing sacred relics. The building is a dome built over terrasoobraznym foundation.
Structures like stupas, often have four doors — the four cardinal points.
Observatory in Jaipur (India), built in 1734 by Maharaja plans Dzhaysingha P. Among the stone tools for astronomical sundial stand taller than 30 m
In Sardinia found about 7,000 prehistoric structures in the form of cyclopean round towers Nuraghe. Why do they need them? Today, no one knows whether they were fortifications, dwellings, guard towers, cemeteries or sanctuaries solar and lunar deities.
Then the drawings of the celestial sphere, corresponding to the polar declination thereof places a diameter of 12 feet or more in Paris, then a sundial, large and small, for the days of the equinoxes, and the astrolabe, also of limestone, and, finally, the magnetic north line and horizontal sundial carved in exceedingly great flat rock. Remarkable of all is the extraordinary world axis height and thickness, built of brick and limestone, and inclined at an angle equal to the latitude thereof, place a minimum height of 70 feet in Paris. At the top of the axis arranged observation platform, which shows a neighborhood far from the city, seen as down may feel dizzy.
Travel Jesuit fathers in the XVIII century
Shadow thereof velikanopodobnoy axis falls on the same cyclopean quadrant (semicircle), horns and arcs whose ends are rotated forward, and he himself is divided into degrees and minutes, exceedingly fine work on naibeleyshemu limestone or gypsum. Morning shadow falls on the quadrant in the west in the afternoon is a different quadrant of the east, so that the axis onaya notes themselves middle between them, and the height of the sun can be calculated at every moment. Next to put the sim quadrant double gnomon, also of gypsum is enclosed in a kind of cage, on either side of Her. When it is noon, the sunlight passes through two holes made in the copper sheet, and indicates the height of the sun on that and on the other quadrant, below their mid-summer, in the winter is over.
No less remarkable three brass astrolabe, suspended in the moving iron ring, and the other the same ring, brass, has a division and suspended in accordance with the polar declination thereof places to celebrate the movement of the sun, whose calculation is enough to send this tool to it. The tools of smaller, I will not speak. Of the shortcomings of the same thereof observatory should include not only the position of its valley and its surrounding walls of which can not be observed because of risings and settings of the heavenly bodies, but that the gnomon, world axis, and other instruments are made of plaster, why can not achieve sufficient accuracy observations. "
Category: Mystery stories